Viewing 1 to 30 of 289
Technical Paper
Anandan Sivakumar, Sachin Wagh, G. Raghavendra, Chaitanya Govind Kulkarni, Hemant Malekar
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
Technical Paper
Emmanuel Schlickmann, Carlos Mauricio Sacchelli
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
Technical Paper
Anandan Sivakumar, Raghvendra Gopal
Diesel engine fuel hose return line is considered as a low pressure line and consists of two layers. The inner layer is used to carry the excess fuel, thereby hose material shall have resistance to fuel and its residues. The outer layer is used to protect inner layer from heat, ozone and oil spillage, thereby outer cover material shall have resistance against the heat, ozone and engine oil. Currently NBR PVC, NBR and FKM materials have been used as inner layer materials in diesel engine fuel hose outer cover application, according to service temperature. Halogen contained CSM material has been used for outer cover application and the production of CSM material was withdrawn by one of the major manufacturer recently. Current global challenge is to use environment friendly material in vehicle components to make hazardous free environment. To replace CSM material, which contains Halogen, the available options are CPE, CR, HNBR and AEM materials.
Journal Article
Zohir Benrabah, Francis Thibault, Robert DiRaddo
A numerical simulation model for predicting the fuel hydrocarbon permeation as well as the barrier layer thickness optimization for multilayer plastic fuel tanks is presented. The diffusion model is based on Fick's laws of diffusion for a steady/unsteady state permeation regime through a multilayer polymeric wall under isothermal condition. A continuum approach based on an homogenization technique is used to model solvent diffusion through an n layer film. The hydrocarbon flux determination through the multilayer film is solved using homogenization techniques that ensure continuity of partial pressure at the polymer-polymer inter-diffusion interface. Since the pinch-off zone is known to be the major source of emission per unit area, a method has been developed to automatically detect it at the end of the extrusion blow molding process and the diffusion model is adapted to adequately evaluate the hydrocarbon permeation through this specific area.
Technical Paper
N Suresh, John G. Argeropoulos, Craig Patterson, Del Schroeder
The automobile industry is seeing an increased need for the application of plastics and their derivatives in various forms such as fiber reinforced plastics, in the design and manufacture of various automotive structural components, to reduce weight, cost and improve fuel efficiency. A lot of effort is being directed at the development of structural plastics, to meet specific automotive requirements such as stiffness, safety, strength, durability and environmental standards and recyclability. This paper presents the concept of reinforcing large injection molded fiber reinforced body panels with structural uni-directional fibers (carbon, graphite, kevlar or fiber glass) wound in tension around the body panels by filament winding technique. Structural uni-directional fibers in tension wound around the fiber reinforced plastic inner body panels would place these body panels under compression.
Technical Paper
K. Dröder, St. Janssen
In all areas of engineering in which masses have to be extremely accelerated, parts of magnesium wrought alloys represent a promising solution. Sheet metal forming at elevated temperature and precision forging as near net shape technology have a great potential to become important manufacturing processes for magnesium.
Technical Paper
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
Abstract In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
Technical Paper
Vyankatesh Madane, Sameer Shivalkar, Chandrakant Patil, Sanjeev Annigeri
Abstract In rubber industry, different techniques are used to enhance durability. This paper gives complete design, development and testing methodology of rubber bush in which pre-compression of rubber is used to enhance rubber bush life. In bogie suspension, axle to torque rod join is critical as it has to transfer lateral and longitudinal load with flexibility. This makes challenging to design joint which need to carry more than 6 ton load and having flexibility of more than 10 degree articulation. In this torque rod to axle joint called as End bush, compressed rubber is used to carry high load with flexibility. Other possible material for bush can be brass bush which able to carry high load however not able to give high flexibility Design and finite element calculations are done to design pre-compression and rubber volume to get desired strength and stiffness to carry required load with flexibility.
Technical Paper
Samraj Benedicts, Vivek Seshan
Track tensioning assembly is used in tracked vehicles to maintain the tautness of the track. The track tensioning system consists of the rear idler wheel which applies pressure on the track and a mechanism to increase or decrease the tension. This paper is a study of reaction forces and its effects on the chassis due to rear idler position. Rubber track layouts have been focus for most of the research work, here we study the effect of rear idler position on chassis structure through simulated analysis. An agriculture paddy combine harvester with rubber track is considered for the purpose of this work. Firstly the complete chassis structure is modeled in 3D using Creo and exported to Pro Mechanica for simulation. The real time forces, constraints were applied and the results were correlated to actual field results. The simulations were optimized through several iterations to match the field test results.
Technical Paper
Saeil Jeon, Stacey Spencer, Paul Joiner
Abstract Lightweight solution is one of the keywords that we see every day. Developing smart, light and durable materials is one focal area that is inevitable to be done in the ground transportation sector. Another angle to look for is the protection and beautification of the substrate finish where surface treatment technology stands out. Combining both aspects is crucial in the industry for customer satisfaction. Recycled carbon fibers are used to form the reinforcement in the composite side, where they are infused or mixed with the matrix materials either in SMC (Sheet Mold Compound) or BMC (Bulk Mold Compound) format, depending upon the application. Glass fibers are usually used for their practical application, however considering further weight cut on the component, carbon fibers cannot be overlooked for their superior mechanical properties. However, due to the cost of carbon fibers many times the application may be over-designed.
Journal Article
Geethanjali Gadamchetty, Abhijeet Pandey, Majnoo Gawture
The three parameter Ramberg-Osgood (RO) method finds popular usage for extracting complete stress-strain curve from limited data which is usually available. The currently popular practice of assuming the plasticity to set in only at the Yield point provides computational advantage by separating the complete nonlinear curve, obtained from RO method, into elastic and plastic regions. It is shown, with an example problem, that serious errors are committed by using this method if one compares the obtained results with results of complete stress-strain curve. In the present work we propose a simple Taylor series based approach based on RO method to overcome the above deficiency. This method is found to be computationally efficient. The proposed method is applicable for stress-strain curves of materials for which RO method provides a good approximation.
Journal Article
Stefan Heitzig, Alexander Weinebeck, Hubertus Murrenhoff
In this paper compatibility studies of biofuel candidates and similar liquids with the elastomeric materials nitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomer are presented. The results gained with defined reference elastomers are compared to results gained with the materials used in the technical application. For this purpose test specimens are prepared from fuel hoses and the material used for shaft seals of fuel pumps. The experimental results are subsequently used to evaluate prediction approaches based on the HSP- and QSPR-method. Finally a comparison of these two approaches is given.
Technical Paper
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Technical Paper
Salah A. Elmoselhy, Badr S. Azzam, Sayed M. Metwalli
E-spring is an optimized trend of springs for vehicle suspension systems. Experimental and transmissibility analyses of laminated fibrous composite E-springs are conducted. The mechanical and frequency-response-based properties of these springs are investigated experimentally at both of the structural and constitutional levels. Thermoplastic-based and thermoset-based fibrous composite structures of the E-springs are modified at micro-scale with various additives and consequently they are compared. The experimental results reveal that additives of micrometer-sized particles of E-glass fibers as well as mineral clay to an ISO-phthalic polyester resin of the composite E-spring can demonstrate superior characteristics. The transmissibility analysis of laminated fibrous composite E-springs reveals superior frequency ratio.
Technical Paper
Mohammad Moetakef, Aaron Bresky, Mark Zilberman, Todd Pham, Robert Egenolf, Bruce Bonhard
In automotive industry inserting cardboard liners or foam in the dirveshaft to prevent them from functioning as a path or amplifier to high frequency gear whine excitation is a common practice. Due to limited damping capability, these liners, however, have limited effectiveness and may not prevent or effectively reduce the shaft radiated noise. This paper addresses the feasibility and performance of polymers as an alternative lining material and technique. Through experimental investigations it has been shown that the polymer liners in reducing the driveshaft radiated noise are more effective than the cardboard liners.
Technical Paper
Carole Zannelli, Jim Quigley
When designing an exhaust pipe with a flexible exhaust decoupler, the design engineer may want to use the device to decouple motion of the powertrain from the exhaust system. Today, durability schedules and the limits of existing metallic components keep current market flexible decouplers' stiffnesses high. A new elastomer-based flex decoupler (LINKEO™) has the ability to keep stiffness low in order to minimize the transmission of engine motion to the exhaust system. This design improves the durability of the system, minimizes the required package space and improves NVH behaviour reducing accelerations transmitted to the vehicle architecture. As well as a soft flex joint, the LINKEO™ system also provides substantial thermal benefits as an insulated decoupler. It could favourably effect and improve after-treatment components efficiency, and in turn facilitate the use of exhaust systems to help increase fuel efficiency and reduce emission standards.
Technical Paper
Salah A. Elmoselhy, Badr S. Azzam, Sayed M. Metwalli, Hasan H. Dadoura
E-spring is a recent innovation in vehicle suspension springs. Its behavior and characteristics are investigated experimentally and verified numerically. The mechanical and frequency-response-based properties of E-springs are investigated experimentally at both of the structural and constitutional levels. Thermoplastic-based and thermoset-based fibrous composite structures of the E-springs are modified at micro-scale with various additives and consequently they are compared. The experimental results reveal that additives of micrometer-sized particles of mineral clay to an ISO-phthalic polyester resin of the composite E-spring can demonstrate distinguished characteristics. A hybrid approach of the inter-laminar shear stress and Tsai-Wu criteria is implemented in order to identify failure indices numerically at the utmost level of loading and verify the experimental results.
Technical Paper
Orlando Pisciolaro, Fernando Henrique Comparini
For a long time steel constructed fuel tanks used on trucks have presented internal corrosion failures, caused by the high level of suprum present in the Brazilian fuel, resulting in damages to the engine injection system. To solve this problem Autolatina - Trucks Division, after deep study involving several different types of materials and their characteristics (conforming, security, cost, weight, recycling, replacement, etc) decided to develop and invest in a polyethylene fuel tank of high volumetric capacity, for vehicles from 11 to 35 ton GCW, attending the Brazilian market necessities due to the large distances throughout this country, and certified considering the most critical international acceptance criteria. USING past experience acquired on development of plastic fuel tanks for passenger car (1988) and pick-ups (1991) Autolatina initiated by the definition of a partner with capacity in terms of facilities and knowhow regarding to the production of high capacity fuel tanks.
Technical Paper
George E. Totten
Thickened water-glycol hydraulic fluids, which are generally suitable for use at system pressures of < 34.5 MPa have been used by the fluid power industry for over forty years. The principle reason for the use of this class of fluids is their outstanding fire safety properties. However, when higher system pressures are encountered and fire safety is required, a polyol ester or phosphate ester based fluid is usually selected. Recently, a proprietary, thickened water-glycol based fluid has been developed for use at system pressures of up to 34.5 MPa. The fire safety and performance testing results of this fluid will be described in this paper.
Technical Paper
Robert G. Dubensky, Donald E. Jay, Ralph K. Salansky
The manufacturing analysis of molded plastic parts is described in detail. A PC based program is presented to analyze the material and capital cost. The program listing is included.
Technical Paper
Wallace C. Flower
Fluid mountings have become a common means of supplying damping in vibrating systems at a fairly specific frequency, amplitude and direction across the mount. They have been successfully applied in the automotive and truck industries as engine and cab suspension components. A less complex type of mounting/damper is described, drawing on the hysteresis/frictional properties of elastomers, to provide multiple axis damping properties porportional to input amplitude and that are frequency insensitive when compared to hydraulic mount designs. Although based on an old concept of multiple indenters sliding along an elastomeric layer, recent materials improvements have allowed a robust and versatile mounting/damper design to be developed and applied.
Technical Paper
Gregory L. Saunders, Jeff Pielemeier
A very promising use of fiber optics in trucks and buses is the utilization of a cab-mounted plastic optical fiber imaging device as a viewing system for the purpose of enhancing a vehicle's safe operation by minimizing blind spots. This device uses a coherent fiber-optic bundle and lenses to deliver live color images from outside the vehicle to an interior monitor allowing the driver to see the blind spot areas. The advantages over other technologies is that a plastic optical fiber system is a passive device that does not require: power, electronics, controls, or any moving parts.
Technical Paper
Thomas J. Mueller
Abstract Stereolithography has emerged as a means of quickly creating model and prototype parts without tooling and is becoming a tool designers can use to get products to market faster, reduce development costs, and improve product quality. Applications of stereolithography in the development of injection molded, investment cast, sand cast, and NC machined parts will be covered. In the last several years, a number of market factors have begun to significantly change the nature of product development. Continuing improvements in technology have resulted in significantly shorter product life cycles, requiring that new products get to market in a timely manner. Improved product quality has ceased to be a sales feature and has become instead a minimum requirement to compete in the marketplace. Selling prices have experienced downward pressure from both domestic and foreign competitors.
Technical Paper
Vinay Nilkanth, Alan Campbell
Both static and dynamic seals have been designed in the past, primarily on the basis of prior experience, part prototyping, and extensive experimental testing. But, with the advent of nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the seal design process is changing from “Black Magic” to a more fundamental and scientific approach. The overall design cycle is shortened and testing parameters are explored and evaluated utilizing FEA. Correlation between FEA predictions and test results lead to a more optimal interconnection of material and design for sealing applications. This paper discusses two specific applications of nonlinear FEA involving an O-Ring and a U-Cup seal design. The evaluation of appropriate material constants for two elastomeric compounds and their direct applications in FEA models are discussed here with an experimental correlation.
Technical Paper
Robert Bond, Ronald A. Jackowski, James P. Morley
The paper will review existing seals used in off-highway heavy equipment, both radial lip seal applications and face type seal applications in general use on track vehicles. With the trend towards improved reliability and durability, together with the never ending quest for quality and product improvements, the paper will discuss a number of seal development programs which will result in products that meet the new and projected future requirements for seals from the off-highway heavy equipment manufacturers.
Technical Paper
Dong-Wook Lee, Sung-Chul Lee, Hyo-Chol Sin
The 3D transient thermal elastoplastic finite element analysis for a butt joint GMAW has been performed. A plastic hardening recovery model has been introduced and examined to consider the solid-liquid and solid-solid phase changes. The effects of cut-off temperatures and plastic hardening models are also examined. The results of numerical analysis show good agreement with those of experiments in both temperature and residual stress fields. The present model shows remarkable improvement in computing time.
Technical Paper
M. E. Teachman, D. S. Scott, H-H. Rogner
Solid polymer fuel cell power systems are compared to spark ignition engine power systems for utility vehicle applications. Utility vehicles provide crew and payload transport and electrical power at work sites. The two power systems, both designed to satisfy an identical service, are compared on the basis of life cycle cost and fuel energy used. This approach attempts to minimize biases and allows technologies to be compared on a level playing field. Gasoline is the fuel for the spark ignition engines, while liquid hydrogen is used for the solid polymer fuel cell. The results show that spark ignition engine power systems have a lower life cycle cost than solid polymer fuel cell systems for technology available today. If the anticipated improvements to solid polymer fuel cell technologies are realized, by 2005, solid polymer fuel cell systems should provide the lowest life cycle cost for utility vehicles built to supply high work site power levels and short driving distances.
Technical Paper
Michel Costes, Jean-Bruno Monteil
The objective of this paper is to present a benchmarking tool focused on plastic parts and the material trends in European cars as analysed from this tool and from specific studies carried out by our company. The benchmarking tool has been built on the basis of the following methodology: recent new cars are purchased from dealers, all plastic parts weighing more than 2 grams are fully dismantled and examined, the parts are weighed and their materials are identified, photos of the systems and of the parts are taken, a nomenclature for parts and materials has been constructed and implemented, a specific software has been developed in order that parts can be sorted according to different criteria concerning parts and/or materials.
Technical Paper
Christophe Abrassart, François Jallon, Pascale Jean
Due to the upcoming European Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles, car manufacturers are currently setting new environmental standards to be applied by their suppliers. In order to face the challenge of developing cost competitive products that also meet environmental targets, French plastic component suppliers organized a consortium under the coordination of the French Federation of Plastics Converters for the Automotive Industry. This consotium, wich gather more than 2/3 of the plastic components suppliers for the french automotive industry, have initiated a three year program called EDIT (Eco Design Interactive Tool), that will lead to the development of a DfE tool addressing the issues of hazardous substances, eco-design and end-of-life management.
Technical Paper
G. E. Totten, R. J. Bishop
With increasing interest in more biodegradable and fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and with the availability of water-glycol hydraulic fluids suitable for high-pressure hydraulic pump operation, there is increasing interest in the conversion of mineral oil hydraulic systems to these alternative fluids. In this paper, the proper conversion procedures and troubleshooting of some common causes of hydraulic failures for the conversion of mineral oil hydraulic fluids to a water-glycol will be reviewed.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 289


  • Range:
  • Year: