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Viewing 1 to 30 of 265
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2022
Mehrzad Kaiadi, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0036
Kazunari Nakahara, Katsutoshi Ohta
A cylindrical hydraulic engine mount with simple construction has been developed which has a sub chamber formed without diaphragm by utilizing air compressibility. An analysis model of the mount is presented to predict the non-linear dynamic characteristics in consideration of the effect of excitation amplitude on the dynamic stiffness and loss factor. The calculated dynamic characteristics are in good agreement with experimental results. By using the analysis model, the effect of the volume and pressure of air on the dynamic characteristics is clarified. On-vehicle test on a chassis dynamometer shows that the newly developed hydraulic engine mount has same effect on ride comfort improvement as a conventional hydraulic mount.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1990
Jonathan Vasu, Alok Kanti Deb, Siddhartha Mukhopadhyay, Kallappa Pattada
Mean Value Engine Models (MVEM) represent average behaviour of an engine over one or more thermodynamic cycles and have been designed for automotive control and diagnosis applications. However, most MVEMs are limited to the description of the dynamics of few engine sub-systems. The diagnostic capabilities of a vehicular engine health management (VEHM) system that uses such MVEMs are limited. In this paper, the process of deriving an MVEM for an entire engine system from an instantaneous within-cycle crank-angle model (WCCM) is described. This is expected to be more beneficial for fault diagnosis in VEHMs since such MVEMs in the context of state observers, can be used to detect a broader range of faults and also generate a larger number of fault signatures for better fault detection and isolation (FDI). Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based estimators are developed that use this MVEM for state estimation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2847
Adam Kouba, Jiri Navratil, Bohumil Hnilicka, Patrick C. Niven
Abstract Internal combustion engines continue to grow more complex every day out of necessity. Legislation and increasing customer demand means that advanced technologies like variable valve actuation (VVA), multi-path exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), advanced boosting, and aftertreatment systems continue to drive ever-expanding requirements for engine control to improve performance, fuel economy, and reduce emissions. Therefore, controller development and implementation are becoming more costly, both in terms of time and the monetary investment in engine hardware. To help reduce these costs, a sophisticated tool chain has been created which allows a real-time, physical, crank-angle resolved one-dimensional (1D) engine model to be implemented on a rapid prototyping engine control unit (ECU) which is then used in the control strategy of a running engine. Model-based controllers have been developed and validated to perform as well as or better than controllers using traditional sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1269
Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract The present study was carried to explore the potential suitability of biodiesel as an extender of Kerosene in an off road dual fuel (gasoline start, kerosene run) generator set and results were compared with kerosene base line data. The biodiesel was blended with kerosene in two different proportions; 2.5% and 5% by volume. Physico-chemical properties of blends were also found to be comparable with kerosene. Engine tests were performed on three test fuels namely K100 (Kerosene 100%), KB 2.5 (Kerosene 97.5% + Biodiesel 2.5%) and KB5 (Kerosene 95% + Biodiesel 5%). It was found that brake thermal efficiency [BTE] increases up to 3.9% while brake specific energy consumption [BSEC] decreases up to 2.2% with increasing 5% volume fraction of biodiesel in kerosene. The exhaust temperature for blends was lower than kerosene. The test engine emitted reduced Carbon monoxide [CO] emission was 7.4 % less than using neat kerosene as compared to kerosene-biodiesel blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0869
Job Immanuel Encarnacion, Edwin Quiros
Abstract The Philippine Biofuels Act of 2006 (RA 9367) requires commercial diesel fuel to be mixed with Coconut Methyl Ester (CME) in accordance with the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 (RA 8749). As of 2015, the blend percentage is at 2% CME v/v, contrary to the scheduled 5% as stipulated in the biofuels act. Researches done locally showing the performance and emissions of CME-fueled engines are few and thus the basis for the CME percentage increase is still questionable and hampers the drive for the further implementation of the policy. The study investigates the influence of varying percentages of CME blends (2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% v/v) to the performance and emissions of a heavy-duty turbocharged common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. The engine is run at steady state at partial load (50Nm and 250 Nm) and at near full load (500Nm). Each run is set at three pedal positions, α (25%, 50% and 60%), controlled directly from the engine control unit.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2834
Nitin Kumar, Agam Saroop, Abhinav Kuchhal, Vikram Chauhan, Shailender Sharma
With steep increase in fuel prices, there is a strong need for development of better engines with improved performance and emissions. This needs a dedicated effort on engine hardware optimization for lower CO2 levels. Exhaust muffler design is trade-off between noise, backpressure and size/weight. With increase in exhaust muffler volume and simplification of structure there is a corresponding drop observed in exhaust pressures. Study of such a phenomenon would give an insight to benefits achieved based on changes in muffler volumes/structure. This in a way leads to engine improvement. In this paper it has been shown how exhaust muffler characteristics (size and internal construction) impacts engine performance.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4274
G. Sakthinathan, K. Jeyachandran
In order to find effective solutions to the problem of air pollution due to combustion processes, attention is paid to the research projects to find alternative sources of energy to replace the rapidly depleting petroleum resources. This paper discusses the experimental studies carried out in a multi-cylinder four stroke gasoline engine using hydrogen as the sole fuel. Apart from this, a new approach on the storage apparatus has also been attempted. The main problem in the gaseous hydrogen storage has been taken care with a new system which is comprised of a capsule that contains nanomaterials in it. Hydrogen is stored in that capsule and it is directly fitted with the engine. This capsule would replace the current fuel storage cylinders. It occupies less size and it also takes care of the safety issues. The performance and emissions characteristics of the hydrogen-fueled engine at constant speed compared with that of gasoline operation has been presented.
2009-09-13
Technical Paper
2009-24-0096
L.De Simio, M.Gambino, S.Iannaccone
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a suitable strategy to optimize heavy duty natural gas (NG) engines. EGR could be utilized to have high specific power, with low thermal stress, but also to increase engine efficiency. NG fuelling permits a large flexibility in EGR system design, due to very clean engine exhaust. In this paper, three types of EGR routes have been studied. The best set up, which can introduce the highest EGR quantities, to provide the best reduction of the thermal load at rated power, was found to be a cooled low pressure EGR route. However high low pressure route (HLPR) could give the possibility to increase engine efficiency by modulating the power output in the widest un-throttled range operation.
1992-10-01
Technical Paper
922387
William A. Rimkus, Robert P. Larsen, Michael G. Zammit, James G. Davies, Gregory S. Salmon, Robert I. Bruetsch
The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources - Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921665
Patrick D. Nagle
: A technique is developed for differentiating valve train lift data producing velocity and acceleration curves. The technique is shown to work with valve train lift data collected in a typical lab environment.
1992-09-01
Technical Paper
921669
Sarim N. Al-Zubaidy
The paper describes a general method, based on a simplified flow model, for the analysis of compressible, unseparated and non-uniform flows in diffusing ducts of arbitrary geometry and inlet flow conditions. The method has been tested against available detailed experimental data of conical and straight rectangular diffusers, and was able to predict (with an acceptable degree of accuracy) the likely performance of diffusing flows at various values of inlet Mach numbers.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941734
Xiaogang Yao, Changqi Cheng
This paper describes a gas-dynamic model for the basic elements of exhaust mufflers in a spark ignition (SI) engine. Attention has been paid in particular to the modelling of the concentric tube resonator with a perforated pipe inside, since this element has been a problem for gas dynamic modelling (GDM) of mufflers. The model was coupled with a previously developed engine simulation code, ENGWA-1, for both acoustic and gas dynamic performance analysis of mufflers. Measured pressures in the positions of interest in a practical exhaust system and exhaust noise spectra from a tail pipe were compared with simulations for validating the model. Results show that the model can satisfactorily predict measurements. Moreover, how to use the computer code for muffler design has been discussed for the point of engineering application.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941682
John Brooks, Alan Lane
A two-stroke Atkinson cycle engine is described. The engine has uniflow stratified mixture scavenging with a variably phased spherical rotary valve in the cylinder head and exhaust ports in the cylinder wall. These features combined in this configuration result in reduced fuel consumption, higher specific power output, less vibration, and smooth part load operation albeit increased size and cost compared to simple two-stroke engines used in power tools.
1994-09-01
Technical Paper
941684
Robert Fleck, David Thornhill
The gas exchange process of the two-stroke engine is such that the flow of fresh air into the cylinder and exhaust gas out of the cylinder occur substantially together. It is therefore the case that not all of the air delivered will be trapped during this scavenge process. Extensive research has already been conducted into optimising the porting layouts of two-stroke engine cylinders. One of the techniques developed at The Queen's University of Belfast for evaluating scavenging is a unique experimental method described as the ‘single cycle scavenge test’. Although the test does not reflect the actual scavenge process in a firing engine, it is a sufficiently useful procedure to have become an industrial standard for scavenge evaluation. This paper discusses the application of that test procedure in the development of a multicylinder, externally scavenged, two-stroke automotive engine.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901639
Michael J. Lehn
Abstract A method has been developed for measuring the dynamic forces exerted in the pull starting of small engines. The mechanics of the pull are recorded via a digital system of data acquisition and broken down into the fundamental mechanical units of force, work, power and velocity. These values can be used to objectively analyze an engine's starting characteristics, with respect to ergonomics, and help eliminate inherent inaccuracies often found in subjective tests.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901636
Richard B. Hathaway, Kathy L. Crankshaw, Kenneth M. Simpson, Chien Yi-Ho
Light weight quiet small internal combustion engines that meet cost and required reliability parameters are important in the consumer product market as well as in the industrial environment. In the design of these lightweight powerplants, accurate analysis of factors which influence immediate and long-term effects is essential. Hologram interferometry is used to provide a full field view of engine cylinder wall deformations which may lead to noise, fatigue and related inefficiencies. The technique allows for the evaluation of cylinder deformation caused by thermal and mechanical loads. Static loads are applied to predict the deformation of the engine at specific points in the operating cycle.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901663
J.W. Adams, R.A. Stein, G.F. Leydorf, M.J. Schrader
Abstract Two-stroke cycle direct injection engines can achieve adequate stability at idle with stratified combustion at very lean overall air-fuel ratio, but exhaust temperature is very low. A rotary valve system was designed to spill charge from the cylinder into the intake tract during the compression stroke, in order to allow stable operation at lower engine delivery ratio and thereby increase exhaust temperature. Reduction of the engine delivery ratio was not achieved due to the poor scavenging characteristics of the swirl liners used, which resulted in high content of exhaust residual gas in the spill recirculation flow. Although the concept objective of higher exhaust temperature was not realized, the results indicate that the concept may be feasible if high purity of the spill recirculation flow can be achieved in conjunction with high trapping efficiency.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901667
R. Fleck
The importance of exhaust system design for three cylinder two-stroke engines is demonstrated using a thermodynamic model developed at The Queen's University of Belfast. The influence of the major exhaust parameters on wide open throttle power and bmep is investigated. In addition, the potential benefits of reed valve induction over piston port induction at low engine speeds are demonstrated for one particular engine configuration.
1993-11-01
Technical Paper
932951
M. E. Teachman, D. S. Scott, H-H. Rogner
Solid polymer fuel cell power systems are compared to spark ignition engine power systems for utility vehicle applications. Utility vehicles provide crew and payload transport and electrical power at work sites. The two power systems, both designed to satisfy an identical service, are compared on the basis of life cycle cost and fuel energy used. This approach attempts to minimize biases and allows technologies to be compared on a level playing field. Gasoline is the fuel for the spark ignition engines, while liquid hydrogen is used for the solid polymer fuel cell. The results show that spark ignition engine power systems have a lower life cycle cost than solid polymer fuel cell systems for technology available today. If the anticipated improvements to solid polymer fuel cell technologies are realized, by 2005, solid polymer fuel cell systems should provide the lowest life cycle cost for utility vehicles built to supply high work site power levels and short driving distances.
1993-11-01
Technical Paper
932953
Sriram S. S. Popuri, Reda M. Bata
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate iso-butanol (C4H9OH) as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engines. Unlike methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH), iso-butanol has not been extensively studied in the past as either a fuel blend candidate with gasoline or straight fuel. The performance of a single cylinder engine (ASTM=CFR) was studied using alcohol-gasoline blends under different input parameters. The engine operating conditions were: three carburetor settings (three different fuel flow rates), spark timings of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25° BTDC, and a range of compression ratios from a minimum of 7.5 to a maximum of 15 in steps of one depending on knock. The fuels tested were alcohol-gasoline blends having 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. And also as a baseline fuel, pure gasoline (93 ON) was used. The engine was run at a constant speed of 800 RPM.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961808
Geoffrey McCullough, Roy Douglas
Abstract An experimental transient catalyst test rig has been developed and used to investigate the location and intensity of the reactions in a two-stroke oxidation catalyst as the inlet temperature is increased from ambient through light-off at a rate which is similar to that found in an engine exhaust after a cold start. The catalyst samples used in this apparatus are relatively large by plug flow reactor standards, (50mm diameter x 70mm long), which allows significant radial and axial variations in temperature and activity to occur. The gas and temperature readings recorded during these tests show that, even though the front face of the catalyst is hotter than the rear due to the transient temperature ramp, the highest reaction rate occurs in the rear half of the catalyst during the early stages of light-off. As the light-off process progresses, the reaction zone moves in a radial direction and migrates towards the front face.
1996-08-01
Technical Paper
961805
Liu Qihua, Gao Zongying
Using the KVIA code as a reference, a two dimensional computational fluid dynamics program is used to analyze the scavenge and fuel injection processes in a two--stroke engine: By calculation, the flow velocity, the mass distribution and density distribution of compositions (including the air, fuel and exhaust) and the escaped mass of fuel from the exhaust ports are known. It models the work process of the direct--injected two--stroke engine. By analysing the computational results, the best injector location, injection angle and injection timing can he determined. IT IS A WELL KNOWN FACT THAT THE TWO--STROKE ENGINE'S ADVANTAGES ARE high specific power, simple structure, light weight and the small outline. The main disadvantage of the two--stroke engine with the carburettor is that some 25-40% of the unburnt fresh charge during the gas exchange process is lost due to the short circuiting to the exhaust ports. This inevitably results in poor fuel economy and high hydrocarbon emissions.
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
911847
Michael G. Reid, Roy Douglas
A quasi-dimensional computer simulation model is presented to simulate the thermodynamic and chemical processes occurring within a spark ignition engine during compression, combustion and expansion based upon the laws of thermodynamics and the theory of equilibrium. A two-zone combustion model, with a spherically expanding flame front originating from the spark location, is applied. The flame speed is calculated by the application of a turbulent entrainment propagation model. A simplified theory for the prediction of in-cylinder charge motion is proposed which calculates the mean turbulence intensity and scale at any time during the closed cycle. It is then used to describe both heat transfer and turbulent flame propagation. The model has been designed specifically for the two-stroke cycle engine and facilitates seven of the most common combustion chamber geometries. The fundamental theory is nevertheless applicable to any four-stroke cycle engine.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1182
L. M. Mesaros, P. W. Stephenson
Multidimensional modeling of in-cylinder processes has traditionally relied upon comparison with experimentally determined gross quantities, such as swirl ratio or valve discharge coefficient. Recent experimental studies have focused on accurate in-cylinder measurement of quantities such as velocity fields, species concentration distributions and distributions or turbulent kinetic energy. Since the most important engine design parameters, including filling efficiency, flame stability and pollutant formation depend on the local flow field, the ability to accurately predict these details is a key requirement for successful application of computational fluid dynamics techniques to engine design.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1112
Marco Bakenhus, Rolf D. Reitz
An experimental study of luminous combustion in a modern diesel engine was performed to investigate the effect of injection parameters on NOX and soot formation via flame temperature and soot KL factor measurements. The two-color technique was applied to 2-D soot luminosity images and area-averaged soot radiation signals to obtain spatially and temporally resolved flame temperature and soot KL factor. The imaging system used for this study was based on a wide-angle endoscope that was mounted in the cylinder head and allowed different views of the combustion chamber. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.4 liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled common-rail injection system. Operating conditions were 1600 rpm and 75% load. The two-color results confirm that retarding the injection timing causes lower flame temperatures and NOX emissions but increased soot formation, independent of injection strategy.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0533
Alfred P. Meyer, Joseph M. King, Daniel Kelly
Fuel cell development at United Technologies Corporation has pioneered the successful application of fuel cell power plants for space craft electrical power and for stationary electric generation in building applications. A major effort is now underway to utilize proprietary Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack technology and fuel processing technology in power plants designed for application to vehicles. This activity is carried out at International Fuel Cells, LLC which was formed by United Technologies specifically to pursue transportation applications of its fuel cell technology. This paper reports on the status of development and demonstration activities for automobile and bus applications. A 100 kW, methanol-fueled power plant is providing power for operation of a 18 meter transit bus. This 1727 Kg power plant has achieved impressive efficiency, response and emission characteristics in testing to date.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2867
Jan-Ola Olsson, Olof Erlandsson, Bengt Johansson
A 6-cylinder truck engine was modified to run in HCCI-mode. The aim was to show whether or not it is possible having HCCI run a multi-cylinder engine, to provide brake values of emissions and efficiency and to verify models for engine system simulation. The work proved that it is feasible to use HCCI in multi-cylinder engines with high brake efficiency. Emissions' strong dependence on inlet temperature and octane number was demonstrated. The numerical models simulated the mean effective pressure with high precision, while inlet and exhaust pressures were less accurate, mainly due to the limitations of the turbo maps used.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0680
Jeff Gibson, Drew Dudgeon, Dan Dureno, Steve Roseborsky, James Woodiwiss, Ethan Barbour, Kevin Roth, Daniel McBride, Robert Doiron, Guillo Panzera, Michael Veccera, Andrzej Sobiesiak, Gary W. Rankin, Barry Maskary, Dan Vincent
The fuel called E-85 can be burned effectively in engines similar to the engines currently mass-produced for use with gasoline. Since the ethanol component of this fuel is produced from crops such as corn and sugar cane, the fuel is almost fully renewable. The different physical and chemical properties of E-85, however, do require certain modifications to the common gasoline engine. The Windsor - St. Clair team has focused their attention to modifications that will improve fuel efficiency and reduce tailpipe emissions. Other modifications were also performed to ensure that the vehicle would still operate with the same power and driveability as its gasoline counterpart.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0681
Kevin Denton, Joshua Goldman, Bryan Hays, Cleveland Hyatt, Luke Wilhelm, Christine Whiteley
The University of Maryland team converted a model year 2000 Chevrolet Suburban to an ethanol-fueled hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) and tied for first place overall in the 2000 FutureTruck competition. Competition goals include a two-thirds reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a reduction of exhaust emissions to meet California ultra-low emissions vehicle (ULEV) Tier II standards, and an increase in fuel economy. These goals must be met without compromising the performance, amenities, safety, or ease of manufacture of the stock Suburban. The University of Maryland FutureTruck, Proteus, addresses the competition goals with a powertrain consisting of a General Motors 3.8-L V6 engine, a 75-kW (100 hp) SatCon electric motor, and a 336-V battery pack. Additionally, Proteus incorporates several emissions-reducing and energy-saving modifications; an advanced control strategy that is implemented through use of an on-board computer and an innovative hybrid-electric drive train.
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