Viewing 1 to 30 of 298
Journal Article
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila Ebert-Hamilton
Seat belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant protection. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 210 specifies requirements for the layout of the anchorages relative to the seating reference point and seat back angle established by the SAE J826 H-point manikin. Sled testing and computational simulation has established that belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant kinematics, particularly for child occupants using the belt as their primary restraint. As part of a larger study of vehicle geometry, the locations of the anchorage points in the second-row, outboard seating positions of 83 passenger cars and light trucks with a median model year of 2005 were measured. The lower anchorage locations spanned the entire range of lap belt angles permissible under FMVSS 210 and the upper anchorages (D-ring locations) were distributed widely as well.
Technical Paper
Scott Kimbrough
Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine the likelihoods of competing scenarios offered by opposing parties involved in a motor vehicle accident. A case study is presented in which there is a dispute among the parties about who passed who first. It is shown that even though both scenarios are possible, one of the scenarios has a much greater likelihood. Besides demonstrating how Monte Carlo simulation provides probability information that can be used to weigh the likelihood of competing scenarios, the case study also provides another example of how Monte Carlo simulation can dig information out of the evidence surrounding an accident that cannot be obtained by other methods.
Technical Paper
Marcus Hiemer, Sebastian Lehr, Uwe Kiencke, Takanori Matsunaga
The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
Technical Paper
Christopher W. Ferrrone
Current regulations (49 CFR Part 396.11 and 396.13) mandate that a commercial driver inspect the vehicle at the conclusion of the duty shift. This inspection should note any defects which were noticed during use. This report must be in writing. Unfortunately, many drivers have chosen not to do the inspection, but falsely fill out the report form or simply do nothing at all. A 2002 study shows that as many as 23.7% of all commercial vehicles inspected (levels 1, 2, 5) were found to be defective1. A 2003 study showed that as many as 23.2% of large trucks and 10.3% of commercial buses were deemed out of service2. This poor behavior has a direct effect on safety. Specifically an increased number of accidents related to maintenance defects. In fact, as much as a 5% increase in fatal accidents can be attributed to mechanical defects3. A product has been developed which forces the driver to go to each of the legally prescribed areas of the inspection.
Technical Paper
Sujit Mungale, Leo S
Driver safety is one of the key considerations in truck design and development. Virtual simulation offers opportunities to reduce development time and the number of physical prototypes consumed for design verification and validation for safety parameters. Thus, the application of virtual simulations of crash has become an integral part of the vehicle development process. The continuously emerging scenarios involving challenging test requirements can only be tested by means of virtual simulation techniques. This paper presents simulations that are performed to verify various safety aspects to ensure crashworthiness of the truck cabin. The cabin structure was evaluated for various national/international safety regulations. The FE model and simulation methodology was validated through physical testing and correlated for frontal impact test and roof strength test as per AIS 029/ECE R29. Analysis performed to ensure compliance to upcoming regulation ECE R29 Revision 03 is also discussed.
Technical Paper
Fernanda Meneses Kelly, Helaine Maria Braga Sbampato
On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation, the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco Latin America for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.
Technical Paper
Keith Friedman, John Hutchinson, Dennis Mihora, Sri Kumar, Daniel Strickland
More than 900,000 long-haul sleeper cabs are projected to be on the road by 2030. About half of heavy truck occupant fatalities occur in rollovers. This paper discusses the current status of rollover protection systems for occupants in sleeper cabs and describes the outcomes from example crashes with sleeper cab occupants. A virtual testing methodology for evaluation of current designs under rollover conditions and restraint tests utilizing dummies and humans also are described. The paper includes discussion of finite element models used and their validation. Examples of results associated with various restraint system configurations are presented. The results show that incorporating effective lateral restraint is important in providing protection to sleeper cab occupants under rollover conditions.
Technical Paper
Dennis D Swanson
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper
Chandrashekhar K. Thorbole, David A. Renfroe, Stephen A. Batzer, Digvijay S. Tanwar
The necessity for avoiding the occupant ejection from their seats during motor coach rollover accidents is of supreme importance. The seat belt as a safety device is the best practical way of achieving this task. As per the motorcoach Enhanced Safety Act of 2009 passed in the United States senate, requires new motorcoaches to be installed with safety belts for each seating position. This bill also suggests the possibility of retrofitting seat belts on the existing motorcoaches. The use of portable seatbelt to restraint occupant is more economical as compared to retrofit the seat belt. This fact motivates the further research on portable restraint device. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of the first version of the Portable Restraint Device (PRD) using full scale bus rollover test. This test identified the shortcoming of this current device in securing to the bus seat and its non user friendly design.
Technical Paper
Luciano P. Lukacs, Cristiano Fontes, Marcelo Embirucu, Iuri Muniz Pepe
Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of differences in the driver's field of view. At night, drivers must rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the roadway. It is essential then that the driver is able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. This paper presents the needs of the driver's (car and truck) due to the environment and road conditions from the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil). A survey has been done to compare the needs from the truck and car driver under different road conditions. The results show the necessity to tailor the beam pattern according to the driver needs, providing safer nighttime driving according to the driver's and market needs.
Technical Paper
Manish Malik, Sandeep Kshirsagar, Sachin Barve
Rollover Protective Structures (ROPSs) are used in off-highway vehicles to protect operator in case of accidents involving overturning of vehicle. The role of a ROPS is to absorb the energy of Rollover without violating the protected operator zone. The performance of a ROPS is determined by its ability to absorb energy under prescribed loading conditions. The performance depends upon design parameters, such as tube thicknesses, material grades, ROPS tube cross-sections, etc., that define the structure. In this paper, we describe a method that uses Design of Experiments (DOE) to determine the correlation between the performance of a ROPS for a small tractor and its critical design parameters. The correlation results are discussed for two types of loading conditions, namely “front push loading” and “side push loading”. The correlation obtained is further used to identify the optimal design parameters for maximum energy absorption under constraints on allowable deflections.
Technical Paper
Shinji Fujii, Takayuki Sunakawa, Akiko Abe, Masanobu Fukushima, Kenji Kawaguchi, Shigeru Ogawa
This paper clarifies aggressivity reduction approach for MPV, Multi-Purpose Vehicles, derived from large passenger vehicles toward small passenger vehicles. The effects of aggressivity-reducing approach were measured through full-frontal rigid barrier crash simulations with TRL aluminum honeycomb by Finite Element Method. The front-end structures of large vehicles studied in this paper based on this aggressivity reduction approach show good front-end homogeneity and low average height of force. The structures were also found to effectively reduce aggressivity toward small vehicles by car-to-car simulation. However, there are some cases where the effect was influenced by overlap ratios. From this result, overlap ratio is considered to be one of the important factors to improve compatibility performance.
Journal Article
Derek Jones, James Gaewsky, Ashley Weaver, Joel Stitzel
Abstract Computational finite element (FE) modeling of real world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is valuable for analyzing crash-induced injury patterns and mechanisms. Due to unavailability of detailed modern FE vehicle models, a simplified vehicle model (SVM) based on laser scans of fourteen modern vehicle interiors was used. A crash reconstruction algorithm was developed to semi-automatically tune the properties of the SVM to a particular vehicle make and model, and subsequently reconstruct a real world MVC using the tuned SVM. The required algorithm inputs are anthropomorphic test device position data, deceleration crash pulses from a specific New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash test, and vehicle interior property ranges. A series of automated geometric transformations and five LSDyna positioning simulations were performed to match the FE Hybrid III’s (HIII) position within the SVM to reported data. Once positioned, a baseline simulation using the crash test pulse was created.
Technical Paper
Shane Richardson
Abstract Within the exploration and resources sector some companies have required the fitment of Roll Over Protective Structures (ROPS). The issues with respect to: no ROPS, internal ROPS or external ROPS are discussed. The practical experience of designing, testing, fitting external ROPS in southern Africa are detailed as well as the investigation and analysis of a number of rollover crashes of vehicles fitted with the external ROPS and injury outcomes are compared with USA rollover injury data.
Technical Paper
Wenku Shi, Changxin Wang, Zan Li
Abstract In order to improve the handling and stability of a light bus at high speed, a virtual model was established in Adams-Car and its anti-roll bar and bushing parameters were virtually optimized. The tyre mechanical characteristics were firstly tested by using a plate-type tyre tester and the Magic Formula parameters of the tyre were obtained. Then the virtual bus model's handling performance were studied by the simulation of central steering test and steady static circular test. An optimal matching method was put forward. By using genetic algorithm to conduct optimization, the optimised parameters were obtained. After that the anti-roll bar and bushing samples were respectively manufactured. At last, the comparative trials were performed in an automotive proving ground, and the subjective evaluation of the light bus's handling and stability was taken by three specialized assessors.
Technical Paper
Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, S Prasanth, Sudhir Darekar, Jagadeesan Chellan, K Ashok Kumar, Jeya Kumar Ranjith Kumar
Abstract A cabin on an agricultural tractor is meant to protect the operator from harsh environment, dust and provide an air conditioned space. As it is an enclosed space, cabin structure should be a crashworthiness structure and should not cause serious injury to operator in case of tractor roll over. There are International standard like OECD Code 4, SAE J2194 which regulates the crashworthiness of this protective structure. The roll-over protective structure (ROPS) is characterized by the provision of space for a clearance zone large enough to protect the operator in case of tractor overturn. None of the cabin parts should enter into the clearance zone for operator safety. In addition to meeting ROPS test criteria, the cabin structural strength should be optimized for the required tractor life. In this paper, simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor cabin structure and its mountings to meet the above requirements.
Technical Paper
Vijesh Chinnadurai, Hima Kiran Vithal Venna, Vinod Banthia
Abstract Expanding and improving road network in India has been a catalyst for increased use of road transport in both passenger and goods sector. With improved road quality, bigger commercials vehicles have entered the market. These provide a larger cabin area and better amenities in the truck driver cabin. One of the most welcome features is berths for lying down and sleeping. In most designs though, only the functionality of the berth has been taken into consideration. Safety of the occupants of the berths in the event of panic braking or collision of the vehicle, has not been given adequate consideration. In this work, design of such berths from occupant safety point of view has been assessed. Kinematics of occupants, sleeping in different typical postures, during frontal impact, has been simulated and resulting critical injury levels have been estimated. Based on this information, different arrangements of belts in “screen” type configuration were developed.
Technical Paper
P Selvakumar, Arun Mahajan, R Murasolimaran, C Elango
Abstract Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to shorten the time and reduce the cost of new product development, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. By correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS. The Abaqus version 6.12 finite element software is used in the analysis, which includes the geometric, contact and material nonlinear options.
Technical Paper
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
Abstract This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness. The paper provides analysis of truck driver fatality and injury in crashes to provide a better understanding of how injury occurs and industry initiatives focused on reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit trucks in the Class 7 and 8 weight range. The analysis used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types. The paper includes analysis of crashes producing truck driver fatalities or injuries, a review of regulatory development and industry safety initiatives including barriers to implementation.
Technical Paper
Ajo John, Senthivinayagam Chandrasekaran
Abstract Front under run protection device (FUPD) is a regulatory requirement for passive safety of N2 & N3 category vehicle. This device gives effective protection for small vehicles (M1 or N1 category) against under running of big vehicles (N2 & N3 category) in the event of a frontal collision. FUPD generally consists of the front under run protector (FUP) and its mounting structure. As the compliance load target for N3 category is high, the FUP required achieving regulation target need to have high rigidity. This increases its size and hence the weight, Increase in weight has impact on payload and cost. To curtail the weight of FUP, in general Aluminum with higher strength is in use, but use of Aluminum increases the cost. So the main challenge in FUPD design is to achieve the design with optimal system weight & cost.
Technical Paper
Cheryl L. Greenly, James A. Beverly
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) realizes that medium and heavy vehicles have different issues than passenger vehicles with respect to tire pressure monitoring. The NHTSA did not have time during the one year deadline imposed by the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act to address these complex concerns in its rulemaking.1 This paper explores the unique concerns that accompany commercial vehicle tire pressure monitoring and management that must be considered before a potential regulation for the commercial vehicle industry can be implemented successfully.
Technical Paper
Frédéric Holzmann, Armin Sulzmann, Gernot Spiegelberg, Roland Siegwart, Heiner Bubb
This paper introduces a concept of predictive active safety by means of a full redundant architecture with the driver, from the perception of the environment to the vehicle controllers. The bottleneck of the current driver-vehicle association will be analyzed first. Then a virtual driver and the safety envelope of the different maneuvers will be described. A decision control will be presented that it matches the driver's command in this safety envelope. It is designed to give adequate feedback to the driver and can safely perform the command to the optimum of the chosen maneuver.
Technical Paper
Markus Plankensteiner, Kjeld Buus-Jensen, Finn Visgaard-Nielsen, Tomislav Lovric, Wolfgang Mickisch, Peter Rech, Christiana Seethaler
The development of Steer-by-Wire (SbW) systems for on-road use is a challenging task. In a joint industry effort several companies have teamed up in the TTA-Group SbW Working Group to develop an architectural cookbook for SbW. The working group started with the development of a concept document. It adopts IEC 61508 for the development of a reference SbW architecture for on-road use. The main focus of the working group will be achieved in a second step where common parts of the electronic architecture will be developed.
Technical Paper
Dejun Zhuang, Fan Yu, Daofei Li
For the purposes of on-line control, e.g., in an automatic driving system, or of closed-loop directional control simulation, an optimal preview artificial neural network (ANN) driver model based on error elimination algorithm(EEA) is built. Then the optimal preview times are discussed in high frequency range in this system. The simulation results of optimal preview ANN driver model and Error Elimination Algorithm driver model are compared under the condition of different vehicle speeds and paths, which shows that the proposed approach is efficient and reliable enough, particularly for driver-vehicle closed-loop system.
Technical Paper
Mark Alvick, Norm Ritchie, Daniel Schmit, Bruce Koepke, Michal Wozniak, James Chinni, Michael Roelleke, Elvira Diehl
Heavy trucks are produced with a great variety of vehicle configurations, operate over a wide range of gross vehicle weight and sometimes function in extreme duty environments. Frontal crashes of heavy trucks can pose a threat to truck occupants when the vehicle strikes another large object such as bridge works, large natural features or another heavy-duty vehicle. Investigations of heavy truck frontal crashes indicate that the factors listed above all affect the outcome for the driver and the resulting damage to the truck Recently, a new chassis was introduced for on-highway heavy truck models that feature frontal airbag occupant protection. This introduction presented an opportunity to incorporate the knowledge gained from crash investigation into the process for developing the crash sensor's parameter settings.
Technical Paper
Liborio Bortoni-Anzures, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Rodrigo Castañeda-Miranda, Miguel Martínez-Madrid
This paper presents an on-board instrumentation to evaluate articulated vehicle maneuvers, using a system that combines a set of sensors and a GPS receiver with custom-made evaluation software. This system allows evaluating vehicle maneuverability and the performance of the truck's driver in real time. Also the performance measures and test maneuvers are briefly described.
Technical Paper
M. J. Macnabb, A. K. Little, A. D. Lamb
BC Transit, a crown corporation in the province of British Columbia, has reported injuries resulting from passengers sliding off seats during extreme braking and/or turning maneuvers. The corporation was eager to determine whether seat design could help minimize the likelihood of passengers sliding off seats and initiated a review of existing forward facing seats. The review examined seats of different designs within the corporate fleet plus a prototype seat. Without the advantage of seat compartmentalization, passive restraints or seat belts to reduce occupant movement during harsh maneuvers or in a collision, seat design in the first forward facing position should consider characteristics that provide passive restraint for the occupant. Tests using a weighted body form and three common clothing fabrics set against each seat cushion found a surprisingly wide range of friction values.
Technical Paper
John Carlin, Charles Birdsong, Peter Schuster, William Thompson, Daniel Kawano
The future of vehicle safety will benefit greatly from precrash detection - the ability of a motor vehicle to predict the occurrence of an accident before it occurs. There are many different sensor technologies currently available for pre-crash detection. However no single sensor technology has demonstrated enough information gathering capability within the cost constraints of vehicle manufacturers to be used as a stand alone device. A proposed solution consists of combining information from multiple sensors in an intelligent computer algorithm to determine accurate precrash information. In this paper, a list of sensors currently available on motor vehicles and those that show promise for future development is presented. These sensors are then evaluated based on cost, information gathering capability and other factors.
Technical Paper
S. K. Patidar, V. Tandon, R. S. Mahajan, S. Raju
With ever-increasing concern for the occupant safety, it is desirable that the design of truck cab should meet the safety requirements specified in ECE R-29. The cab must be designed in such a way that, sufficient survival space to be guaranteed in the event of accident for the safety of the driver and co-driver. It was found that there are some areas, which are not covered by the standard or the standard is not very clear. This paper discusses about the practical problems incurred during implementation of the standard in Indian scenario and also suggests possible practical solutions.
Technical Paper
Osvaldo Fessahaie, Donald Crane, John Guglielmi, Lee Stucki
This paper presents an analytical evaluation of unrestrained drivers of light trucks, vans, and multi-purpose vehicles (LTV's) in frontal crashes. Of particular interest was modelling of impact with the steering assembly. The baseline condition was simulated and steering assembly improvements introduced to project estimates of benefits from these countermeasures. Compartment and steering assembly properties were collected for 15 LTV's representing the current LTV population. Computer model input sets were developed for simulating unrestrained driver frontal impacts with the steering assembly. The PAssenger And Driver Simulation (PADS) model was employed for the simulations. The baseline 15 LTV “fleet” was modeled in different frontal crash situations and compared to accident statistics. Countermeasures were introduced and estimates of benefits projected.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 298


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