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Viewing 1 to 30 of 387
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2031
Robert Hupfer, Georg Habbel
The heavy-duty truck industry has adopted various methods and technologies to provide comfort in sleeper cabins during rest periods. For heating a sleeper cabin the fuel-operated heating technology has been used already industry wide, due to performance, ecological, and economical reasons. The same criteria apply to the comfort requirements in the summer or in warmer climate. One of the most common methods is still the idling of the main truck engine. While engine idling increases both fuel consumption and emissions, it is also having a negative effect on the engine and exhaust system maintenance, especially with the latest changes of the emission regulation and the application of active and passive Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration strategies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0627
Jim Steppan, Brett Henderson, Kent Johnson, M. Yusuf Khan, Timothy Diller, Matthew Hall, Anthoniraj Lourdhusamy, Klaus Allmendinger, Ronald D. Matthews
EmiSense Technologies, LLC (www.emisense.com) is commercializing its electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that is based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UT). To demonstrate the capability of this sensor for real-time PM measurements and on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed to characterize the hydrodynamics of the sensor's housing and to develop an improved PM sensor housing with reproducible hydrodynamics and an internal baffle to minimize orientation effects. PM sensors with the improved housing were evaluated in the truck exhaust of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine tested on-road and on a chassis dynamometer at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) using their Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL).
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2462
Reza Torbati, Marco Federico Pidria, Giovanni Cerciello, Davide Rodonò
Partial flow filters (PFF) are devices that can capture particulate matter (PM) for a period of time sufficient for its catalytic oxidation. The filter consists of alternating layers of corrugated metal foil and porous sintered metal fleece which captures the particulates. The captured particles are then re-generated passively by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) produced by the oxidation of NO on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) placed before the filter. The filter's robust design and the ability to operate without any maintenance, i.e. no vehicle downtime, have led to an increasing demand for both heavy duty (HD) and light duty (LD) retrofit applications worldwide. Unlike diesel particulate filter (DPF), the PFF will not plug once filled with soot to its maximum capacity in the absence of passive regeneration (low load and low exhaust temperature conditions). Instead, the PM conversion efficiency will gradually decrease, allowing PM emissions to pass through.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2420
Zhigang Wei
Corrosion resistance is an extremely important technical issue for long-term durability and reliability performance of exhaust components and systems. Failure mechanisms, such as corrosion, fatigue, corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, have long been recognized as the principal degradation and failure mechanisms of vehicle components and systems under combined mechanical and corrosive environmental conditions. The combination of fluid flow, introduced by components such as advanced injectors, and corrosive environment leads to corrosion-erosion failure mechanism. These failure mechanisms are strongly material, environment, and loading dependent. How to characterize, screen, rank and select the materials in corrosion resistance is a big challenge posed to materials scientists and engineers. In this paper, the common corrosion related failure mechanisms appearing in auto exhaust systems are reviewed first.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0170
Hemanth Kappanna, Marc Besch, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Oscar Delgado, Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala, Adewale Oshinuga, Randall Pasek
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1939
Paul Richards, B. Terry, J. Chadderton, M. W. Vincent
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2658
William Wangard, Aleksandra Egelja, Hossam Metwally
A transient, 3-dimensional, continuum CFD model of soot loading and regeneration has been developed for a single channel unit in a diesel particulate filter. The detailed model is used to predict the soot loading, velocity, temperature, and species distributions in both the air channels and porous walls of the filter. The simulation is performed in two phases: loading and regeneration. In the loading phase, soot profiles are estimated for a clean filter using a steady-state simulation. In the second phase, transient regeneration is modeled using a single-step, irreversible heterogeneous mechanism is used to predict the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide products during the regeneration process, incorporating a fractionization scheme. Reaction rates are predicted via an Arrhenius rate law, but may be tempered due to diffusion-limiting conditions in the porous reaction zone. Simulations are performed with a commercial CFD package and user-defined functions.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0049
Teuvo Maunula, Arto Viitanen, Toni Kinnunen, Kauko Kanniainen
The emission regulations for mobile applications become stricter in Euro-IV to Euro-VI levels. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon can be removed by efficient Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) but Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx are more demanding requiring the use of active methods (urea-SCR and DPF) which will be world-wide implemented in the 2010's. Durable, coated V-SCR catalysts are based on stabilized raw materials and tailored preparation methods. Coated V2O5/TiO2-WO3 catalysts (ceramic 300/400 cpsi and metallic 500/600 cpsi) were evaluated by laboratory and engine bench experiments. Traditional V-SCR catalysts are durable up to about 600°C and have a high efficiency at 300°C-500°C. SCR activities were tailored to be higher also at 200°C-300°C or 500°C-600°C. The use of thermal stabilizers or the vanadium loading variation enabled the changes in operation window and stability.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0096
Sanjoy Biswas, Goutam Mandal
Exhaust noise of automobiles is one of the major sources of noise pollution. Un-muffled exhaust noise is quite higher than other noise sources of automobile. Therefore, the use of an exhaust muffler is prompted by the need of engine exhaust noise reduction. Insertion loss is the key metric to evaluate the performance of any muffler and it mainly depends upon proper selection of muffler volume which is proportional to engine swept volume. Another major performance evaluating metric is backpressure. Also, shape, size, weight, durability, manufacturability and cost are the secondary but important criteria of muffler selection. Presently, there are many variants of exhaust muffler, having different overall performances (i.e. insertion loss, backpressure, shape, size, weight, manufacturability and cost) used for different variants of commercial vehicle, though engine swept volume is same for all.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0184
Leonardo de Oliveira Costa, James Edward Godden, Rafael Batista Amadio, Rodrigo Silva Santos
Emission standards are becoming more stringent and at the same time the standards for the On-Board Diagnostic System (OBD) are also continuously enhancing to ensure a more efficient and robust engine emissions monitoring system during the whole vehicle useful life and to improve the quality of the information delivered to the user. In the case of heavy duty diesel vehicles, the Brazilian standards are developed according to the existing European standards (Euro), for example the current standard in Brazil (so called Proconve P7) follows the same requirements of the Euro V with some minor differences. As a consequence, the applied technologies for exhaust gas after-treatment and sensing systems to meet the requirements are already used in European applications such as Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), as well as temperature, NOx and differential pressure sensors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1140
Julian Tan, Charles Solbrig, Steven J. Schmieg
Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1330
Chaitanya Narula, Xiaofan Yang, Peter Bonnesen, Edward Hagaman
The leading approach for reduction of NOx from diesel engines is selective catalytic reduction employing urea as a reductant (NH₃- or urea-SCR). For passenger vehicles, the best known NH₃-SCR catalysts are Cu-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 and have been shown to function very well in a narrow temperature range. This technology is not directly transferable to off-road diesel engines which operate under a different duty cycle resulting in exhaust with different fractions of components than are present in passenger vehicle emissions. Our results show that Cu-ZSM-5 exhibits 90% NOx reduction efficiency in 250-450°C range while Fe-ZSM-5 is highly effective in 350-550°C range for off-road engines. However, a combination of these catalysts cannot efficiently reduce NOx in 150-650°C which is the desirable range for deployment in off-road diesel engines. In our efforts to increase the effective range of these catalysts, we initiated efforts to modify these catalysts by catalyst promoters.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1322
Subhasish Bhattacharjee, Daniel C. Haworth, Roxanna Moores
This project is one component of a broader effort whose ultimate goal is to provide CFD-based tools that can be used to optimize the design of urea SCR NOx aftertreatment systems for heavy-duty diesel engines. Here the focus is on predicting the distributions of key chemical species (ammonia, in particular) at the inlet to the catalysts. Two aspects of the physical models have been emphasized: the multi-phase models, and the gas-phase chemistry models. A hierarchy of four simplified geometric configurations has been used for model development and parametric studies, and to establish the appropriate level of physical modeling and numerical fidelity required. The resulting physical and numerical parameters then have been used to model a production SCR system. Initial quantitative comparisons with experimental measurements are encouraging.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1312
Mojghan Naseri, Sougato Chatterjee, Mario Castagnola, Hai-Ying Chen, Joseph Fedeyko, Howard Hess, Jianquan Li
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2010 Heavy-Duty systems include a DOC along with a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, to enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CSF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCR-DPF) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging. In this work, a system consisting of SCR-DPF was evaluated in comparison to the DOC + CSF components from a commercial 2010 DOC + CSF + SCR system on an engine with the engine EGR on (standard engine-out NOx) and off (high engine-out NOx).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1316
Teuvo Maunula, Toni Kinnunen, Markus Iivonen
The emission regulations for mobile off-road applications are following on-road trends by a short delay. The latest Stage 3B and 4 emission limits mean a gradual implementation of oxidation and SCR catalysts as well as particulate filters with off-road machines/vehicles in the 2010s. The driving conditions and test cycles differ from on-road truck applications which have been the first design base for off-road aftertreatment technologies. Aftertreatment systems for Stage 4 were first analyzed and they will include oxidation catalysts, a NOx reduction catalyst (SCR or LNT), a particulate filter and possibly units for urea hydrolysis and ammonia slip removal. The design and durability of V₂O₅/TiO₂-WO₃ catalysts based on metallic substrates were investigated by engine bench and field experiments. NOx emissions were measured with 6.6 and 8.4 liters engines designed for agricultural and industrial machinery.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2087
Nobuhiro Yanagisawa, Keiko Shibata, Kenji Enya, Kaoru Satou
In order to reduce fine particle emission, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has begun to be equipped to a diesel engine. During regeneration of DPF, nanoparticles are known to be formed downstream of DPF. VOCs emission during regeneration is of interest in view of toxicity and formation mechanism of nanoparticles. A heavy duty diesel engine equipped with DPF was investigated to measure particle and VOCs emissions using PTR-TOFMS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer). PTR-TOFMS is a new on-line mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and its application to engine exhaust measurements is new. During active regeneration of the DPF, fine particle emission was increased by nucleation. But VOCs as well as THC emissions increased prior to particle increase. After the regeneration the particle and VOCs emissions decreased immediately to the level of normal operation.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0295
Makoto Kimura, Toshikatsu Muramatsu, Eiji Kunishima, Jun Namima, Wilbur Crawley, Tony Parrish
EPA 2010 emissions regulations - currently the strictest standards in the world - place particular emphasis on exhaust gas thermal control technology. The Burner System, a device developed to control exhaust gas temperatures, is the most effective means of raising exhaust gas temperature, as this system can function under any engine conditions, including low engine speed and torque. The Burner System begins operating immediately when the engine is started, activating the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System immediately, because the Burner System is active, it enables the diesel particulate filter active regeneration under any engine operating conditions as well. This technical paper reports Burner System (ActiveClean™ Thermal Regenerator) development results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0298
Mark Ramsbottom, Nik Birkby, Navin Khadiya, Steven Beesley
A Thermal Enhancer™ has been developed. Primarily, this device functions to increase exhaust gas temperatures to ensure appropriate catalytic heating as an enabler for diesel particulate filter regeneration and nitrogen oxide reduction technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction. In addition, this system also gives capability for hydrocarbon dosing as an efficient means for full active regeneration of a diesel particulate filter. An overview of this system and its functional applications will be given. Focus will be directed toward the design and test methodology that was adopted to develop a combustor. Results obtained from steady-state, stationary and transient engine dynamometer tests will illustrate the performance benefits and emissions control capabilities of this system.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0309
Ted Straten, Johan van den Berk
The next generation off-road vehicles will see additional exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, ranging from DOC-SCR only to full DOC-DPF-SCR-AMOX systems. This will increase system complexity and development effort significantly. Emission requirements and the high number of vehicle configurations within the off-road industry will require a new process for development and validation. The introduced model-based approach using physical models of aftertreatment can reduce development effort and cost, improve performance robustness and help to identify performance issues early in the development process. A method to investigate and optimize a large matrix of variations by simulation is introduced. This can lead to a significant reduction in the number of required calibrations and can assist in the development of design specifications for the aftertreatment system. A case study for SCR calibration successfully demonstrates the potential of model-based development.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0479
Ray Conway, Sougato Chatterjee, Hassan Windawi
The EPA implemented the Urban Bus Retrofit/Rebuild (UBRR) Program for transit buses built before 1994 in an effort to lower the amount of PM emissions in densely populated urban areas. The objective of the program is to provide certified emission control technologies that reduce PM emissions from older buses by 25% or to below 0.1 g/bhp-hr. This paper reviews the development of a retrofit kit that has been certified under the UBRR program to meet the 0.1 g/bhp-hr PM emission requirements on DDC 6V92TA engines with both mechanical (MUI) and electronic (DDEC) fuel injection controls. The kit is a combination of specific and modified engine parts and a catalytic exhaust after-treatment device. The kit replaces existing parts with a new camshaft, a uniquely configured cylinder kit and specified turbocharger, blower and injector. For the MUI engines the cam timing, injector height and fuel modulator are set at specific values to achieve the lowest possible PM level.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0187
Magdi Khair, Jacques Lemaire, Stefan Fischer
The diesel engine has long been the most energy efficient powerplant for transportation. Moreover, diesels emit extremely low levels of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide that do not require post-combustion treatment to comply with current and projected standards. It is admittedly, however, difficult for diesel engines to simultaneously meet projected nitrogen oxides and particulate matter standards. Traditionally, measures aimed at reducing one of these two exhaust species have led to increasing the other. This physical characteristic, which is known as NOx/PM tradeoff, remains the subject of an intense research effort. Despite this challenge, there is significant evidence that heavy-duty highway engine manufacturers can achieve substantial emission reductions. Many development programs carried out over the last five years have yielded remarkable results in laboratory demonstrations.
2012-06-01
Technical Paper
2011-01-2469
Nigel Clark, David L. McKain, W Wayne, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0175
Daniele Littera, Marc Besch, Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniel Carder, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Adam Sayres, Hemanth Kappanna, Mridul Gautam, Adewale Oshinuga
In order to comply with stringent 2010 US-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on-road, Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) emissions regulations, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system has been judged by a multitude of engine manufacturers as the primary technology for mitigating emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). As virtually stand-alone aftertreatment systems, SCR technology further represents a very flexible and efficient solution for retrofitting legacy diesel engines as the most straightforward means of cost-effective compliance attainment. However, the addition of a reducing agent injection system as well as the inherent operation limitations of the SCR system due to required catalyst bed temperatures introduce new, unique problems, most notably that of ammonia (NH₃) slip.
2011-06-09
Journal Article
2011-37-0004
F. Payri, J.R. Serrano, P. Piqueras, O. García-Afonso
The use of particulate filters (DPF) has become in recent years the state of the art technology for the reduction of soot aerosol emissions for light, medium and heavy duty Diesel vehicles. However, the effect of the system location on engine performance is a key aspect that should be studied. In the present work a numerical study has been carried out with the objective to analyze the effect on the engine performance of an innovative DPF placement upstream of the turbine. This study has been performed by means of the gas dynamic simulation of a two-stage turbocharged heavy duty Diesel engine, which has been previously modeled from experimental data obtained under steady state conditions. The original DPF has been divided into two monoliths for the case of the pre-turbo DPF configuration. Three cylinders discharge in each of these monoliths and after the filtration the flow is driven towards the high-pressure turbine and the EGR system.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3042
Fuming Xiao, Chen Lu, Xichao Zhang, Bin Yang, Zhao Gao, Zhongtai Li, Xinchun Dong, Chuanwen Xue
In this paper, a diesel particulate filter system which uses needle felt as filtering medium to collect diesel particulates has been developed and tested in practical operation of the urban bus. The system includes a bag filter, an exhaust cooler, and a control unit. It was installed under the chassis of a YZL 6730C diesel bus, which operates in a loop route mostly with heavy load. The bus has covered more than 5,000km, during which there was no failure of the filter system to cause bus abnormal operation. It needs to be cleaned for about 50km, and the collected particulate matter has to be discharged for every 1200km. It can operate reliably and easily with very high collection efficiency. The collected particulate matter is analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography)/MS (Mass Spectrometer), it is found that the collected particulate matter contains many poisonous and carcinogen substances and the filter is also effective to collect some of the SOF.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1200
Gunnar Latz, Sven Andersson, Karin Munch
In a modern internal combustion engine, most of the fuel energy is dissipated as heat, mainly in the form of hot exhaust gas. A high temperature is required to allow conversion of the engine-out emissions in the catalytic system, but the temperature is usually still high downstream of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. One way to recover some of this residual heat is to implement a Rankine cycle, which is connected to the exhaust system via a heat exchanger. The relatively low weight increase due to the additional components does not cause a significant fuel penalty, particularly for heavy-duty vehicles. The efficiency of a waste-heat recovery system such as a Rankine cycle depends on the efficiencies of the individual components and the choice of a suitable working fluid for the given boundary conditions.
2012-11-25
Technical Paper
2012-36-0632
Guilherme Zardo Selbach, Celso Cruz, Rafael Mazzorana, Gustavo Bastchen, Andre Piekarski, Rodrigo Martins, Gustavo Hindi
Health related problems in over populated areas are a major concern and as such, there are specific legislations for noise generated by transport vehicles. In diesel powered commercial vehicles, the source for noise are mainly related to rolling, transmission, aerodynamics and engine. Considering internal combustion engine, three factors can be highlighted as major noise source: combustion, mechanical and tailpipe. The tailpipe noise is considered as the noise radiated from the open terminations of intake and exhaust systems, caused by both pressure pulses propagating to the open ends of the duct systems, and by vortex shedding as the burst leaves the tailpipe (flow generated noise). In order to reduce noise generated by vehicles, it is important to investigate the gas interactions and what can be improved in exhaust line design during the product development phase.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-1984
Michael P. Lammert, Robert L. McCormick, Petr Sindler, Aaron Williams
The objective of this research project was to compare the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from transit buses on as many as five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles to establish if there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Prior studies have shown that B20 can cause a small but significant increase in NOx emissions for some engines and duty cycles. Six buses spanning engine build years 1998 to 2011 were tested on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants research laboratory's heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic [California Air Resources Board (CARB)] diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2008
Mohsen Bayani Khaknejad, Arash Keshavarz
In this research the main focus is on reducing the transmitted engine vibration through exhaust line to the passenger cabin in a light commercial vehicle. The main approach is firstly to locate the mountings of the exhaust system based on the results of the modal analysis. Afterwards, the stiffness of the rubber hangers is optimised to minimize the measured vibration in the driver seat rail position. The optimisation approaches are executed considering the design of experiments method. To achieve this, the partial BIW model of the reference vehicle and the powertrain system is generated in FE software. The FE model of the exhaust system is validated by experimental results. In order to define the optimum stiffness for the exhaust rubber hangers, design of experiments method is used. The main candidate parameters for DOE analysis are exhaust rubber hangers in the front floor region in addition to the exhaust flexible joint stiffness.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1663
Stefano Cordiner, Francesco Mecocci, Vincenzo Mulone, Vittorio Rocco
The use of biodiesel has been widely accepted as an effective solution to reduce greenhouse emissions. The high potential of biodiesel in terms of PM emission reduction may represent an additional motivation for its wide use. This potential is related to the oxygenated nature of biodiesel, as well as its lower PAH and S, which leads, in general, to lower PM emissions as well as equal or slightly higher NOx emissions. According to these observations a different behavior of the Aftertreatment System (AS), especially as far as control issues of the Diesel Particulate Filter are concerned is also expected. The competition with the food sector is currently under debate, thus, besides second generation biofuels (e.g. from algae), the transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is another option, however needing further insight.
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