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Viewing 1 to 30 of 332
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0174
Lisa Larsson, Torbjörn Wiklund, Lennart Löfdahl
The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2433
Alberto Boretti
The paper presents a novel concept of very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The combustion system permits mixed diesel/gasoline-like operation changing the load by quantity of fuel injected and modulating the premixed and diffusion combustion phases for high fuel energy transfer to piston work. A waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is then recovering the intercooler and engine coolant energy plus the exhaust energy. The WHRS uses a power turbine on the exhaust and a steam turbine feed by a single loop turbo-steamer. The WHRS is the enabler of much faster warm up of the engine and further improvements of the top fuel conversion efficiency to above 50% for the specific case with reduced fuel efficiency penalties changing the load or the speed.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2417
Lisa Henriksson, Erik Dahl, Peter Gullberg, Lennart Lofdahl
This paper presents results and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method for simulation of a detailed louvered fin for a multi-louvered compact heat-exchanger. The airflow was angled at 90°, +30° and −30° relative to the heat-exchanger to evaluate changes in static pressure drop and airflow characteristics. The investigation was based on three heat-exchangers with thicknesses of 52mm and two of 19mm. One period of a detailed louvered fin was simulated for two airflows for each heat-exchanger. The pressure drop data was thereafter compared to experimental data from a full-size heat-exchanger. From the pressure drop and the airflow characteristic results recommendations were made that those kinds of simulations could be defined as steady state, and with the kω-SST turbulence model. For the same heat-exchanger angle the airflow within the core was similar, with a turbulent characteristic behind it.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0044
Ashok Patidar, Umashanker Gupta, Nitin Marathe
Assessment of cooling performance in the design stage of vehicle allows a reduction in the number of needed prototypes and reduces the overall design cycle time. Frontend cooling and thermal management play an essential role in the early stages of commercial vehicle design. Sufficient airflow needs to be available for adequate cooling of the under-hood components. The amount of air mass flow depends on the under-hood geometry details, positioning and size of the grilles, fan operation and the positioning of the other components. Thermal performance depends on the selection of heat exchanger. This paper describes the effects of several design actions on engine cooling performance of a commercial vehicle with the help of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation tool Fluent™. Front of vehicle design is captured in detailed FE model, considering front bumper, grille, cabin, cargo and surrounding under-hood and underbody components.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2285
Lisa Larsson, Lennart Löfdahl, Erik Dahl, Torbjörn Wiklund
This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2233
Anandan Sivakumar, Raghvendra Gopal
Diesel engine fuel hose return line is considered as a low pressure line and consists of two layers. The inner layer is used to carry the excess fuel, thereby hose material shall have resistance to fuel and its residues. The outer layer is used to protect inner layer from heat, ozone and oil spillage, thereby outer cover material shall have resistance against the heat, ozone and engine oil. Currently NBR PVC, NBR and FKM materials have been used as inner layer materials in diesel engine fuel hose outer cover application, according to service temperature. Halogen contained CSM material has been used for outer cover application and the production of CSM material was withdrawn by one of the major manufacturer recently. Current global challenge is to use environment friendly material in vehicle components to make hazardous free environment. To replace CSM material, which contains Halogen, the available options are CPE, CR, HNBR and AEM materials.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2182
Peter Gullberg, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Nilsson
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2184
Asma Al Tamimi, Mohammad Salah, Ahmad Al-Jarrah PhD
Advanced vehicular thermal management system can improve engine performance, minimize fuel consumption, and reduce emissions by harmoniously operating computer-controlled servomotor components. In this paper, a neural network-based optimal control strategy is proposed to regulate the engine temperature through the advanced cooling system. The proposed optimization algorithm introduces a cost function of a predefined temperature error and a control input that is developed to minimize the introduced cost function. The main objective of the proposed optimal control design is to minimize the temperature error and power consumption of the system actuators. The development of the optimal controller utilizes a multi-layer neural network to approximate the proposed cost function. A representative numerical simulation is introduced in this paper to demonstrate the performance of the developed optimal controller.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2183
Meisam Mehravaran, Giles Brereton
EGR coolers are used in combustion engines to reduce NOx emissions. However, heat transfer in these coolers also results in thermophoresis-temperature-gradient driven motion of suspended particles towards cooler regions-which leads to significant soot deposition. A simple one-dimensional model is proposed to predict the deposition velocity and soot layer thickness that compares reasonably well with experimental data. The behavior of soot deposits on cooled surfaces is complex, with the thickness of the soot layer stabilizes after around 100 hours, reaching a uniform, thickness over the entire heat-exchanger surface. An analysis of this trend and a tentative mechanism to explain this type of behavior is given, based on experimental observations.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2187
Jilin Lei, Lizhong Shen, Yuhua Bi, Jianming Chen
In order to fulfill the technical requirements of a high-efficiency low-emissions off-road horizontal diesel engine, a unique design is proposed and optimized in this paper for the cooling water jacket structure with a forced-cooling closed-loop cooling system. The cooling water flow rate, temperature, and pressure at the inlet and several other critical locations of the cooling water jacket were measured and analyzed at different engine operating conditions for the water jacket designs. A numerical simulation model of the coolant flow and the cooling system was built and used to analyze the thermal/fluid characteristics of the coolant flow in the water jacket. The impact of different structural and packaging design parameters on coolant flow and heat transfer was investigated. The design deficiency of an original (earlier) design of the water jacket was pointed out and an improved design was proposed.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2185
Govindaraj D
The system level cooling simulation tools are used to reduce the number of experimental trials performed. Effectiveness of the simulation tools is largely dependent on the input given to the simulation program, these inputs are mainly the performance characteristics of the cooling system components that includes radiator, fan etc., of which the radiator characteristics are crucial and they decide the effectiveness of a simulation tool which in turn helps in reducing the number of field trials performed for engine cooling. Radiator characteristics generated thru different methods by different suppliers are frequently inconsistent. These different characteristics have to be compared on the same level for effective selection of radiators. As a vehicle manufacturer, this demands the common methodology to be created to overcome the inconsistencies in the process and thereby utilize the simulation tools effectively.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2817
Subrata Roy, Phillip Cho, Fred Périé
A comprehensive finite element methodology is developed to predict the compressible flow performance of a non-symmetric 7-blade axial flow fan, and to quantify the source strength and sound pressure levels at any location in the system. The acoustic and flow performances of the fan are predicted simultaneously using a computational aero-acoustic technique combining transient flow analysis and noise propagation. The calculated sound power levels compare favorably with the measured sound power data per AMCA 300-96 code.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0295
Michael C. H. Lee, Sangpil Yoon1, Jiun-Shyan Chen2
A robust nonlinear meshfree computer-aided-engineering (CAE) analysis algorithm based on the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) is employed for simulating the installation and sealing performance of a truck-based radiator hose/fitting/clamp system assembly. The formulation of the present nonlinear meshfree CAE simulation comprises the geometric and material nonlinearities, a Lagrangian material based reproducing kernel shape function, a pressure projection method for nearly incompressible rubber hose material, and a direct transformation method for frictional contact boundary conditions. This simulation, which defines a radiator hose/fitting operating process series as insertion, clamping, pressurization and pull-off, provides a parametric investigation on the effect of clamping depth, clamping width, clamping location, and fluid pressure load on the hose-fitting contact seal width, contact pressure distribution, and the maximum pull-off force properties.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3721
Jochen Eitel, Gerald T. Woerner, Scott Horoho, Oliver Mamber
The Aluminum radiator has a number of features that make it very attractive for vehicle applications in general. Superior durability and reliability in conjunction with its excellent specific values for costs, performance and weight warrant a favorable solution for Heavy Duty Trucks. Behr has been supplying Aluminum radiators for trucks in Europe for over 10 years and in North America for 4 years. This paper examines the results based on this long-term experience. It reviews the field experience compared to Copper/Brass radiators, examines design and mounting features as well as the manufacturing processes. Durability, external and internal corrosion resistance are emphasized as essential characteristics. A special focus is the thermodynamics of Aluminum radiators. The paper reviews methods to simulate the thermodynamic behavior of radiators and the progress in the specific performance, based on the development of improved radiator core matrices.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3720
Lyle Howard
A new method of cleaning cooling systems has been developed that uses a filter with a chelating alkaline cleaner that is released into the cooling system. The cleaner filter is installed in place of the inhibitor filter on heavy-duty engines and left in place for one service cycle. After the service cycle, the cleaner filter is removed, the coolant tested, and the inhibitor filter is reinstalled. This represents a major change in the method traditionally used for cooling system cleaning.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1043
Gerold Schultheiss, Simon Edwards, Matthias Banzhaf, Thomas Mersch
After many years of successful Visco fan drive applications, Behr has now transferred the Visco technology to the coolant pump drive. The continuously variable Visco drive allows the coolant pump to deliver the optimum flow dependent upon the requirements, therefore reducing the drive power to the minimum possible. Up to now coolant pumps, world wide, have almost always been powered by direct, uncontrolled drives. Consequently, the delivery and the power consumption have been directly related to the engine speed, which, in many conditions, results in an unnecessarily high flow rate. The potential to reduce the flow rate is inherent within the Visco coolant pump. As a concept with continuous control of the impeller speed it has been found to be more fuel efficient than incremental impeller speed control or concepts which only restrict or divert the flow rate. The torque transmission via the shear forces of a silicone oil results in a robust and wear-free drive unit.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0534
Flavio Arcanjo Santana, Udo Ricardo Wildmann, Marcos Antonio Argentino, Daniel Muller Spinelli
It is presented in this study a methodology based on numerical simulation by means of the computational fluid dynamics for the analysis of air flow inside the engine tunnel for commercial vehicles, aiming primarily at the performance of the cooling system. The simulations have been carried out with the software Ansys CFX v12.1. Starting from the geometries of the water and engine charge air radiators, a 3D finite volume model is automatically generated for this system by means of a macro written with Excel, taking into account the dimensions, forms and quantity of tubes, as well as the fluid inside them, in order to represent the heat exchanges which occur on the water and air radiators.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1947
Jose J. Garcia
New emission regulations require innovation in the engine intake air loop. To satisfy these requirements, new architectures of cooling systems are in the process of development. These systems use valves to regulate the exhaust gas pressure and distribution in the intake cooling loop and ultimately combustion chambers. Since lower pressure is involved in the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Water Charge Air Cooler (WCAC) or Air Charge Air Cooler (ACAC), the condensation of exhaust gas takes place and very acidic solutions are generated. In the absence of such new architecture of cooling system in service and in order to evaluate the corrosion risk that the acidic solutions from exhaust gases condensate could create in the EGR system, several tests have been proposed as representative for simulation of service conditions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0146
Dhanashri Ravikiran Desai, Suhas Suryawanshi, Bhalchandra Deshmukh
Abstract Developing countries like India is now highly relying on the alternate source of power generation to have uninterrupted power supply for their economic development. Diesel Power generator is one of the solutions in meeting the uninterrupted power requirement. In India, Power generating sets are having stringent emission norms and also the present government policies of removing subsides from Diesel fuel adding the additional burden on operating cost. As such researcher has a tough task to design the product considering the stringent requirement of legislation and performance. The main focus of this research work is to address performance necessities and the noise legislation. The detail methodology has been laid down to analyze and optimize performance and noise of Diesel Generator with respect to cooling system. Cooling fan with drive arrangement has been selected to study the canopied Diesel Generator performance and overall noise emission.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0037
Kartik Kulkarni, Ayush Sood
The heat losses through exhaust gases and the engine coolant contribute significantly towards reduction in thermal efficiency of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine. This largely impacts the fuel economy and power output. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) has proven to be an effective method of overcoming these challenges. A Rankine cycle is a reverse refrigeration cycle that circulates a working fluid through the four basic components namely the pump, evaporator, turbine and condenser. It is a popular WHR approach in automotive applications with varying levels of success in the past. As the heat transfer capability in organic working fluids is greater than the conventionally used inorganic fluids, the former is used to capture maximum waste heat from low grade heat sources such as the automobile engine. A dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is proposed for a heavy duty IC Engine with working fluids R245fa and R236fa for the High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) loops respectively.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0192
Sourabh Shrivastava, Padmesh Mandloi
Abstract CFD simulations of an engine cooling system needs to resolve two aspects of the system; in-cylinder combustion and engine cooling. Underlying physics of an in-cylinder combustion process and heat transfer through engine cooling system requires very different time scales for resolution. This puts a limitation on practicality of solving the two problems simultaneously for any industrial case. Instead of solving the problem simultaneously, solution for an engine cooling system operating at a constant load can be derived using the coupled approach. This involves running two different CFD simulations: a transient in-cylinder simulation to model combustion in the engine, and a steady state CHT simulation using engine cooling system for heat transfer. These simulations are thermally coupled through boundary conditions and are performed in cyclic manner one after the other. Simulations are continued till the change in temperature with coupled cycles becomes insignificant.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2882
Abhishek Shah, R. R. Karthick, V Aravindan, Sanjay Phegade, Sappani Murugesh
Abstract This paper focuses on optimizing the electrical energy consumption of vehicle. By introduction three concepts. 1) Innovative speed control logic for radiator fan motor according to vehicle speed and air flow through radiator. 2) Introducing regeneration of energy from radiator fan motor while free running and deceleration of vehicle. 3) Using BLDC motors (generation mode and motoring mode) in radiator and blower motors. About 50 % of total electrical energy consumption of vehicle is contributed by radiator fan motor and blower motor (proven data by performing alternator charge balance test during NEDC cycle). By introducing above three concepts, 50 % electrical energy consumption can be reduced to 25 - 30 %, which gives more than 3.5 % fuel economy improvement and more than 10 gmCO2 reduction per kilometer. Further reduction in conducted emission at motor level, soft starting for radiator fan and blower motor and elimination of high inrush current.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2902
Songzhi Yang, Dong Wang, Yan Dang, Liguang Li
Abstract As the commercial vehicle increases staggeringly in China, environmental pollution and excessively fuel consumption can't be neglected anymore. Vehicle thermal management has been adopted by many vehicle manufactures as an ideal alternative to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission by its cost-efficient and effective merit. In addition, the components in heavy duty commercial vehicle engine hood may suffer overheat harm. Hence investigating the thermal characteristics in engine hood can be an effective way to identify and dismiss the potential overheat harm. In terms of this, the paper has adopted CFD simulation method to obtain the comprehensive thermal flow field characteristics of engine hood in a heavy commercial vehicle. Then by analyzing the thermal flow field in engine hood, concerning optimization strategies were put forward to improve the thermal environment.
2015-11-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9075
Stefan Heitzig, Alexander Weinebeck, Hubertus Murrenhoff
In this paper compatibility studies of biofuel candidates and similar liquids with the elastomeric materials nitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomer are presented. The results gained with defined reference elastomers are compared to results gained with the materials used in the technical application. For this purpose test specimens are prepared from fuel hoses and the material used for shaft seals of fuel pumps. The experimental results are subsequently used to evaluate prediction approaches based on the HSP- and QSPR-method. Finally a comparison of these two approaches is given.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8073
Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Xingshi Wang, Fengchao Zhang, Xiaodan Zhang, Liu Yagui, Weiqing Sun, Yan Wang, Wei Cheng, Mingjin Lin
Abstract Various 1D simulation tools (KULI & LMS Amesim) and 3D simulation tools (ANSYS FLUENT®) can be used to size and evaluate truck cooling system design. In this paper, ANSYS FLUENT is used to analyze and validate the design of medium duty truck cooling systems. LMS Amesim is used to verify the quality of heat exchanger input data. This paper discusses design and simulation of parent and derivative trucks. As a first step, the parent truck was modeled in FLUENT (using standard' k - ε model) with detailed fan and underhood geometry. The fan is modeled using Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) method. Detailed geometry of heat exchangers is skipped. The heat exchangers are represented by regular shape cell zones with porous medium and dual cell heat exchanger models to account for their contributions to the entire system in both flow and temperature distribution.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8074
Gaurav Kumar, Pavan Sindgikar, Narayan Jadhav, Sandip Gaidhane, Sarfaraj Shaikh
Abstract With the advent of most advanced diesel engines the demand for upgraded engine cooling modules capable of handling more heat rejection in a smaller space is surging. Moreover, the variance in the operating conditions, i.e., the simultaneous cooling demands for peak load as well as partial load in different ambient conditions of the vehicle operation, broadens the scope of development of a cooling system. Also, the cooling system needs to be configured judiciously so as to cater effective cooling at peak loads and efficient cooling at partial loads. This research paper deals with a cooling system developed using modularity approach in order to have a control over tuning of subsystems for varying operating conditions and also to achieve the performance targets with a compact design adhering to packaging constraints. Kuli simulation of different designed configurations were carried out for identification of best concept.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8117
Xingyu Zhang, Bo Yang, Can Wang, Zhilei Li, Yongqiang Ge, Zhongjie Yang, Xue Liu
Abstract The cooling system with two fans is generally driven by electrical motors in the small cars. Compared with the traditional cars, heavy duty trucks have the larger heat dissipation power of cooling system. The motors power consumption of dual fans will be larger and the two electrical motors will occupy a large space in the engine cabin. Hydrostatic drive refers to the cooling fan is driven by hydraulic motor, but it has the low transmission efficiency. According to the engine water temperature value and the actual working status of the hydraulic system, the actual speed of cooling fan can be controlled by the computer, which guarantees the normal working water temperature of the engine. Hydrostatic drive is generally applied to heavy vehicles, engineering machinery and excavators as driving source of cooling fan which contains the advantages of large output power, overload protection, continuous speed regulation and flexible space arrangements.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0370
André Baroni Selim, Bruno Aquino de Lyra
Abstract This work aims to demonstrate a cooling package selection for an agricultural machine equipped with Diesel engine considering different radiators area / material and fan blade angles, pursuing the best match of performance, cost and weight. It was investigated two types of radiators made from copper-brass and aluminum, two types of charge air cooler varying the dimensions and four types of fans varying the blade angle. The selection method chosen was the experimental testing. The tests were performed according to the standard SAE and internal procedures at MWM Motores Diesel laboratories located at São Paulo / Brazil. When compared with cooper-brass, the aluminum radiator presents worse heat exchange performance what makes its size increase in order to compensate the gap. Even with bigger size, the aluminum radiator keeps lighter and cheaper.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0402
Ivar José de Souza Filho, Adriano de Oliveira Francisco, Bruno Scarano Paterlini, Daniel Luna Ferreira da Silva, Marcello Cervini Procida Veissid, Paschoal Federico Neto, Ricardo Moreira Vaz
Abstract In order to achieve the best automotive vehicles, companies seek for innovation and new technologies to improve their vehicles. Lately the embedded electronic has been used to add intelligence to a purely mechanical systems. The reduction of fuel consumption, one of the biggest concerns of automotive engineering, for the last couple of years, depends on many factors. Some those factors are engine type, fuel quality, vehicle load, gearshift pattern, vehicle usage, driver behavior and the cooling system technology. The fan applied in cooling system uses part of engine power to run, influencing the fuel consumption and contributing to the global noise level of vehicle, being directly associated with passenger’s comfortable. One alternative in study is the use of a set of electric fans that can be triggered independently, in order to increase the heat exchange in specific places of radiator, while reducing the noise and run time.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2861
Vinod Dangmali, Prof.P. R. Dhamangaonkar, Anil Atnurkar
The present paper aims to present the CFD simulation of the under hood flow for Forklift Truck of 12 ton capacity. The purpose of the forklift truck is to handle the containers on marine ports. The speed of forklift truck is limited to 22km/hr. The engine selected is of 133HP @ 2300rpm. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the air flow assessment in the under hood compartment and to determine velocity distribution in the under hood region that will affect the cooling system performance. As Radiator, Charge Air cooler and Fan are tested at free inlet and free outlet (FIFO) conditions at supplier end these components behaves differently when assembled in vehicles. This CFD simulations will help to determine the effect on cooling performance in assembled conditions. Also recirculation zone in under hood compartment is identified which has adverse effect on engine cooling performance like reduction in cooling flow rate.
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