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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1137
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2677
David Milligan, Ulf Engström, Ryu Goto
Powder Metallurgy (P/M) is an increasingly viable alternative for applications requiring high material performance. Continuous advances in alloy systems and processing techniques, combined with powder metallurgy's ability to produce complex net shapes, have made it possible for powder metallurgy to compete with other technologies in engine and transmission applications. This paper will focus on new alloy systems and advanced processing techniques. The properties achievable with currently available materials, such as chromium containing materials, combined with advanced processing techniques, such as warm compaction and surface densification, will be presented. Additionally, a case study where a warm compacted synchronizing latch cone in a heavy duty truck transmission was found to have equal or superior performance to precision forged and powder forged latch cones.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2679
Richard L. Wurst
This paper describes equipment developed to measure engine output torque. Several vehicle flexplates were modified and strain gauges were applied to measure torque. Special attention was paid to minimize or eliminate any changes in flexplate torsional stiffness. Torque signals are transmitted from the rotating flexplate to a stationary receiver via RF telemetry. The electronics on the rotating flexplate are powered using an induction power technique. This method was developed as a less invasive and less costly alternative to strain gauging a crankshaft.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2722
Klaus Steinel, Gerhard Tebbe
Comfort requirements have significantly increased in recent years, even in the commercial vehicle sector. Transmission noise, caused by higher engine excitation (due to emission changes), can be reduced with a new torsional damper in the clutch disc, with a special idle damper. Up until now, free play (sometimes referred to as backlash) in the clutch or transmission helped reduce idle rattle. In many cases this simple solution is no longer adequate. This paper explains dynamic behavior during idling and provides the background for understanding the causes of rattle noise.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2712
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2673
Jean-Claude Ossyra, Monika Ivantysynova
A new control concept was developed to minimize the power losses of a hydrostatic drive line for off-road vehicles. The drive line control concept is based on two separate closed loop controls, one for the hydrostatic transmission and another for the combustion engine. The command values for both control loops are calculated under consideration of the characteristic curves of the combustion engine and the losses within the hydrostatic transmission, using an on-line optimization procedure. This paper discusses the benefits of this control concept based on a comparison of typical realistic driving manoeuvres. Objective of the investigations for different output powers is the potential of fuel savings under different operating conditions. A hardware-in-the-loop test rig for the investigated hydrostatic propel drive is used for the experimental validation.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2674
Hiroki Matsuyama, Hirofumi Dodoro, Kiyoshi Ogino, Hiroyuki Ohshima, Kazutoshi Toda
To achieve high efficiency in rear axle differentials, the reduction in friction torque of the tapered roller bearings supporting the pinion was investigated. The effects of internal geometry, and oil flow within the bearing, on friction torque were clarified. The friction torque of a newly developed bearing optimized considering various performance characteristics was 70-75% lower than that of a conventional bearing. This is equivalent to a friction torque reduction of about 80% from that of a standard bearing. This is expected to have a remarkable effect on vehicle fuel efficiency.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2714
Katrin Strandemar, Boris Thorvald
This paper presents the ride diagram, a new way of evaluating and presenting ride comfort Furthermore, a simplified methodology is suggested to test and correlate objective measures of vehicle ride with subjective driver impressions. The ride diagram is calculated from measured cab accelerations resulting from increased levels of excitation. The basic idea is to graphically visualize how ride comfort changes with excitation. Test drivers are then asked to pair the set of tested vehicles with corresponding curves in the ride diagram. This step assures that the selected measure captures how drivers apprehend changes in vehicle ride. The suggested methodology is illustrated on trucks with different cab suspension settings. For a given test track increased vehicle speed is used to increase the excitation level. The trucks are also placed in a road simulator to enable easy variation of both excitation type and level.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2688
Dogan San, Ergun Guraslan, Omer Rustu Ergen, Korhan Kanar
FORD OTOSAN has developed a new heavy-duty diesel engine, ECOTORQ, for the new Ford Cargo Trucks whose production started in September 2003. The engine is 7.3 liters, 6-cylinder in-line, with common rail fuel injection system and overhead camshaft design having 4 valves per cylinder. The engine meets the Euro-III exhaust emissions limits, which were in effect when it was introduced, and the engine incorporates the potential to meet Euro-IV. Modern computation and simulation methods were used and extensive experimental studies were made during the design and development stages, which helped reach the targets of compactness, modular structure, low fuel consumption, low noise level and low emissions.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2724
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2687
Paul G. Evans, Kevin Johanson
This paper describes a radical new approach to variable flow oil pump design, which addresses some concerns of earlier designs and also conventional fixed displacement pumps. Detailed here are the testing and results to date, the potential areas for the future work, together with the reduction in parasitic power loss and potential fuel consumption savings. Also discussed are the benefits that can be realised by using this product as a tool for radically changing current automotive lubrication systems.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2649
Dave Hansen, John Washeleski
The ClearFast™ heated fluid washer system provides 700% more heated fluid than other systems. The ClearFast’s unique dual heating elements provides instant (<12 seconds) and stored heated fluid. The efficient heating configuration uses the minimum electrical energy from the vehicles charging system. The first heated chamber (instant) quickly clears frost during initial vehicle start-up. The second heated chamber (stored fluid) provides quick windshield cleaning for snow/ice, dirt and bug residue while driving. The dual heating element allows the system to maintain a reservoir of heated fluid, but maximizes heating efficiency when the reservoir is depleted. The system requires only three simple electrical connections to the vehicle and is plumbed in-line between the washer pump and spray nozzles. The adaptive control software monitors not only the operating parameters of the system, but the health of the vehicle charging system to ensure undue strain is not placed upon it.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2694
Stefano J. Cassara, David C. Anderson, J. Magnus Olofsson
The accurate prediction of commercial-vehicle ride and handling performance with computer simulation tools is dependent on the level of correlation between the computer model and experimental data. Correlating vehicle attributes to physical test data is often challenging due to the large number of degrees of freedom - and, correspondingly, the large number of tunable parameters - typically required to accurately model vehicle behavior. A high level of interaction between input parameters and vehicle attributes further complicates the task. As a result, this type of correlation is a multi-objective optimization exercise in which the judicious planning of supporting test activity is critical to achieving the right level of model accuracy with an acceptable amount of resource investment. This paper discusses the methodology implemented in the validation of a tractor-semitrailer ADAMS model for both ride and handling simulations and presents the results obtained.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2648
Christopher W. Ferrrone
Current regulations (49 CFR Part 396.11 and 396.13) mandate that a commercial driver inspect the vehicle at the conclusion of the duty shift. This inspection should note any defects which were noticed during use. This report must be in writing. Unfortunately, many drivers have chosen not to do the inspection, but falsely fill out the report form or simply do nothing at all. A 2002 study shows that as many as 23.7% of all commercial vehicles inspected (levels 1, 2, 5) were found to be defective1. A 2003 study showed that as many as 23.2% of large trucks and 10.3% of commercial buses were deemed out of service2. This poor behavior has a direct effect on safety. Specifically an increased number of accidents related to maintenance defects. In fact, as much as a 5% increase in fatal accidents can be attributed to mechanical defects3. A product has been developed which forces the driver to go to each of the legally prescribed areas of the inspection.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2697
Leonard Kuo-Liang Shih, Tien-Chou Hsu
In the past decades, the diesel engines are considered as the major power source, not only because of their high thermal efficiency, high torque output, and easy maintenance; but also due to the improved exhaust emissions reduction technology. In order to increase the thermal efficiency, the low heat rejection ceramic coating engine is one of the possible solutions for future engine manufacturing. Due to the thermal insulating effects of the ceramic material (low thermal conductivity), the cylinder charge and engine components' temperatures are substantially increased. However, the thermal impact problem and the possible high friction characteristics of the new coating material can be deadly to the engine's lifetime. Various non-ceramic and ceramic materials are tested in this research to decide their thermal insulating effects on the engine performance and their downside on the friction and thermal impact problems.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2647
Douglas A. Swift, Carl Talaski
A sensor system was developed to measure loads in truck wheels. The system has the unique capability to measure each individual wheel in a dual set. This paper covers the development and testing of the system. Sample data from road tests is also presented.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2709
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2668
Hannes Hick, Klaus Denkmayr, Michael Aschaber
The AVL Load Matrix is a systematic approach to optimize durability and reliability test programs. It is based on component-specific test acceleration factors and uses damage models as well as statistics. Using the Load Matrix approach helps to achieve complete test programs while avoiding unrealistic over-testing. The paper describes the Load Matrix concept and structure as well as the process of setting up the Load Matrix for a system or component. Examples are provided on damage models, and the procedure to estimate the acceleration factors is discussed.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2739
Saveliy M. Gugel
This article describes the experience of Sanova-Polytech, Inc. (SPI) in the creation, testing, and usage of new Liquid Induction Thermochemical Processes (LINTERPROCESS™) and Liquid Induction Heat Treatment (LINHEAT™) technologies, and in the designing, manufacturing, and employment of new automatic computerized production equipment, which can be of significant advantage to manufacturers of commercial vehicles. Heat treatment and thermochemical processing of various metals play an important role in the global effort to produce stronger, lighter, and more durable machine parts at lower costs. They are widely used in the manufacturing of cars and buses, and farm, construction, industrial, and other machinery.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0100
J. Sai Prasad, N. Chollangi Damodar, T. Sudhakara Naidu
The acceptable noise and vibration performance is one of the most important requirements in a passenger bus as it is intended for widest spectrum of passengers covering all age groups. Gear rattle, being one of the critical factors for NVH and durability, plays a vital role in passenger comfort inside vehicle. The phenomenon of gear rattle happens due to irregularity in engine torque, causing impacts between the teeth of unloaded gear pairs of a gearbox which produce vibrations giving rise to this unacceptable acoustic response. In depth assessment of the dynamic behavior of systems and related components required to eliminate gear rattle. During normal running conditions, abnormal in-cab noise was perceived in a bus. Initial subjective evaluation revealed that the intensity was high during acceleration and deceleration. Objective measurements and analysis of the in-cab noise and vibration measurements had indicated that the noise is mainly due to gear rattling.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0133
Arvind R, Jayagopal S, Suryanarayanan V, Porpatham E, Senthil Kumar A
Brazil has implemented a new emission regulation for Light commercial vehicles named PROCONVE L6. This regulation follows Environmental Protection Act (EPA) driving cycle; FTP75. This cycle simulates an urban route of 12.07 km with frequent stops. The maximum speed is 91.2 km/h and the average speed is 31.5 km/h. The regulation has proposed that the gear shift pattern of the manual transmission vehicle can be varied according to the manufacturer's specification. This has lead to the strategy of optimizing gear shift pattern without compromising diesel combustion and engine-out emission with optimized exhaust-gas treatment-devices. The emission is demonstrated to Brazilan Authorities with good margins.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0145
S. Narayanan, S. Mithun, T. Sahul Hameed
A lift axle suspension system in a heavy commercial vehicle enables raising and lowering of the lift axle depending on the vehicle load condition. The states (raising and lowering) of the axle will be in logical sequence which depends on the vehicle load, ignition state, gear state and traction requirement. To arrive this complicate logic, the Lift Axle Control valve is designed. This LACV is an intricate assembly of pneumatic 3/2 valve, 5/2 valve, relay valve and solenoid valves. To predict the performance of this valve under various vehicle conditions, the entire valve is modeled in one of the commercially available multi-domain physical modeling software employing bond graph technique and lumped system and the performance is predicted. This paper deals with the modeling of LACV, simulation of misbehavior of LACV under certain condition, and the design analysis carried out to arrive design solution.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0148
Vyankatesh Madane, Akshay Baviskar, Anil Gaikwad, S. S. Sane
Light commercial vehicles are extension of three wheelers due to their need for simplicity and load carrying capacity. Smaller vehicle being simpler, have engine mounted at the rear. This give an added advantage in term of simple and light weight design and thus cost effective and have low engine noise and vibration in cabin. In many of the light commercial vehicles, which have been downsized from the bigger vehicles like trucks, have the aggregates designs similar to those of trucks like the drive line extending from the mid engine to rear axle having integral differential. The axle carries the leaf springs for giving robust look as well the load carrying capacity. In the new rear suspension design of the light commercial vehicle, advantage of the mid position engine concept and rear engine concept have been captured. This paper is discusses the design philosophy and the packaging of the same along with criteria for design.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0256
Taboada Gonzalo
This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic. In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The next steps for the project are: Search specific data (manufacturers, companies, dealers) on the different types of failures and their respective analysis, in order to model and interpret correctly my analysis and simulation. Take a drive current park representative to mount the rear axle and are within one standard warranty period for a truck plant (1 to 2 years or 100,000 km. 200,000 km. respectively). Analyze data obtained in point 2 (number of faults, fractures) to have a database, with respect to reliability, unreliability and hazard rate.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0264
Paola S Sant'Anna
Manual transmissions are used in a wide range of automotive applications such as commercial vehicles like trucks, buses and pick-ups as well on passenger car market. On manual transmissions is very common to use helical gears to transmit torque. Some of typical failure modes of these gears are tooth breakage, pitting and scoring. The objective of this paper is to present a case study of helical gear scoring issue on manual transmission and the design changes implemented in order to solve it. This material also shows the ultimate consequence of scoring problem on gear life and the co-relation of the part heat treatment case depth specification on this failure mode.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0182
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0336
Ana Cristina Soares, Lauro Catapano, Rogério Dias
Simulations tools like AVL Cruise and Vehicle Dynamics where used to carry on a comparative study between two trucks equipped with automated manual transmissions in two configurations: the original with 12 gears, and a proposal with 16 gears. The original configuration is world-wide used and in this way, the present study was fundamental to decide whether choosing the new proposal would bring the Brazilian option any advantages. In order to evaluate the whole vehicle behavior fuel consumption evaluation and vehicle performance were analyzed. From the present study, it was showed that the 16 gears transmission was the best alternative for the Brazilian application.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0467
Giovanni Giordani, Celso Fratta
In the light commercial vehicles and other wheeled vehicles, an open differential is a device that allows each driven wheel to rotate in different speeds during a curve or in limited grip conditions. On the other hand, when one of the wheels loses the grip the differential will direct all the torque available to the wheel that is spinning making the vehicle get stuck. In certain applications, such as electrical power line maintenance in rural areas requires a larger capacity drive vehicles due to low friction terrain. To comply with this application requirement was developed the locking differential speed sensitive that pulls both wheels at the same time offering full locking axle and increasing the traction capacity of the vehicle. The system automatically unlocks the wheel with higher speed when the speed is different between them as happened in a curve.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0720
Lauren L. Thompson, Craig Jensen
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2272
Wolfgang Schweiger, Werner Schoefmann, Andrea Vacca
This paper presents a simulation model for the analysis of internal gear ring pumps. The model follows a multi domain simulation approach comprising sub-models for parametric geometry generation, fluid dynamic simulation, numerical calculation of characteristic geometry data and CAD/FEM integration. The sub-models are interacting in different domains and relevant design and simulation parameters are accessible in a central, easy to handle graphical user interface. The potentials of the described tool are represented by simulation results for both steady state and transient pump operating conditions and by their correlation with measured data. Although the presented approach is suitable to all applications of gear ring pumps, a particular focus is given to hydraulic actuation systems used in automotive drivetrain applications.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2238
Shannon K. Sweeney
This work provides a theoretical analysis of the natural and forced lateral vibration in a driveline having a flexible coupling and universal joints. The analysis is specific to the front driveline common in many off-highway vehicles which usually consists of a flexible coupling at the engine flywheel, the driveshaft, and one or two universal joints. A torsionally flexible coupling is often needed in a front driveline to suppress torsional vibration. The problem is that most torsionally flexible couplings are also inherently flexible in their radial and cocking directions. These additional directions of flexibility, compounded by the presence of universal joints, can result in unexpectedly low lateral natural frequencies of the driveline. With a few axial dimensions, mass properties of the driveline, and stiffness properties of the flexible coupling, this work provides simple, closed-form calculations for the lowest lateral natural frequencies.
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