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2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921655
Toshiaki Nakamura, Kohta Ohtoshi, Hiroshi Hirate, Tatsuya Sugimoto, Masataka Ohsawa, Hiroyuki Nishizawa
This paper describes the development of the electronically controlled governor system for the Toyota X300 forklift truck whose load capacity is 1 to 3 tons with two gasoline engine models. With this governor system, the maximum engine power was significantly improved. In addition, the maximum vehicle speed as well as the maximum lifting speed can be adjusted. In this governor system the accelerator is electronically connected to the throttle valve of the carburetor. The electronic control unit then actuates the throttle valve in order to maintain the engine at a target speed. This paper also describes the development of software in association with the governor system. As the control method, the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) method was chosen because of its easiness in use. An auto-tuning system was developed to attain the best combination of the controlling parameters of the PID method, satisfying the required response and stability in the engine speed.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921659
Petter Krus, Jan-Ove Palmberg
Mobile hydraulic equipment are today operated manually to a very large extent. There are, however, some applications where substantial benefits would be obtaind if some kind of feedback and more sophisticated control was used. One such application is the control of a crane. Usually the operator controlls the flow to each of the pistons so that the crane tip is moved in the desired direction (Fig. 1). Since many mobile hydraulic valves packages have electronic input and there exists built in position transducers for the pistons, it seems to be rather straightforward to introduce vector control of the crane tip directly. That is, the operator commands controlls the direction and speed of the crane tip. Here, a control algorithm is described that allows the use of mobile electrohydraulic proportional valves while still having accurate vector control of the crane tip.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921747
Yan Min, Sun Xinxue, Wu Dongmei
: In the recent years, the design on the link-mechanism of working device in a loader is gradually being prefected, but the design on the link-mechanism of boom-cylinder is seam to be still at the cut and try level. In order to further improve the design method of boom cylinder, in this paper, using a concept of “dfficiency” or “advantage” and a method combining the theoritical analysis with the computer computation, we make an attempt at analyzing and discussing this problem. And finally we obtain some conclusions for increasing the design quality of the link-mechanism.
1992-04-01
Technical Paper
920900
Charlie E. Sanders
What are some of the market influences changing the earthmoving equipment requirements as we face the next decade? How does the shifting age, immigration status and minority pattern affect the new entrants into the labor force? Earthmoving equipment users have expectations that a machine will be more productive, reliable and utilitarian. Earthmoving equipment must be simple to repair, troubleshooting convenience must be built-in from the start of design. Machines must be designed with reduced operating efforts and special fail-safe protectors provided for machines being operated by people without the background and experience to know when a machine is about to fail. Users want the machine service (lubrication, filter change and fluid checks) to be performed from ground level. A reduction in the number of service points and frequency of service is desired.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941801
John A. Cain, Ronald L. Hehn
A high degree of technical competence is required to design off-highway equipment. Small companies with limited resources need to reduce their exposure to financial loss due to design errors. Larger companies may have reduced technical expertise due to down-sizing. The answer may lie with the increased use of contract technical experts. Historically certain industries and locals had used this method to fulfill their contracts primarily with the government. One problem with this approach is to bring together widely scattered commercial companies with the experts for hire. Affordable CADD and FEM systems and modern communication methods make long distance design a reality.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941720
René M. Fry
Since 1989, the Military Sealift Command has documented millions of dollars in cost savings in an innovative lube oil management program using OEM certified lubricants, a central testing facility, and a local area network based used oil analysis database called, Graphical Lube Analysis System (GLAS). GLAS contains the entire history of lube analysis results taken from more than 8,300 pieces of shipboard equipment. Electronically updated daily from a centralized laboratory, GLAS provides accurate and timely maintenance recommendations via satellite to approximately 90 ships operating worldwide.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941737
Darrel L. Turner
The purpose of this work is to improve the safety and durability of agricultural and off highway rotary cutter blades. Field experience has resulted in specifying low blade hardness to prevent catastrophic impact failure and the obvious safety concerns. However, low hardness reduces yield strength and increases failures from bending, fatigue and wear. To develop a relationship between impact toughness and blade performance in the field, we chose to examine the material mechanical property of notched impact toughness as measured by the ASTM E-23 Charpy V-notch Impact Test. The first part of this work was to do a survey of the industry for charpy notched impact toughness on commercially available blades. The results showed a wide range of hardness and charpy toughness. Impact testing also showed that impact toughness can be controlled to higher minimum values than previously available.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891856
John E. Mahoney
The new generation of Hitachi hydraulic excavators is called the “Intelligent Excavators” because of the technological developments of the “Micro-Computer” controller that effectively and efficiently regulates both the diesel engine and variable displacement pump output.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891857
Timothy Schroering
A hydraulic excavator in the 40000 lbs. to 46000 lbs. class that is self-transportable at highway speeds has been developed. The excavator consists of a modified 44000 lbs. hydraulic excavator upper-structure and attachment mounted on a custom 6×4 or 6×6 undercarriage. This results in an excavator having the performance of a 1 cubic yard hydraulic excavator and the transportability of an over the road truck.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891886
Richard J. Smith, Stan Lukowski, Liansuo Xie, Paul W. Claar
A kinematic model for studying the maneuverability of an off-road tractor/double-axle trailer combination has been formulated. The influence of steering inputs from the tractor and the trailer front axles on the system's maneuverability in terms of lateral displacement and rotational motion during the turning process is studied by conducting computer simulations using the LOTUS spreadsheet program. A lane-change problem is presented to demonstrate the computational procedure and to illustrate the application of the kinematic model.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891879
Don J. Gerhardt, F. William Capp, Randal A. Little, Girten O. Allerton
This paper describes the design of the new Ingersoll-Rand Mobile Waterjet Cutting equipment which provides an accurate cutting system for general construction applications. The innovative design of accessories permits remote cutting using up to 3060 Bar (45,000 psi) and 8.3 Llmin. (2.2 GPM) of water. Abrasive materials are added to cut hard materials. The waterjet cutting unit is powered by a diesel engine and is mounted on a mobile chassis which may be towed to the construction site. ABRASIVE WATERJET EQUIPMENT operating at pressures of 3060 BAR (45,000 psi) can cut every known material including reinforced concrete, steel and stone (1, 2)*. This paper describes the development and operation of a new mobile diesel powered high pressure waterjet cutting machine. The equipment has been used to cut up to 175 mm thick steel and 600 mm thick concrete. A hydraulic driven intensifier is used to generate the high water pressure.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891878
Wally L. Kaczmarski, Verne C. Watts
This paper reviews the design of a Multi-Function Trencher Power Unit. It focuses on design concepts to achieve a cost effective quality trencher power unit which has several attachment locations and adapts to an assortment of attachments. It reveals some new concepts in the drive systems, the attachment mounting system, the operator environment, and the attachment versatility.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891877
Douglas A. Bargiel
A new line of sweepers was developed by Clarke. American-Lincoln to take advantage of some advances in technology and to add some important features. This paper discusses the design and features of the model 2200 and 3300 sweepers.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891923
Orville E. Wheeler
The conflicting design goals of light weight and high strength influence decisions made during the development of many new products. Those products that are stability critical must be handled with particular caution. Design guidelines and specifications exist that give appropriate guidance in the case of crane booms and jibs when the non-linear behavior of these structures is recognized and accommodated. This, along with a proper interpretation of those design guidelines, will assure acceptable structural performance in the final product.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891924
Dale O. Anderson, Carey F. Cox, Leslie K. Guice
This paper describes the mechanics of using a desktop (microcomputer) workstation to produce a computer-generated video (television) animation of a ground vehicle moving on an arbitrary terrain surface. The results show that desktop engineering video animation is a viable tool for visualizing simulated three dimensional motions of ground vehicles over off-highway terrain. The approach taken was to use an existing commercial broadcast video animation code (TOPAS) to produce animated vehicle motion from time histories obtained by numerical dynamic simulation using the HVOSM code. The test cases used to verify the techniques described in this paper did not represent actual vehicles or terrain surfaces.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891948
Henrik Krabsen
Within recent years, the use of electric remote controlled proportional valves in the mobile market has increased dramatically. Manufacturers have realised that the use of electro-hydraulics opens up new design opportunities such as remote valve installations, precise fingertip control, electronic management of hydraulic machines, in fact an exciting new world. Engineers have new options and possibilities to meet the customers demands for higher productivity, less power consumption and an ergonomically improved working environment. Fig. 1 shows a representative selection of valves, joy stick controllers and electrical accessories for mobile equipment such as the backhoe described in this paper. The electrical activation system is indicative of the direction development is taking. More and more electronics for control, regulation, monitoring and automating hydraulic systems are being used.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920026
S.F. Bezverchii, A.V. Maramashkin
Construction of vehicles meant for operations in extreme North regions must satisfy the possibility of their effective operations in different combinations of climatic influence and road factors typical for the said region. Taking into account the wide spectrum of change of these influence on vehicle in zones cold climates, in the paper there discussed the different aspects of operation conditions and requirements toward construction of vehicles directed to the satisfying of possibilities of their reliable and safe operations in these conditions. In condition of extreme North and North-East of USSR, where the conditions of roads, to a considerable extent, depend on the influence of climatic and atmospheric phenomena, it is necessary to consider the influence of natural-climatic factors in the system “Driver - vehicle - road - environment”.
1992-02-01
Technical Paper
920009
J.S. Stecki, K. Szewczyk, E. Lisowski
The operational behaviour of hydraulic and mechanical systems in subzero temperatures is of considerable interest to manufacturers and operators of mobile and earthmoving machines which work in extremely cold climatic conditions. The majority of such machines are designed for operation in moderate climatic conditions and will have to be specially adapted for working in very low temperatures. The adaptation of such machines to operation in subzero temperatures and verification of their operational limits may be very expensive as it usually requires field testing. To carry out such tests the machines and test equipment must be transported to a low temperature zone. The conduct of tests is weather dependent and only limited modifications to machines are possible under field conditions.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901604
Mitsuru Obana, Fumihiko Shigeta, Hideaki Tanabe, G. Takeshi Sato, Osamu Kawaguchi
A low emission and high combustion load combustor is developed. The combustor reduces both NOx and unburnt fractions using rich-lean staged combustion. NOx is suppressed by fuel-rich combustion in the primary combustion chamber. Unburnt fraction is oxidized by the transition from rich to lean combustion. To avoid NOx formation, residence time nearby stoichiometry is shortened. NOx is less than 24.8 ppm(16 % O2 equivalence) or 2.26 g/kg throughout the experiments. Combustion efficiency is high regardless of the wide operating range. Specific combustion load is up to 33.6 MW/m3 without excessive NOx emission under atmospheric air condition.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901603
Tomohiro Iwai, Kohta Ohtoshi, Eiji Fukumori, Masataka Ohsawa
Abstract An electronically controlled governor was developed for a generator equipped with a medium size gasoline engine. Among the available control methods, LQ and PID were considered since they are high practical and require less computations. Based on a numerical simulation, the PID control method was chosen for the governor system because of its simplicity in tuning the control parameters. To ensure the reliability of the governor system for volume production, the system has been tested with regard to the influence of environmental changes, and the deviation of engine performance and its deterioration. Under all of the above severity tests, the governor system has been confirmed to provide an excellent performance and stability in the power output far exceeding the ISO-A1 standards.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901607
Jungkyu Park, Kazuo Kontani
This investigation reports on the study of the ambient turbulent effects on the droplet vaporization in the fuel spray combustion. For tractability, this discussion considers a single droplet in an infinite turbulent flow. In this numerical study, the low-Reynolds-number version of k- ε turbulence model was used to represent the turbulence effects. The set of two-dimensional conservation equations which describe the transport phenomena in turbulent flow using the mean flow quantities including the droplet internal laminar motion, are solved numerically with the finite difference procedure of Patankar(SIMPLER). The evaluation of the computational model is provided by two limiting cases: turbulent flow over the solid sphere and the laminar flow over a liquid drop. The results show that the turbulence effects are noticeable for the vaporization at high turbulence intensity (10-50%) which is encountered in a typical spray.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901606
Mikio Furuyama
The good relationship between the spray condition in the intake manifold and the combustion characteristics is required. Firstly by this report it was tried the visualization and observation of spray of gasoline injection. It was mainly photographed when injection just began and the spray impinged on a intake valve. The photographs of fuel spray were taken by a image converter type high speed camera. The characteristics of the fuel spray injected in early injection period is influenced with fuel pressure and flow rate of fuel. The atomizing phenomenon of tip fuel of spray could be visualized. The atomizing process in early injection period are differ from that in stady-state spray. And the picture of spray at impingement on the intake valve was shown too. The atomizing condition on the valve surface could be observed visually.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901600
Takumi Muroki, Satoru Gotou, Katutoshi Morita
In order to investigate the combustion process of a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (DISC-RE), a statical model combustion chamber was made and 2 stroke diesel engine was used as a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) for the purpose of fundamental study of some characteristics of DISC-RE operation. This paper present some data on air flow in the model combustion chamber, some films of fuel injection spray, combustion flame propagation, using high speed camera, and test datas of combustion characteristics. From these films, it was clarified what happen inside of the rotor pocket. Generally to take a photograph inside of combustion chamber is very difficult using actual engine, because the combustion chamber moves toward rotational direction, so, using the static combustion chamber is very effective in the study of the fundamental process.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901674
Larry E. Albright
The model 753 skid steer loader was developed to address performance, service and manufacturing issues for the company's 1300 lb. class loader and to provide exciting new features for marketing. This paper describes many of the improvements and features that will accentuate the Bobcat skid steer loader family in the nineties.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901675
Douglas A. Bargiel
A new sweeper/scrubber was developed by Clarke, American-Lincoln to fill a product need for a mid-size scrubber and take advantage of an all electric design. This paper discusses the design and features of the Model 6200 Sweeper/Scrubber.
1990-04-01
Technical Paper
900888
Harold W. Hill
The 621 is the first of the new Case “21 Series” Wheel Loaders. At 116 net horsepower and with bucket capacities of 2.00 to 2.75 cubic yards, it features a cab located on the rear mainframe and a z-bar loader linkage. The 621 is the culmination of a customer-based development program and is representative of J I Case Company's continuing focus on productivity and durability in its products. It was designed with the operator in mind, thoroughly considering ergonomics and visibility. The 621's loader and vehicle performance, dynamic stability and responsive steering lead to short cycle times and high productivity. The product development cycle of the 621 was reduced to two-and-one-half years through the application of simultaneous engineering and manufacturing concepts. As a result of an extensive, statistics-based field and laboratory demonstration test program, the 621 offers improved reliability over its predecessor, the W20C.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930850
Wilfried Eichlseder, Gottfried Raab, Gerhard Krisper
1. SUMMARY For the simulation of driving road- and offroad-vehicles a mathematical model as well as a program have been developed, which allows the prediction of the driving performances, driving time and speed, fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, loading of the drive line and strain on the driver when the vehicle runs on prescribed routes. The driving simulation takes into account engine, tire, gearbox, and general vehicle data, height and outline profiles of the route, visibility, permissible transverse acceleration and wheel or exhaust braking. The aim of the simulation calculations is to find the optimum overall economy for given operating conditions by coordinating the individual elements of the total system of engine-transmission-vehicle. Not only can vehicles be optimized, but existing vehicles can also be easily compared and assessed.
1991-04-01
Technical Paper
910953
J.K. Spitler
Evolution in the standardization of steel sizes and chemistries has been taking place at Caterpillar over the last eight years. This has occurred through conscious optimization of several internal and external factors. The history, techniques and further potential of the project will be presented.
1991-04-01
Technical Paper
910949
Woodward G. Eicke
To remain competitive the United States must change its way of doing business. We must learn to produce the highest quality product at a competitive cost. There are many things that must be done to attain this goal. This paper addresses only one - measurements. The role of measurements in the decision making process will be addressed. The main thrust is the discussion of the elements of a measurement, modeling a measurement and error analysis.
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