Viewing 1 to 30 of 327
Technical Paper
Jiwoong Ha, Yujong Kim, Jiho Lim
This paper proposes an alternative methodology to construct a dynamic failure model of spot welds under combined axial and shear loading conditions for auto-body crash analyses performing cross-tension tests and lap-shear tests which are substitution of pure-shear tests. To construct a failure model of a spot weld proposed by Song and Huh, failure tests of spot welds with an imposed angle to the weldment have to be carried out at an interval of 15° from 0° to 90°. In the general case, it was suggested that the β value of 1.45 from the results of the failure load of cross-tension tests and pure-shear tests can be used for constructing their failure model. However, the scheme is not practical because of difficulties in making pure-shear specimens with the same welding conditions of two-sheet spot weld because the pure-shear specimen is generally prepared with three-sheet spot weld.
Journal Article
Kil Won Song, David Roehrich, Rani El-Hajjar
Fillet and plug weld are commonly used in structural applications in commercial heavy vehicles. This paper is primarily concerned with an investigation of the full field deformations fields in fillet and plug welds using three dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC). Two identical vehicle parts are constructed using a fillet weld for one specimen, and a plug weld for the other. The specimens are loaded under quasi-static conditions with simultaneous measurement of load, displacements and strain gage measurements. Strain gage locations are selected based on the results of a finite element analysis model. 3D-DIC measurements are constructed using a two camera setup. Thus, 3D-DIC measurements are compared to strain gage measurements and finite element predictions. The effectiveness of the non-contact full field method is evaluated for application to studying the weld details considered and potential for fatigue damage and durability.
Technical Paper
David Milligan, Ulf Engström, Ryu Goto
Powder Metallurgy (P/M) is an increasingly viable alternative for applications requiring high material performance. Continuous advances in alloy systems and processing techniques, combined with powder metallurgy's ability to produce complex net shapes, have made it possible for powder metallurgy to compete with other technologies in engine and transmission applications. This paper will focus on new alloy systems and advanced processing techniques. The properties achievable with currently available materials, such as chromium containing materials, combined with advanced processing techniques, such as warm compaction and surface densification, will be presented. Additionally, a case study where a warm compacted synchronizing latch cone in a heavy duty truck transmission was found to have equal or superior performance to precision forged and powder forged latch cones.
Technical Paper
Saveliy M. Gugel
This article describes the experience of Sanova-Polytech, Inc. (SPI) in the creation, testing, and usage of new Liquid Induction Thermochemical Processes (LINTERPROCESS™) and Liquid Induction Heat Treatment (LINHEAT™) technologies, and in the designing, manufacturing, and employment of new automatic computerized production equipment, which can be of significant advantage to manufacturers of commercial vehicles. Heat treatment and thermochemical processing of various metals play an important role in the global effort to produce stronger, lighter, and more durable machine parts at lower costs. They are widely used in the manufacturing of cars and buses, and farm, construction, industrial, and other machinery.
Technical Paper
Artur Safont Gutierrez, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Daniel Novello, Leandro Maggioni, Alexandre Roman, Carlos Henrique Selle Pereira
During the development of a new friction material, besides the interface between lining/drum is also fundamental take in account all aspects involving the attachment of the linings on the brake shoes. This paper presents an optimization approach to the development and manufacturing parameters of brake linings, applied on medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles, aiming to assure the correct specification of the riveted joint clamp forces. These evaluations were conducted based on the quality tools documents and the theoretical aspects of the product usage as well as the modeling of key elements of the referred mechanism throughout various known applications. A calculation methodology was developed based on brake geometry, its generated forces and braking reactions required for each vehicle family.
Technical Paper
Emmanuel Schlickmann, Carlos Mauricio Sacchelli
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
Technical Paper
K. Dröder, St. Janssen
In all areas of engineering in which masses have to be extremely accelerated, parts of magnesium wrought alloys represent a promising solution. Sheet metal forming at elevated temperature and precision forging as near net shape technology have a great potential to become important manufacturing processes for magnesium.
Technical Paper
Rod Huisinga, Kurt Rottier, John Baertlein, Alex Kaye
The designers of heavy-duty off-road vehicles have been facing increasing pressure to reduce the cost and time required for assembly and maintenance. While the requirement to reduce assembly times is mainly an OEM driven objective, the requirement to reduce maintenance times is frequently driven by the customer. The design team is usually faced with the challenge of balancing functional requirements with what are often viewed as wish lists of easy assembly and maintenance, under the pressure of ever shorter development cycles. As a result, vehicle maintainability and ease of assembly are often overlooked early in the design cycle which can lead to less than desired results. This paper explores the design objectives and resultant solutions which were developed in the creation of the power-pack of a heavy-duty off-road vehicle.
Technical Paper
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan Rangaswamy, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
Technical Paper
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
Journal Article
Abhishake Goyal, Nadeem Yamin, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmental-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90°C), hydrogen fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the middle of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, most of the researchers have already mentioned that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it.
Technical Paper
Timo Björk, Ilkka Valkonen, Jukka Kömi, Hannu Indren
Abstract The development of weldable high-strength and wear-resistant steels have made modern structures such as booms and mobile equipment possible. These sorts of novel and effective designs could not be constructed with traditional mild steel. Unfortunately, the use of these novel steels requires proper design, and there is no practical design code for these novel steels. This paper addresses stability issues, which are important considerations for designs with high-strength steels, and the properties of the heat-affected zone, which may require special attention. Fatigue design is also discussed in this paper, and the importance of the weld quality is highlighted, along with discussions on which details in the weld are the most important. By comparing the test results with the classical load limit solution, it is determined that full plastic capacity is reached and that the samples display good strain properties.
Technical Paper
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Abstract Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitates operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design.
Technical Paper
André Baroni Selim, Bruno Aquino de Lyra
Abstract This work aims to demonstrate a cooling package selection for an agricultural machine equipped with Diesel engine considering different radiators area / material and fan blade angles, pursuing the best match of performance, cost and weight. It was investigated two types of radiators made from copper-brass and aluminum, two types of charge air cooler varying the dimensions and four types of fans varying the blade angle. The selection method chosen was the experimental testing. The tests were performed according to the standard SAE and internal procedures at MWM Motores Diesel laboratories located at São Paulo / Brazil. When compared with cooper-brass, the aluminum radiator presents worse heat exchange performance what makes its size increase in order to compensate the gap. Even with bigger size, the aluminum radiator keeps lighter and cheaper.
Technical Paper
Edinilson Alves Costa
Abstract Mainly in the last 30 years so much research has been done on Fe-based calculation of seam welded thin-sheet structures fatigue life. However, available prediction methods have been developed for a limited range of geometries under ideal load conditions. Extrapolating to complex real world geometries and load conditions such those resultant from, for example, ground vehicles dislocation over rough surfaces, are least documented. One example of the application of seam welded thin-sheet structures in the ground vehicle industry is the powertrain installation bracketry. Such brackets are subject to variable amplitude loading sourced from powertrain and road surface irregularities and their fatigue strength is tightly dependent on the strength of their joints. In this paper, a FE-based force/moment method has been used for numerically predicting fatigue life of powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading.
Technical Paper
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
Technical Paper
E. A. Mallett
Technical Paper
Fred W. Herman
THE introduction to this paper includes definitions of the major items under discussion, and is followed by a discussion of the materials most widely used in metal-aircraft construction and their important physical properties. In the remainder of the paper are described some of the problems encountered in metal construction and the processes that have been developed to facilitate manufacture. The following specific items are discussed: (1) Design, (2) Tooling, including lofting, (3) Fabrication, (4) Assembly, (5) Inspection, and (6) Protective coating. Special equipment and tools are illustrated.
Technical Paper
C. V. Godbold, Jonathan L. Tolstedt
Phoenix International, the electronics manufacturing group of John Deere, has developed a product and manufacturing process to address many of the shortcomings of conventional heatsinking technologies. In this process, a thin circuit board is bonded directly to a flat surface heatsink such as a finned extrusion or liquid-cooled plate. The major benefits of the proposed solution are the simplification of the manufacturing process and substantially improved conduction of heat away from high-power circuitry.
Technical Paper
Rainer Krafft, Andreas Wolf
The paper describes a solution of a High Efficiency Fan Drive with minimum power loss which meets both the cooling requirements of a heavy duty truck engine as well as the increasing demand for low fuel consumption. The proposed solution combines a switchable belt speed increaser drive and a 3-speed electromagnetic clutch. This combination of both proven technologies offers a major fuel saving compared to existing variable speed solutions and meets perfectly the cooling requirements of the engine. The authors present theoretical calculations, design proposals and first prototype applications of the High Efficiency Fan Drive.
Technical Paper
K. Hariharan, S. Suresh, T. Venugopalan, Anup. K. Sharma
Automotive sheet metal components involve complex geometry and large surface areas. In addition to complex geometry, thrust for reduction of the new product development cycle demands for virtual simulation before prototyping. However in order to validate the simulation parameters, the numerical model needs to be experimentally verified. Conventional strain measurement techniques like Mylar tape, Traveling microscope are tedious and error prone for sheet metal forming analysis. Recently, optical strain measurement techniques are being used in sheet metal forming industry. Through this, strain measurement is more accurate, less time consuming and repeatable. This paper discusses a case study in which the analysis results of an automotive sheet metal component are experimentally validated by circular grid analysis using an optical strain measurement method. The circular grids are marked in the sheet metal blanks by screen-printing.
Technical Paper
Yenkai (Brian) Wang, Shan Shih
Welding has been used extensively in automotive components design due to its flexibility to be applied in manufacturing, high structural strength and low cost. To improve fuel economy and reduce material cost, weight reduction by optimized structural design has been a high priority in auto industry. In the majority of heavy duty vehicle's chassis components design, the ability to predict the mechanical performance of welded joints is the key to success of structural optimization. FEA (finite element analysis) has been used in the industry to analyze welded parts. However, mesh sensitivity and material properties have been major issues due to geometry irregularity, metallurgical degradation of the base material, and inherent residual stress associated with welded joints. An approach, equilibrium-equivalent structural stress method, led by Battelle and through several joint industrial projects (JIP), has been developed.
Technical Paper
Reimund Neugebauer, Michael Seifert, Petr Kurka, Andreas Sterzing
Due to the need for a significant reduction in the weight of parts in automotive manufacturing, the use of lightweight materials such as magnesium and aluminium is becoming increasingly important. Unfortunately, these materials are often associated with limited cold formability. Because of this, production of large, complex sheet metal components using forming technology frequently entails greater cost. To extend the application of these materials in manufacturing processes, it is essential to identify strategies which permit improvement of the forming behaviour of these materials. The use of elevated temperatures as a process parameter in forming operations is a strategy which has potential in terms of the search for a solution to counter the aforementioned disadvantages. Firstly, it permits a distinct increase in the ductility and formability of the material. Secondly, it reduces deformation resistance and hence the forming forces and pressures required.
Technical Paper
Ramesh Edara
Two simulation analysis case studies for optimization of disc brake assembly level performance and component structural strength using CAE tools were discussed. The first case study discussed was about disc brake assembly level simulation studies to optimize brake pads contact pressures in order to achieve uniform brake friction pad wear during operation, and optimize the guide pin reaction loads. In the second case study, structural optimization of brake torque plate using CAE tools was discussed. The CAE results were validated with the component testing.
Technical Paper
Fabio Maccari
Research that has been published in the recent years about the activities that take place before the formal project starts has focused its attention to large corporations which have structured processes and that use project management tools appropriately. However, small and mid-size companies play a major roll in industry-based economies which gives great relevance to understanding their specific dynamics and correspondent approaches to pass through the FFE in a quicker and more effective way. The present work presents a methodology or set of best practices that enable mid-size industries to overcome the Fuzzy Front End using techniques fitted to their context. It is expected that such operating model be of assistance for mid-size companies and their managers when facing the challenge of clarifying all questions that haunt product developers during this complex stage that is the Fuzzy Front End.
Technical Paper
Paul W. Claar, Walter S. Chmielewski
An overview of a design methodology based on finite element and fatigue analyses is described for the design of welded structures. Fatigue life is a primary design consideration for agricultural equipment structural members. The re-design of an agricultural implement frame and hitch assembly is used to illustrate the methodology for optimal design and improved fatigue life. A description of the finite element mode of the agricultural implement and the simulated loading history are described. Results from finite element analysis are used to optimize the frame member sizes and calculate the fatigue strength characteristics. This design analysis strategy provides improved fatigue life characteristics for the implement frame or welded structure.
Technical Paper
W. Addy Majewski, Edward Pietrasz
A diesel emissions control system built and tested on an industrial forklift truck is described. The system utilizes a pleated media type diesel soot filter. The temperature limit of the filter material is well below the temperature of the exhaust gas. Therefore, cooling of the exhaust gas is necessary. A finned-tube heat exchanger is included in the system to cool the exhaust gas to the required level. The performance of the heat exchanger was investigated. The focus was on the fouling of heat transfer surface by soot and the corresponding decrease of the heat transfer rate. The fouling factor was found. Also, a design practice for finned-tube heat exchangers is presented and its applicability to small size mobile equipment is discussed.
Technical Paper
Richard E. Thompson
Air disc brakes have been under development in Europe now for many years, and have reached the stage where the technical demands of energy capacity, disc and pad life, and general durability are being met. The focus of development in European brakes has now moved more towards the cost of installation and ease of assembly and service, as the technology matures. Achieving reduced costs, while maintaining the technical capability of the product, has led to the use of new methods of integration of design and industrial engineering such as “Design for Assembly” and Quality Function Deployment, which in turn have demanded changes in organisation. This paper discusses the application of these new techniques, and highlights the benefits of their usage.
Technical Paper
David Duerr
A small number of specialty lifting equipment manufacturers currently produce hydraulic lifting gantries that utilize hydraulically telescoped legs that are structured much like telescopic crane booms. There are presently no uniform standards that provide guidance to the industry for the design and fabrication of such equipment. This paper discusses the uses of these gantries, examines current standards for similar types of lifting equipment, and makes recommendations for design and fabrication.
Technical Paper
Stephen H. Craney
In calendar year 1988, data was kept on the build of over one million electronic boards and assemblies. The results of this data gives strong evidence on where to receive optimal value for the dollars spent in the various areas of the electronic assembly process. Failure rates given should give good reference points for expected future programs and enable users to make decisions on process controls and vendor screening.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 327


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