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Viewing 1 to 30 of 231
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2392
Daniel Blower, John Woodrooffe
Heavy truck rollover remains a primary factor in truck driver fatalities and injury. Roll stability control (RSC) and electronic stability control (ESC) are technologies that have been introduced to reduce the incidence of rollover in heavy truck crashes. This report provides an analysis of the real-world experience of a large for-hire company that introduced RSC into its fleet starting in 2004. The carrier provided a well-documented set of data on the operations of its truck-tractors, including both those equipped with RSC and those that did not have RSC installed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine the effect of RSC on the probability of rollover, as well as to identify other factors that either contribute to rollover or help reduce its incidence. This study presents results on the incidence of rollover both in terms of rollovers per 100 million miles traveled and the percentage of crashes that resulted in rollover.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1222
Scott Kimbrough
Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine the likelihoods of competing scenarios offered by opposing parties involved in a motor vehicle accident. A case study is presented in which there is a dispute among the parties about who passed who first. It is shown that even though both scenarios are possible, one of the scenarios has a much greater likelihood. Besides demonstrating how Monte Carlo simulation provides probability information that can be used to weigh the likelihood of competing scenarios, the case study also provides another example of how Monte Carlo simulation can dig information out of the evidence surrounding an accident that cannot be obtained by other methods.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1191
Marcus Hiemer, Sebastian Lehr, Uwe Kiencke, Takanori Matsunaga
The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1207
Terry D. Day
SIMON is a new 3-dimensional vehicle dynamic simulation model. The capabilities of the model include non-linear handling maneuvers and collision simulation for one or more vehicles. As a new model, SIMON must be validated by comparison against actual handling and collision experiments. This paper provided that comparison. Included in the validation were lane-change maneuvers, alternate ramp traversals, limit maneuvers with combined braking and steering, vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests and articulated vehicle handling tests. Comparison against other models were included. No metric was provided for handling test comparisons. However, statistical analysis of the collision test results revealed the average path range error was 6.2 to 14.8 percent. The average heading error was -4.7 to 0.7 percent. Delta-V error was -1.6 to 7.5 percent. VEHICLE SIMULATION has many uses in the vehicle design and safety industries.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0038
S. R. Nigade, S. S. Dandge, R. S. Mahajan, H. V. Vankudre
Automotive Industry Standard (AIS)-031 specifies the requirement of strength of large passenger vehicles in case of rollover. In India the certificate is granted after the successful completion of rollover test of the vehicle as per AIS-031. Complete vehicle is used for rollover test in which the vehicle is tilted laterally in the ditch of 800 mm. Such tests with complete vehicle are costly and unaffordable to small bus body builders. So according to Annex 2 of AIS-031, manufacture can carryout rollover on body sections of the vehicle. This is an equivalent approval method which is less costly compared to rollover test on complete vehicle. It requires detailed study of superstructure and selection of weakest body sections from the given superstructure of bus, which in turn requires mass and energy calculation of body section. For doing rollover analysis using body section, bus is selected which has already passed a full-rollover test.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0491
Michael E. Zabala, Nicholas Yang, Stacy Imler, Ke Zhao, Rose Ray
Abstract Three years of data from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) were analyzed to identify accidents involving heavy trucks (GVWR >10,000 lbs.). Risk of rollover and ejection was determined as well as belt usage rates. Risk of ejection was also analyzed based on rollover status and belt use. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used as an injury rating system for the involved vehicle occupants. These data were further analyzed to determine injury distribution based on factors such as crash type, ejection, and restraint system use. The maximum AIS score (MAIS) was analyzed and each body region (head, face, spine, thorax, abdomen, upper extremity, and lower extremity) was considered for an AIS score of three or greater (AIS 3+). The majority of heavy truck occupants in this study were belted (71%), only 2.5% of occupants were completely or partially ejected, and 28% experienced a rollover event.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0442
James K. Sprague, Peggy Shibata, Jack L. Auflick
Abstract A complete analysis of any vehicular collision needs to consider certain aspects of human factors. However, this is especially true of nighttime collisions, in which a more specialized approach is required. Classical collision investigation (frequently referred to as accident reconstruction) is comprised of kinetic and kinematic considerations including skid analysis, momentum techniques and other methods. While analysis based on these concepts is typically unaffected by low visibility conditions, the opposite is true of the perceptual and cognitive aspects of a “humans-in-the-loop” analysis, which can be enormously impacted by low visibility. Only by applying appropriate human factors techniques can the analyst make a defensible determination of how and why a nighttime collision occurred.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2294
Thomas Klena II, Daniel Blower PhD, Kurt Fischer P.E., John Woodrooffe
About 360,000 commercial trucks are involved in traffic accidents in the United States per year. Approximately 20,000 truck drivers are injured in those crashes. This study examines traffic crashes of the commercial truck fleet for model years 2000 to 2008 contained in the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) and General Estimates System (GES) databases. Specifically, driver injuries, using the KABCO scale (injury severity), were analyzed to determine the association with crash type as well as with the truck configuration. A crash typology was developed to identify crash types, including the type of other vehicle or object struck as well as the impact point on the truck, associated with the most serious injuries. This research focuses on the frequency of commercial vehicle accidents and driver injury levels rather than the cause of the vehicle crash. Based on these findings, example cases from LTCCS were selected. These examples typify the most frequent crashes and injuries.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2293
Darrell Bowman, William Schaudt
The mission of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving commercial vehicles [1]. According to the FMCSA, the development, evaluation, and deployment of advanced safety technology will be a key to realizing this goal. Currently, there are many safety systems in development that have the potential to significantly reduce crashes on our nation's roadways. For a variety of reasons, the potential benefits that these systems may provide in reducing crashes may never be realized. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), in cooperation with FMCSA, has developed a program to evaluate promising safety technologies aimed at commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The objective of FMCSA's Advanced System Testing Utilizing a Data Acquisition System on the Highway (FAST DASH) program is to perform quick turnaround and independent evaluations of promising CVO safety technologies.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0844
Terry D. Day, Allen R. York
A new three-dimensional collision simulation algorithm, called DyMESH (Dynamic MEchanical SHell) was recently introduced.[1]* This paper presents a validation of DyMESH for vehicle vs. barrier collisions. The derivation of the three-dimensional force vs. crush relationship was described previously.[1] Here the application of three-dimensional force vs. crush curves using the outlined methodology is shown to be effective. Nonlinear force versus crush relationships are introduced for use in DyMESH. Included are numerous DyMESH collision simulations of several types of vehicles (e.g., light and heavy passenger car and sport utility) compared directly with experimental collision test results from various types of barrier tests (e.g., full frontal, angled frontal, and offset frontal). The focus here is not on the vehicle’s change in velocity, but on the acceleration vs. time history.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0461
Denis Wood
An idealization of the elastic compression of the car on the basis of representing the car-body as a cylindrical shell with elastic wrinkles shows that three main factors govern the rebound velocity and hence the coefficient of restitution. These are the 3/2 power of acceleration at maximum dynamic crush, the square of the ratio of car-body mass to overall car mass and the half power of the position of the plastic/elastic crush interface. The model is applied to predict mean rebound characteristics for the car population. A comparison with published experimental data of the coefficient of restitution of the car population in frontal impacts with rigid barriers at impact speeds up to 100 km/h was made. The model predicted values of e similar in magnitude to those of the car population and also predicted a similar reduction in e with increasing impact speed.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0462
Timothy J. Long
The determination of delta-V from the Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) using energy analysis techniques such as CRASH3 is common in the field of accident reconstruction. This paper introduces a new methodology for determining delta-V in the field of accident reconstruction. Specifically it will introduce a linear analysis technique which utilizes the time to common velocity associated with two vehicles involved in an impact. This method employs all the assumptions used in the derivation of the CRASH3 damage based solution but rather than using an energy based solution a linear Barrier Equivalent Time (BET) method will be employed. This method requires the BEV, and thus the BET, of one of the vehicles involved in a collision and either the stiffness or the crush of the other vehicle. Instead of calculating the energies involved in the collision, the BET is used in conjunction with the time to common velocity in the impact.
2011-11-07
Technical Paper
2011-22-0015
Audrey Petitjean, Xavier Trosseille
Several statistical methods are currently used to build injury risk curves in the biomechanical field. These methods include the certainty method (Mertz et al. 1996), Mertz/Weber method (Mertz and Weber 1982), logistic regression (Kuppa et al. 2003, Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000), survival analysis with Weibull distribution (Kent et al. 2004, Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000), and the consistent threshold estimate (CTE) (Nusholtz et al. 1999, Di Domenico and Nusholtz 2005). There is currently no consensus on the most accurate method to be used and no guidelines to help the user to choose the more appropriate one. Injury risk curves built for the WorldSID 50th side impact dummy with these different methods could vary significantly, depending on the sample considered (Petitjean et al. 2009).
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1900
Yi Li, Fengchong Lan, Jiqing Chen
The good mobility and large carrying capacity promote the popularity of intercity coach in mass transit, especially in the long distance passenger transport nowadays. However, accidents related to coach and bus usually involve large casualties. Higher risk of fatalities is exhibited in rollover than the other coach accident types. In order to protect the occupants when a rollover accident occurs, coach structure must have sufficient strength to resist the impact loads. This paper presents a rollover test of an intercity coach body section using both numerical simulation and experimental testing to investigate its rollover crashworthiness in accordance with ECE R66. A full scale coach body section is manufactured and a tilting bench is designed and fabricated. Displacement transducers and accelerometer are equipped to record the time history of superstructure deformation and impact acceleration. And the FE model was developed accordingly.
2012-10-29
Technical Paper
2012-22-0010
Philippe Beillas, François Alonzo, Marie-Christine Chevalier, Philippe Lesire, Franck Leopold, Xavier Trosseille, Heiko Johannsen
The Abdominal Pressure Twin Sensors (APTS) for Q3 and Q6 dummies are composed of soft polyurethane bladders filled with fluid and equipped with pressure sensors. Implanted within the abdominal insert of child dummies, they can be used to detect abdominal loading due to the belt during frontal collisions. In the present study - which is part of the EC funded CASPER project - two versions of APTS (V1 and V2) were evaluated in abdominal belt compression tests, torso flexion test (V1 only) and two series of sled tests with degraded restraint conditions. The results suggest that the two versions have similar responses, and that the pressure sensitivity to torso flexion is limited. The APTS ability to detect abdominal loading in sled tests was also confirmed, with peak pressures typically below 1 bar when the belt loaded only the pelvis and the thorax (appropriate restraint) and values above that level when the abdomen was loaded directly (inappropriate restraint).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1488
Derek Jones, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel
Abstract Computational finite element (FE) modeling of real world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is valuable for analyzing crash-induced injury patterns and mechanisms. Due to unavailability of detailed modern FE vehicle models, a simplified vehicle model (SVM) based on laser scans of fourteen modern vehicle interiors was used. A crash reconstruction algorithm was developed to semi-automatically tune the properties of the SVM to a particular vehicle make and model, and subsequently reconstruct a real world MVC using the tuned SVM. The required algorithm inputs are anthropomorphic test device position data, deceleration crash pulses from a specific New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test, and vehicle interior property ranges. A series of automated geometric transformations and five LSDyna positioning simulations were performed to match the FE Hybrid III’s (HIII) position within the SVM to reported data. Once positioned, a baseline simulation using the crash test pulse was created.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0341
Chaitanya Ashok Vichare, Sivakumar Palanivelu
Abstract The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0016
Marcos R. Gali, Renan R. M. Ozelo, Argemiro L. A. Costa, José Maria C. Dos Santos
Abstract This paper aims to discuss technically the global trend of labeling legislation and the reflections of governmental programs, such as Inovar Auto, on auto parts industry, in special, about ecolabel intended for tires, focusing advances on rolling resistance analyses and its influence on the fuel consumption of motor vehicles. It will be presented analytical models and theirs respective predicted results to support tire development and researches regarding fuel consumption.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0025
Frederico A. A. Barbieri, Vinicius de Almeida Lima, Leandro Garbin, Joel Boaretto
Abstract Brazil presents a very diverse road and traffic conditions and due to several factors the number of truck accidents is very high. Inside truck accidents group, the one that causes the highest number of losses and fatalities is the rollover crash and understanding rollover dynamics is very important to prevent such events. The diversity of cargo vehicles arrangements requires a detailed study regarding the dynamic behavior these vehicle combinations in order to increase operation safety. The same tractor unit can be used with different types and numbers of trailers and/or semi-trailers, each one with different suspension configurations. These truck combinations have distinct dynamic performances that need evaluation. In this sense, this work presents a first phase study on the dynamic behavior of different types of cargo vehicle configuration. A 6×2 tractor is combined with a two distinct grain semi-trailer with different types of suspension: pneumatic and leaf spring.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0049
Shane Richardson
Abstract Within the exploration and resources sector some companies have required the fitment of Roll Over Protective Structures (ROPS). The issues with respect to: no ROPS, internal ROPS or external ROPS are discussed. The practical experience of designing, testing, fitting external ROPS in southern Africa are detailed as well as the investigation and analysis of a number of rollover crashes of vehicles fitted with the external ROPS and injury outcomes are compared with USA rollover injury data.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0316
Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Ervisa Kosova, Jingwen Hu, Matthew Reed, Jonathan Rupp, Rebekah Gruber, Risa Scherer
Abstract We have recently obtained experimental data and used them to develop computational models to quantify occupant impact responses and injury risks for military vehicles during frontal crashes. The number of experimental tests and model runs are however, relatively small due to their high cost. While this is true across the auto industry, it is particularly critical for the Army and other government agencies operating under tight budget constraints. In this study we investigate through statistical simulations how the injury risk varies if a large number of experimental tests were conducted. We show that the injury risk distribution is skewed to the right implying that, although most physical tests result in a small injury risk, there are occasional physical tests for which the injury risk is extremely large. We compute the probabilities of such events and use them to identify optimum design conditions to minimize such probabilities.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0163
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
Abstract A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2873
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep Sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract The safety of the heavy duty commercial vehicle (HCV) occupants in an accident is an imperative task and should be considered during the design and development of cabins. The sufficient cabin survival space must be remained after the accident. The main aim of this study is to develop a Finite Element (FE) model of HCV cabin and validate to the test as per AIS029. The present study also includes the assessment of the energy absorption capabilities of the HCV cab during the pendulum impact test. Initially a detailed 3D FE model of a fully suspended HCV cabin was developed and then pendulum impact test simulation was carried out using LS-Dyna explicit solver. Simulation results were compared with the test results and were found in a great agreement in terms of survival space and overall deformation behavior. The load transfer path was described at the time of pendulum impact. The largest amount of impact energy was absorbed by the frontal region of the cabin.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2868
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
Abstract This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness. The paper provides analysis of truck driver fatality and injury in crashes to provide a better understanding of how injury occurs and industry initiatives focused on reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit trucks in the Class 7 and 8 weight range. The analysis used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types. The paper includes analysis of crashes producing truck driver fatalities or injuries, a review of regulatory development and industry safety initiatives including barriers to implementation.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0196
Ajo John, Senthivinayagam Chandrasekaran
Abstract Front under run protection device (FUPD) is a regulatory requirement for passive safety of N2 & N3 category vehicle. This device gives effective protection for small vehicles (M1 or N1 category) against under running of big vehicles (N2 & N3 category) in the event of a frontal collision. FUPD generally consists of the front under run protector (FUP) and its mounting structure. As the compliance load target for N3 category is high, the FUP required achieving regulation target need to have high rigidity. This increases its size and hence the weight, Increase in weight has impact on payload and cost. To curtail the weight of FUP, in general Aluminum with higher strength is in use, but use of Aluminum increases the cost. So the main challenge in FUPD design is to achieve the design with optimal system weight & cost.
2016-11-07
Technical Paper
2016-22-0007
Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa, Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0080
Qilu Wang, Bo Yang, Gangfeng Tan, Shengguang Xiong, XiaoXiao Zhou
Abstract Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2785
Joseph Philip
CAE based methodologies for structural analysis has improved considerably and is now commonly used for product development. This methodology can also be used effectively for certification of products against safety standards requiring structural performance. Use of CAE can address the issue of certifying a large number of product variants without the need of expensive and destructive physical tests. The probability and variation in rollover accident varies with different bus application. This paper discuss on the major change in the requirement between flat rollover with the convention rollover over 800mm ditch. It also discusses on the severity of rollover in both rollover scenarios for intercity applications using simulation techniques.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2766
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Faustino V
Overloading is not only a problem for larger goods vehicles, it is equally a problem for smaller vehicles, such as vans, cars and passenger carrying vehicles. Reports indicate that nearly 70% of all traffic on national highways comprise of cargo vehicles while 22% of cargo vehicles are involved in road accidents. Overloading increases the risk of traffic accidents and causes excessive wear and damage to roads, bridges, pavements etc. This paper specifies in detail the existing Indian Legislation on Overloading, different methods of monitoring, Vehicle Overload Control in other countries and India recommendations to curb Overloading of vehicles.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2698
M. J. Macnabb, A. K. Little, A. D. Lamb
BC Transit, a crown corporation in the province of British Columbia, has reported injuries resulting from passengers sliding off seats during extreme braking and/or turning maneuvers. The corporation was eager to determine whether seat design could help minimize the likelihood of passengers sliding off seats and initiated a review of existing forward facing seats. The review examined seats of different designs within the corporate fleet plus a prototype seat. Without the advantage of seat compartmentalization, passive restraints or seat belts to reduce occupant movement during harsh maneuvers or in a collision, seat design in the first forward facing position should consider characteristics that provide passive restraint for the occupant. Tests using a weighted body form and three common clothing fabrics set against each seat cushion found a surprisingly wide range of friction values.
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