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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2015
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0471
Jiwoong Ha, Yujong Kim, Jiho Lim
This paper proposes an alternative methodology to construct a dynamic failure model of spot welds under combined axial and shear loading conditions for auto-body crash analyses performing cross-tension tests and lap-shear tests which are substitution of pure-shear tests. To construct a failure model of a spot weld proposed by Song and Huh, failure tests of spot welds with an imposed angle to the weldment have to be carried out at an interval of 15° from 0° to 90°. In the general case, it was suggested that the β value of 1.45 from the results of the failure load of cross-tension tests and pure-shear tests can be used for constructing their failure model. However, the scheme is not practical because of difficulties in making pure-shear specimens with the same welding conditions of two-sheet spot weld because the pure-shear specimen is generally prepared with three-sheet spot weld.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2438
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Maksood Shaikh, Praveen Sharma
Foreign investments help in productive capacity building for both the parent organization in the home country, and in the host country. Preferably, investment promotion is encouraged as it creates biggest impact on creating backward and forward linkages besides generating direct and indirect employment. Commercial vehicle is one such industry. In this knowledge world, organizations can excel or sustain their excellence, only if there is a continuous learning at all levels. To a great extent, competitive advantage of a transnational organization lies in its ability to identify and transfer best practices, core competencies. Knowledge sharing happens in a natural way between its geographically dispersed and diverse units. Technology paves way in creating and leveraging knowledge at an exponential rate, besides reducing time, effort and cost while achieving business goals.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9096
Kil Won Song, David Roehrich, Rani El-Hajjar
Fillet and plug weld are commonly used in structural applications in commercial heavy vehicles. This paper is primarily concerned with an investigation of the full field deformations fields in fillet and plug welds using three dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Two identical vehicle parts are constructed using a fillet weld for one specimen, and a plug weld for the other. The specimens are loaded under quasi-static conditions with simultaneous measurement of load, displacements and strain gage measurements. Strain gage locations are selected based on the results of a finite element analysis model. 3D-DIC measurements are constructed using a two camera setup. Thus, 3D-DIC measurements are compared to strain gage measurements and finite element predictions. The effectiveness of the non-contact full field method is evaluated for application to studying the weld details considered and potential for fatigue damage and durability.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2406
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1588
Adam B. Cooper, Michael Kokkolaras, Panos Y. Papalambros
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2677
David Milligan, Ulf Engström, Ryu Goto
Powder Metallurgy (P/M) is an increasingly viable alternative for applications requiring high material performance. Continuous advances in alloy systems and processing techniques, combined with powder metallurgy's ability to produce complex net shapes, have made it possible for powder metallurgy to compete with other technologies in engine and transmission applications. This paper will focus on new alloy systems and advanced processing techniques. The properties achievable with currently available materials, such as chromium containing materials, combined with advanced processing techniques, such as warm compaction and surface densification, will be presented. Additionally, a case study where a warm compacted synchronizing latch cone in a heavy duty truck transmission was found to have equal or superior performance to precision forged and powder forged latch cones.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2706
Kenji Kato, Satoshi Machida, Masao Takagi, Keishiro Nishi
1. ABSTRACT The New Kubota Grand L30 Series Compact Tractors are powerful, user-friendly compact tractors that have advanced functions to provide the maximum performance. Many new features such as IntelliPanel enable users to obtain high workability, comfort, and operability. IntelliPanel is an advanced function that displays information on a liquid crystal display to help users' with operation and maintenance. An electronically controlled multi-gear GST (Glide Shift Transmission) enables users to choose gears for 12 travel speeds using one lever, during travel without operating a clutch. An ECU (Electric Control Unit) controls solenoid valves and a proportional reducing valve to allow for smooth gear changes.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2739
Saveliy M. Gugel
This article describes the experience of Sanova-Polytech, Inc. (SPI) in the creation, testing, and usage of new Liquid Induction Thermochemical Processes (LINTERPROCESS™) and Liquid Induction Heat Treatment (LINHEAT™) technologies, and in the designing, manufacturing, and employment of new automatic computerized production equipment, which can be of significant advantage to manufacturers of commercial vehicles. Heat treatment and thermochemical processing of various metals play an important role in the global effort to produce stronger, lighter, and more durable machine parts at lower costs. They are widely used in the manufacturing of cars and buses, and farm, construction, industrial, and other machinery.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0146
A. N. Palkar
Transport plays major a role in the economic growth of the Nation and social welfare of the community. Wrong practices followed by Transport Operators result in environmental degradation and damage to Transport Infrastructure. To improve productivity and Safety of commercial transport sector in India, it is necessary for all transportation users to calculate, analyze and control the internal and external expenses. Dynamic weight of the moving truck is one of the methods which help to improve environmental quality, increase life of roads and bridges, increase life of the vehicle, enhance productivity and ensures high amount of safety. This paper describes System involving sensing techniques, design and integration, operational and feasibility analysis towards making it affordable, accurate and adaptable. This includes a proposal for regulatory bodies to respond to the challenge of implementation of rules for the productivity and safety of commercial road transport.
2013-05-15
Technical Paper
2013-36-0029
Artur Safont Gutierrez, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Daniel Novello, Leandro Maggioni, Alexandre Roman, Carlos Henrique Selle Pereira
During the development of a new friction material, besides the interface between lining/drum is also fundamental take in account all aspects involving the attachment of the linings on the brake shoes. This paper presents an optimization approach to the development and manufacturing parameters of brake linings, applied on medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles, aiming to assure the correct specification of the riveted joint clamp forces. These evaluations were conducted based on the quality tools documents and the theoretical aspects of the product usage as well as the modeling of key elements of the referred mechanism throughout various known applications. A calculation methodology was developed based on brake geometry, its generated forces and braking reactions required for each vehicle family.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0646
Emmanuel Schlickmann, Carlos Mauricio Sacchelli
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2244
Peter Nordin, Par Degerman
Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow. Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information.
1999-09-28
Technical Paper
1999-01-3172
K. Dröder, St. Janssen
In all areas of engineering in which masses have to be extremely accelerated, parts of magnesium wrought alloys represent a promising solution. Sheet metal forming at elevated temperature and precision forging as near net shape technology have a great potential to become important manufacturing processes for magnesium.
1999-08-17
Technical Paper
1999-01-2906
W. D. Jacobs, L. K. Heung, T. Motyka, W. A. Summers, J. M. Morrison
The H2Fuel Bus is the world's first hydrogen-fueled electric hybrid transit bus (see Figure1.). It was a project developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technological and industrial organizations, with primary funding by the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goals of the project were to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen fueled buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus completed its field-testing and was placed into public service on September 4, 1998 by Augusta Public Transit in Augusta, Georgia. The bus employs a hybrid Internal Combustion (IC) engine/generator and battery powered electric drive system, with onboard storage of hydrogen in metal hydride beds.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3778
Thomas Spoerl, Charles Nesser
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) networks should be tested as a system to ensure efficient and accurate results. Often, testing of ECU networks is performed with specially equipped test vehicles. In–vehicle testing is particularly costly, time–consuming, and inefficient with heavy–duty trucks. Also, complete code coverage is typically not achieved with in–vehicle testing. This incomplete testing can lead to numerous problems including an increase in warranty costs and the failure to meet regulatory requirements. A scalable Hardware–in–the–Loop (HiL) system can provide a means to test such large ECU networks in a laboratory environment.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3707
Mark A. Bennett, William P. Amato
The accuracy of existing rotational wheel dynamics models has been found to be insufficient for heavy vehicle Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electropneumatic Braking System (EBS) simulation, specifically when wheelspeeds are at or near zero but the vehicle speed is not. Control strategies specific to ABS and EBS, the low frequency response of pneumatic actuation, and the practice of using fewer modulators than braked wheels require that a vehicle model be able to handle lockedwheel scenarios accurately. Commercially available models have been found unsatisfactory in this regard, and technical literature has not been found to address this issue.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3711
Désirée Baron
Re-use of FMEA data and associated QS-9000 and APQP documentation is not only appropriate, but also efficient. Computerized document management systems allow for making changes quickly and easily throughout all affected documents and facilitate the recycling of documentation for future generations of design. Using IQ-FMEA quality software, this paper will demonstrate effective and efficient techniques for structured data re-use by means of a strategy of functionally-motivated generic structure templates.
2011-01-19
Technical Paper
2011-26-0106
Marella Vamsi Krishna, C. Vijay Ram
A roof fairing is a commonly used add-on for trucks or tractor-trailers, where a significant difference in height exists between the cabin and the container. A roof fairing reduces the aerodynamic drag on the vehicle by directing the onward wind flow smoothly onto the container and thus reducing flow separation in front of the container. Since standard containers are available in two different heights and there are cases when vehicles ply without load i.e. without a container, it is necessary to adjust the height of the fairing accordingly to maintain an optimum aerodynamic configuration. While adjustable fairings have been in use in the commercial vehicle industry, these fairings are usually shaped as flat plates, often with open sides for ease of folding. A highly curved and bulbous fairing helps in reducing drag better, especially in presence of side winds, although it makes adjustability difficult.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2054
Yaamini Devi Loganathan, Senthilkumar Panneerselvam, Sreedharan D
The goal of any Lean organization is to understand customer value and to focus its efforts to continuously increase it. Lean applies to every business and every process and so is applicable for New Product Development (NPD) in Automobile industry, where the major output is the vehicle part numbers. Part numbers are generated based on the variant tree finalized. Customer requirements, benchmarks and organization assets such as lessons learnt and historical information provide input to the variant tree. Parts numbers for a particular model are generated during the concept Bill of Materials (BOM) stage and after which it exists during the complete product life cycle. Part number generation includes considerable effort by the design team, the validation team, and also includes overheads on the Product Life cycle Management (PLM) system.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2056
Rod Huisinga, Kurt Rottier, John Baertlein, Alex Kaye
The designers of heavy-duty off-road vehicles have been facing increasing pressure to reduce the cost and time required for assembly and maintenance. While the requirement to reduce assembly times is mainly an OEM driven objective, the requirement to reduce maintenance times is frequently driven by the customer. The design team is usually faced with the challenge of balancing functional requirements with what are often viewed as wish lists of easy assembly and maintenance, under the pressure of ever shorter development cycles. As a result, vehicle maintainability and ease of assembly are often overlooked early in the design cycle which can lead to less than desired results. This paper explores the design objectives and resultant solutions which were developed in the creation of the power-pack of a heavy-duty off-road vehicle.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210055
C S MOODY
The author considers first the materials available for construction, in connection with the S.A.E. standard specifications, and presents a comparison of the different metals with comments thereon. In regard to metallurgical problems the designer's first task is to determine what the various stresses in the parts are and their magnitude; hence, a true appreciation of the terms “shock” and “fatigue” is necessary; a somewhat lengthy explanation of their meaning is given. The construction features of the different parts of the tractor are treated in general, no attempt being made to cover details; comments are presented on front axles, wheels, bearings, cylinders, valves, valve-seats, transmissions and gears. Heat-treating is then considered in some detail, three specific reasons for annealing before machining being given and five which are governing factors in regard to heat-treatment in general.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0239
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan Rangaswamy, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2433
Abhishake Goyal, Nadeem Yamin, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmental-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90°C), hydrogen fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the middle of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, most of the researchers have already mentioned that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2428
Burcu Guleryuz, Cagkan Kocabas, Erkan Ozturk
Abstract Remanufacturing is a process in which used products are disassembled, and their components are repaired and used in the production of new products. This study investigates the impact of various remanufacturing decisions on Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) profitability and market cannibalization in an infinite-horizon production scenario for heavy duty vehicle (HDV) clutches. A discrete event simulation model is developed for benchmarking of different scenarios using various factors and their levels. There are two consumer segments as primary customer and grey customer in the market. Three different end of life (EOL) clutch quality conditions are defined, and three different percentages of clutch collect strategies are defined for all EOL products in the market.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0031
Timo Björk, Ilkka Valkonen, Jukka Kömi, Hannu Indren
Abstract The development of weldable high-strength and wear-resistant steels have made modern structures such as booms and mobile equipment possible. These sorts of novel and effective designs could not be constructed with traditional mild steel. Unfortunately, the use of these novel steels requires proper design, and there is no practical design code for these novel steels. This paper addresses stability issues, which are important considerations for designs with high-strength steels, and the properties of the heat-affected zone, which may require special attention. Fatigue design is also discussed in this paper, and the importance of the weld quality is highlighted, along with discussions on which details in the weld are the most important. By comparing the test results with the classical load limit solution, it is determined that full plastic capacity is reached and that the samples display good strain properties.
2014-06-06
Journal Article
2014-01-9100
Jayant Hemachandra Bhangale, Ashish Manohar Mahalle
RETRACTED: ABSTRACT Presently, most of the companies have combination of process and product layout. Cellular manufacturing is a place where company has established one or more manufacturing cells. Due to competition, Automobile industries are changing existing plant layout to “Cellular Layout” in which manufacturing process is carried out by proper arrangement of machines. This research paper aims at the optimization of cellular manufacturing layout using: cell formation stage, cell layout stage. In the first stage, a heuristic based upon the material flow is developed, which allows the machines to be clustered more naturally. In the second stage, a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the machine layout within each cell, in which a previously defined material handling system is provided. This representation allows the design of the layout and aisle-structure simultaneously, and can be converted into a string representation adaptable by a genetic algorithm for optimization.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0317
Yuanzhan Wang, Jason B. Siegel, Anna G. Stefanopoulou
Abstract This paper addresses scheduling of quantized power levels (including part load operation and startup/shutdown periods) for a propane powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybridized with a lithium-ion battery for a tracked mobile robot. The military requires silent operation and long duration missions, which cannot be met by batteries alone due to low energy density or with combustion engines due to noise. To meet this need we consider an SOFC operated at a few discrete power levels where maximum system efficiency can be achieved. The fuel efficiency decreases during transients and resulting thermal gradients lead to stress and degradation of the stack; therefore switching power levels should be minimized. Excess generated energy is used to charge the battery, but when it’s fully charged the SOFC should be turned off to conserve fuel.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Abstract Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitates operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design.
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