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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1872
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0459
Chee Yap, Ronald Stapleton, Ronald Smolinski
The drive to incorporate renewable resources continues to gain momentum within the automotive industry. FXI has developed a grade of low (1.7 pcf) density slabstock foam which uses a natural oil polyol in place of a petroleum-based polyol. This foam grade, trademarked GreenBlend\St, has been developed specifically to produce foam-fabric/vinyl laminates for automotive seating, and interior trim applications such as headrests, armrests, visors and door panels. This new foam grade satisfies all of the OEM specifications for physical properties, including fogging and flammability, and yields satisfactory bond strengths when flame-laminated to cover stock. It is also s cost competitive technology compared to conventional slabstock foam using petroleum-based polyols.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0399
Andre Ferrarese, Jason Bieneman, David J. Domanchuk, Thomas Smith, Thomas Stong, Peter Einberger
Changing emission legislation limits are challenging the engine developers in many aspects. Requirement to improve combustion and engine efficiency have resulted in increased loads and higher levels of abrasive particles within the engine environment. Concerning piston rings and piston ring grooves, such engine modifications are leading to critical tribological conditions and side wear is becoming a key issue in the design of these components. Historically one of the most common forms of side wear protection on piston rings has been chromium plate. This solution has limitations on durability (low thickness) and on topography (rough surfaces). In response to these limitations, nitrided stainless steel top rings have been used to improve the side protection; it is harder and typically has a smoother surface finish when compared to chromium coating.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1946
Michael Fasse
The use of acoustic cavity fillers to prevent the propagation of air borne and structure borne noise, water and dust into the interior spaces of vehicle structures has been in practice for many years. Various technologies are available to OEMs to provide sealing that will prevent water and dust penetration, maximize performance of vehicle HVAC systems, and minimize the propagation of noise into a vehicle under operating conditions. The current state of the application of these technologies in the automotive, medium duty and heavy duty truck markets will be reviewed. Comparisons will be drawn between two categories of cavity fillers: pre-formed heat reactive expandable parts; and bulk applied chemically reacting polyurethane foam. Typical OEM material requirements will be discussed for these technologies. The pros and cons of these competing technologies, as well as their acoustic performance applied to a full vehicle will be considered.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0654
Pritpal Singh, Sandeep Raina, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Sweta Bansal
The interface between human body and automotive seat contours is seat upholstery. Seating comfort has a functional correlation to the upholstery. Two seats having different upholstery will give different comfort perception. Even an ergonomically designed seat if fitted with poor quality fabric will subdue the seat comfort drastically. The effect of fabric comfort ranges from initial short term to long term comfort, driven by properties like wick-ability and factors like thermal stress. Beyond material characteristics, fabric fit also plays an important role. This paper analyses the effect of fabric parameters and construction on automotive seat comfort. A comprehensive comparative study is followed by systematic analysis and comfort improvement scope through upholstery. The research is to conclude potential of the seat fabric in enhancing the automotive seating comfort within stipulated constraints of fabric properties and cost.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2419
Jeffrey Nichols
The focus of Cost Competitive Light-weight materials is a significant and relative objective for Commercial Vehicle Manufacturers and Component Suppliers. The continued development of ultra-high strength materials to offer improved strength, durability, and mass reduction with a cost competitive position, is a primary emphasis within engineering activities globally. This cost competitive light weighting focus has expanded significantly in all areas of commercial vehicle segments, impacting both powertrain and chassis applications. The focus is largely driven from the direct correlation of reduced vehicle mass to improved vehicle fuel efficiency, Co2 and Nox reduction, as well as safety and overall improvements to durability and performance. The primary challenge to determine the optimal lightweight material is multifaceted in effort to meet all imperative load criteria, while simultaneously providing mass savings in a globally scalable cost competitive solution.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2418
Sreedhar Reddy, Vignesh T Shekar
There have always been different approaches when it comes to ‘Bus body architecture’. The design approach has gone through different phases namely, chassis based, semi integral, integral and monocoque. Equally varied is the choice of material for bus super structure. The predominantly used ones are - mild steel with galvanization, stainless steel (SS) and aluminum. This paper discusses the rationale behind choosing stainless steel for the complete bus structure. With rapid development in infrastructure and public mass transit system, it has become imperative to have a robust structure for buses that is durable and crash worthy. Among the family of stainless steels, ferritic stainless steel exhibits excellent mechanical properties with corrosion resistance and better strength to weight ratio compared to the galvanized mild steel.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2420
Zhigang Wei
Corrosion resistance is an extremely important technical issue for long-term durability and reliability performance of exhaust components and systems. Failure mechanisms, such as corrosion, fatigue, corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, have long been recognized as the principal degradation and failure mechanisms of vehicle components and systems under combined mechanical and corrosive environmental conditions. The combination of fluid flow, introduced by components such as advanced injectors, and corrosive environment leads to corrosion-erosion failure mechanism. These failure mechanisms are strongly material, environment, and loading dependent. How to characterize, screen, rank and select the materials in corrosion resistance is a big challenge posed to materials scientists and engineers. In this paper, the common corrosion related failure mechanisms appearing in auto exhaust systems are reviewed first.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9091
Dongfang Jiang
To get a sequence retainable rainflow cycle counting algorithm for fatigue analysis, an alternate equivalent explanation to rainflow cycle counting is introduced, based on which an iterative rainflow counting algorithm is proposed. The algorithm decomposes any given load-time history with more than one crest into three sub-histories by two troughs; each sub-history with more than one crest is iteratively decomposed into three shorter sub-histories, till each sub-history obtained contains only one single or no crest. Every sub-history that contains a single crest corresponds to a local closed (full) cycle. The mean load and alternate load component of the local cycle are calculated in parallel with the iterative procedure.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2378
Manimaran Krishnamoorthy, Mathew Sam Paul Albert
In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2380
Anandan Sivakumar, Sachin Wagh, G. Raghavendra, Chaitanya Govind Kulkarni, Hemant Malekar
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2350
Matt Kero
The commercial vehicle industry has seen regulations create new requirements over the last few years. Reductions to stopping distance, improvements to vehicle emissions, and the overall need for lighter weight vehicles has caused the commercial vehicle industry to look for new solutions to meet these needs. One such solution is light-weight aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) brake drums. Aluminum MMC brake drums create the opportunity to reduce weight, lower brake temperatures, improve brake life cycle, and improve brake performance. During the evaluation of these aluminum MMC components it has been seen that existing procedures do not create accurate comparisons for this new material. Current procedures were designed and implemented for cast iron braking solutions. This paper will outline two procedures; FMVSS121 dynamometer burnishing and SAE J2115 wear performance testing, that do not allow direct comparisons from brake system to brake system to be made.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2733
William P. Fornof
A coalescing filter is typically used in a compressed air system to remove liquid and oil aerosols. A coalescing filter is most efficient when located downstream of an air dryer. The air dryer removes most of the liquid oil condensed in the compressor discharge line. Measuring the percent of oil removed by a coalescing filter is useful for determining efficiency. This paper covers a laboratory method to reproduce oil aerosols much like the filter will see in an actual application. High duty cycles produce the maximum amount of oil from the compressor. The air dryer acts as pre-filter for the coalescing filter. The coalescing filter element and its associated housing should be tested as a unit since the element's inherent efficiency is effected by the design of the housing.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2739
Saveliy M. Gugel
This article describes the experience of Sanova-Polytech, Inc. (SPI) in the creation, testing, and usage of new Liquid Induction Thermochemical Processes (LINTERPROCESS™) and Liquid Induction Heat Treatment (LINHEAT™) technologies, and in the designing, manufacturing, and employment of new automatic computerized production equipment, which can be of significant advantage to manufacturers of commercial vehicles. Heat treatment and thermochemical processing of various metals play an important role in the global effort to produce stronger, lighter, and more durable machine parts at lower costs. They are widely used in the manufacturing of cars and buses, and farm, construction, industrial, and other machinery.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0049
Teuvo Maunula, Arto Viitanen, Toni Kinnunen, Kauko Kanniainen
The emission regulations for mobile applications become stricter in Euro-IV to Euro-VI levels. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon can be removed by efficient Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) but Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx are more demanding requiring the use of active methods (urea-SCR and DPF) which will be world-wide implemented in the 2010's. Durable, coated V-SCR catalysts are based on stabilized raw materials and tailored preparation methods. Coated V2O5/TiO2-WO3 catalysts (ceramic 300/400 cpsi and metallic 500/600 cpsi) were evaluated by laboratory and engine bench experiments. Traditional V-SCR catalysts are durable up to about 600°C and have a high efficiency at 300°C-500°C. SCR activities were tailored to be higher also at 200°C-300°C or 500°C-600°C. The use of thermal stabilizers or the vanadium loading variation enabled the changes in operation window and stability.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0139
Sathish Kumar P, Vikram Suryavanshi, Manikandan M, Bollishetty Sreedhar
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0233
Matheus Ferreira, Mário Praça, Ricardo Simão
The increasing demand for engines with higher efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and high power density is driving the future engine technologies in the direction of downsizing and reduction of number of cylinders, especially for Otto engines. Specifically the Power Cell Unit (PCU) components are of extreme interest due to its potential for weight and friction reduction. To cope with these demands a new lightweight connecting rod design for flex fueled engines was developed. The combination of thinner web thickness and bushingless small end (coated and profiled), through the optimization by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation, enabled on the new lightweight design a weight reduction of 25% maintaining safe connecting rod fatigue limits in a studied flex fueled engine. The connecting rod bearings were evaluated using Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) simulation, and demonstrated suitable results. The connecting rod material selected was the premium 46MnVS6 forged steel.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0276
Milene A. Luciano, Vanessa F. C. Lins
In the last decade, industries have been concerned about the processes production sustainability and with the use of alternative energies forms, in order to minimize the amount of waste generated in the process, and to suit market requirements. With this view, one alternative for automotive industry is the use of organometallic coated automotive fuel tanks. These tanks are not permeable to hydrocarbons, they do not need to be painted after stamping and are 100% recyclable. The replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels is also a way to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, reducing global warming. In this work, corrosion resistance of organometallic coated and tin coated automotive tanks, in contact with hydrated ethyl alcohol, gasoline, and diesel and soybean biodiesel was evaluated and compared, using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1018
Robert V. Petrach, David Schall, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Randy Gu, Laila Guessous
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0399
Sylla Benedicto Abibe Aranha, Edgard Fernandes de Andrade, Eliana Mitiko Katayose, Kaísa Couto Machado, Marcelo Gonçalves
The truck body on chassis for dry freight applies to several types of goods, including packagings, broken or unitized cargoes. In Brazil, this equipment is traditionally made of wood and recently of steel. Moreover, in overseas countries the manufacturing of aluminium bodies is quite common (mainly in Europe and the United States), for economic, operational and environmental reasons, such as: weight reduction and resulting increase in payload capacity of the vehicle; easy manufacturing and repair; recyclability of the material used. This paper presents the main features and technical requirements from the Design of a Aluminium Truck Body mounted on a 3-axle truck, with 23 tons of deadweight (Gross Weight) and 5.4m of distance between axes.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0359
C.C. Scozzafave, L.G.S Ericsson, U. Wildmann, D.M. Spinelli
The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for approval of component that is applied when the first version is tested on a durability track with closed circuit and fails without meeting the approval criteria previously established. This approach was applied in suspension support on commercial vehicles. The full commercial vehicle was modeled in finite element for stress analysis in frame torsional loading. By presenting stress regions near the material's limit, tests were made on durability track with deformation measurement at the main critical spots. The component has failed in one of the measured spot without reaching the established number of laps for component approval on track. With the deformation measurement signal for one lap at the failure spot, a fatigue analysis using the software FEMFAT strain ® has been made, correlating the obtained damage with the number of laps on track until component failure.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0646
Emmanuel Schlickmann, Carlos Mauricio Sacchelli
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0471
José Eduardo D'Elboux, Marcus Kliewer, Camilo A. Adas, Fernando C. Dusi, Marco A. Fogaça Accurso, Eraldo de J. Soares, Alan M. Oliva
Due to the growing necessity to reduce time for new products development, or even to evaluate the reliability of them, a rationalization tendency of the tests has been observed in the field through more and more representative bench tests in a shorter time and with smaller costs. In the automotive industry, the amount of simulated parameters is always increasing; therefore it is necessary to collect a great number of sign measurements in suspension systems (accelerations, temperatures, strokes and deformations), using prototype vehicles. In the present paper we will present the measurements made in a representative track, where it was possible to analyze the measured signs. In a second step they were compiled and compacted, and finally applied in a one-axial bench test. This procedure permits to get a correlation between field and laboratory results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1207
Wim Van Dam, Mark W. Cooper, Kenneth Oxorn, Scott Richards
Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2306
Xin Lei, Antoun Calash, John Cagney
A cyclically pressurized hydraulic component made of compacted graphite iron (CGI) is examined in fatigue design. This CGI component has a notch, formed at the intersection of two drilling channels. This notch causes the stress to be locally elevated and may potentially serve as a fatigue initiation site. Traditional fatigue design approaches calculate the maximum stress/strain range acting at the notch and apply the Neuber correction when calculating fatigue life. It is, however, found that the fatigue life is dramatically underestimated by this method. This prompts the use of the critical distance method because the stresses are concentrated in a relatively small volume. When using the critical distance method, the fatigue life is correctly predicted. Finally, a fracture mechanics model of the crack check the reasonableness of the critical distance method results.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2287
Gergis William, Mark S. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2233
Anandan Sivakumar, Raghvendra Gopal
Diesel engine fuel hose return line is considered as a low pressure line and consists of two layers. The inner layer is used to carry the excess fuel, thereby hose material shall have resistance to fuel and its residues. The outer layer is used to protect inner layer from heat, ozone and oil spillage, thereby outer cover material shall have resistance against the heat, ozone and engine oil. Currently NBR PVC, NBR and FKM materials have been used as inner layer materials in diesel engine fuel hose outer cover application, according to service temperature. Halogen contained CSM material has been used for outer cover application and the production of CSM material was withdrawn by one of the major manufacturer recently. Current global challenge is to use environment friendly material in vehicle components to make hazardous free environment. To replace CSM material, which contains Halogen, the available options are CPE, CR, HNBR and AEM materials.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2114
Jai G. Bansal, Patrick Colby, Maryann Devine, Jack Emert, Kaustav Sinha
This paper is first in a series of papers designed to investigate wear processes in modern heavy duty diesel engines. The objective of the series is to discuss the effects that engine drive cycle, lubricant formulations and in-service ageing of lubricants have on wear of critical engine components. In this paper, the Radioactive Tracer Technology technique was used to study the steady state wear behavior of a number of contacting surfaces in a Caterpillar 1P engine, as a function of the drive cycle. A test protocol consisting of 7 modes or stages was used to simulate a variety of drive cycles. The results from this work provide useful insights into the wear behavior of these surfaces under a variety of speed and load conditions.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2113
Masataka Hashimoto, Tadanori Azuma, Morio Sumimoto, Kanji Mitsuda
A new type of lube oil cleaning system is successfully developed for semi-permanent use of oil by always keeping oil clean with the result of no oil change and no waste oil. It is in practical use in many marine diesel engines and in some other fields. In recent years, possibility of semi-permanent use of engines themselves has been expected based on the field data. A ship test for 7 years has verified the expected semi-permanent use of engines with almost no wear and constant thermal efficiency during the test. We present the characteristics of the oil cleaning system and the result of the test. Also, a new type of fuel oil cleaning system is presented which is useful for cleaning low quality fuel oil. As a whole, this test is the beginning of the new stage of our work following the semi-permanent use of lube oil, which has been verified and established in many diesel engines since the 1980s.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0248
Zohir Benrabah, Francis Thibault, Robert DiRaddo
A numerical simulation model for predicting the fuel hydrocarbon permeation as well as the barrier layer thickness optimization for multilayer plastic fuel tanks is presented. The diffusion model is based on Fick's laws of diffusion for a steady/unsteady state permeation regime through a multilayer polymeric wall under isothermal condition. A continuum approach based on an homogenization technique is used to model solvent diffusion through an n layer film. The hydrocarbon flux determination through the multilayer film is solved using homogenization techniques that ensure continuity of partial pressure at the polymer-polymer inter-diffusion interface. Since the pinch-off zone is known to be the major source of emission per unit area, a method has been developed to automatically detect it at the end of the extrusion blow molding process and the diffusion model is adapted to adequately evaluate the hydrocarbon permeation through this specific area.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3560
Irene Begsteiger, Klaus Richter, Eberhard Jacob, Gerhard Emmerling
A new type of catalyst for exhaust emission control of Diesel engines has been developed by a catalyst producer in cooperation with engine/heavy duty truck manufacturers. This so-called Sorption/Oxidation (“SO”)-catalyst is an extruded TiO2-type and works as a HC-trap as well as oxidation catalyst for hydrocarbons. In addition, a certain amount of particle matter was reduced, depending on type of engine, fuel sulfur content and test cycle. Due to its unique composition, i.e. oxides of titanium (80 wt %), tungsten and vanadium, the catalytic selectivity results in very low formation of sulfates as well as excellent resistance against sulfur compounds. The geometry of the catalyst prototypes corresponds to standard monoliths of 5,66″(144mm) in diameter and suitable lengths to be installed in standard mufflers. Since 1996, several buses and trucks have been equipped with SO-catalysts and are still in operation without problems.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1872

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