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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1596
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2040
Mathew Heinecke, Jeremy Beedy, Kevin Horrigan, Raja Sengupta
The importance of fuel economy and emission standards has increased rapidly with high fuel costs and new environmental regulations. This requires analysis techniques capable of designing the next generation long-haul truck to improve both fuel efficiency and cooling. In particular, it is important to have a predictive design tool to assess how exterior design changes impact aerodynamic performance. This study evaluates the use of a Lattice Boltzmann based numerical simulation and the National Research Council (NRC) Canada's wind tunnel to assess aerodynamic drag on a production Volvo VNL tractor-trailer combination. Comparisons are made between the wind tunnel and simulation to understand the influence of wind tunnel conditions on truck aerodynamic performance. The production VNL testing includes a full range of yaw angles to demonstrate the influence of cross wind on aerodynamic drag.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0109
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1963
Richard Kolano
This paper presents the design, construction, and implementation of a novel sound transmission loss (STL) testing fixture that is unique to the automotive industry. This fixture was built within a large 1.68 m high × 2.74 wide (5′6″ × 9′0″) opening in the wall between a 497 m3 (17,591 ft3) reverberation room and an adjacent anechoic chamber. The fixture was designed and built to accommodate interchangeable plugs that allow STL measurements on an automotive ‘buck’ as well as on flat sample materials. It features a removable sample holding frame system that simply and quickly clamps in place and acoustically seals with a pneumatically inflated seal.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-2008
Steven Jorro, John Zehme, Sam Mleczko, Eglind Myftiu, Blake Rager
The reduction of full acceleration truck pass-by noise conforming to Type ECE-51 regulation (Reference 1) was predicted in a hemi-anechoic chassis dynamometer chamber with microphone arrays and compared with actual test track results. This gave a close match to the track data, with both showing a 4 dB reduction in the A-weighted overall noise level after identical acoustic treatments were applied. Noise control materials were selected to perform as acoustic barriers and absorbers. These were optimized by analyzing the 1/3 octave spectra, determining dominant frequency bands, in critical source locations and engine speeds, and using combinations that dissipate or contain energy well within those bands. With the truck being stationary while tested, important source locations could be quickly identified both subjectively and with localization tools such as Beamforming.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2440
Zhigang Wei
Numerous test data have been generated in many testing institutions over the years and the historical information from previous similar designs and operating conditions can shed light on the current and future designs since they would share some common features when the changes are not drastic. To effectively utilize the historical information for current and future designs, two steps are necessary: (1) finding an approach to consistently correlate the test data; (2) utilizing Bayesian statistics, which can provide a rigorous mathematical tool for extracting useful information from the historical data. In this paper, a procedure for test sample size reduction is proposed based on historical fatigue S-N test data and Bayesian statistics. First, the statistical information is extracted from a large amount of fatigue test data collected over the years.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2379
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson, Bala Gurusamy
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2377
Sivashankar S, Sudarsanam S, N. Saravanan
Based on customer application and loading condition, each Commercial Vehicle model has an entirely different usage pattern. To perform accurate durability validation, each vehicle model prototype should run on actual customer usage locations and loading conditions for the durability target kilometers. But it is time consuming and not practical. So a statistical approach is followed to generate the accelerated durability test sequence and target on in-house Proving Ground tracks to match the real customer usage for the durability target kilometers. Again a single durability test sequence and target cannot be followed for all vehicle models due to the variability in customer usage. For that, specific durability test sequence and target need to be established for every class of commercial vehicle. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability test sequence and target for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on variants of medium and heavy duty trucks.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2356
Boris Beloousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Vladimir Vantsevich, Dmitry Komissarov
Two characteristics of terrain mobility are essential in designing an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV): (i) the ability of a vehicle to move through terrain of a given trafficability and (ii) the obstacle performance, i.e., the ability to avoid, interact with and overcome obstacles encountered on a preset route of a vehicle. More attention has been given to the vehicle geometry including selection of the angles of approach and departure, radii of longitudinal and lateral terrain mobility, and the steering system configuration. An essential effect is exhibited by the tire properties in their interaction with the support surface; this, in turn, affects traction properties of the wheel and, thus, vehicle terrain mobility. However, the influence of power distribution between the driving wheels together with vehicle steering system on the two above-listed characteristics of terrain mobility has not been considered in depth.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1342
Luo Yan, Cheng Zhibin, Su Qingzu, Tian Xin, Cheng Xiaodong
In China, although overload phenomena are serious and effective transportation management is urgently demanded, equipment mainly used to check overloads is platform scales for static weighing. To develop an effective and economical Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system is imperative in China. With this awareness, we presented a new technology, using high-pressure oil pipe as the sensor of the WIM system. By acquiring and analyzing the pressure signals when vehicles run over the pipe, the wheel loads, axel loads and gross weight can be got. In this paper, the static characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the oil pipe have been researched, and the system's hardware and software were developed. Considering complicated characteristic of the oil pipe and other factors effecting WIM precision, we used neural networks to scale the WIM system dynamically. Test results showed that precision can satisfy the requirement of actual application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1191
Marcus Hiemer, Sebastian Lehr, Uwe Kiencke, Takanori Matsunaga
The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2679
Richard L. Wurst
This paper describes equipment developed to measure engine output torque. Several vehicle flexplates were modified and strain gauges were applied to measure torque. Special attention was paid to minimize or eliminate any changes in flexplate torsional stiffness. Torque signals are transmitted from the rotating flexplate to a stationary receiver via RF telemetry. The electronics on the rotating flexplate are powered using an induction power technique. This method was developed as a less invasive and less costly alternative to strain gauging a crankshaft.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2673
Jean-Claude Ossyra, Monika Ivantysynova
A new control concept was developed to minimize the power losses of a hydrostatic drive line for off-road vehicles. The drive line control concept is based on two separate closed loop controls, one for the hydrostatic transmission and another for the combustion engine. The command values for both control loops are calculated under consideration of the characteristic curves of the combustion engine and the losses within the hydrostatic transmission, using an on-line optimization procedure. This paper discusses the benefits of this control concept based on a comparison of typical realistic driving manoeuvres. Objective of the investigations for different output powers is the potential of fuel savings under different operating conditions. A hardware-in-the-loop test rig for the investigated hydrostatic propel drive is used for the experimental validation.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2688
Dogan San, Ergun Guraslan, Omer Rustu Ergen, Korhan Kanar
FORD OTOSAN has developed a new heavy-duty diesel engine, ECOTORQ, for the new Ford Cargo Trucks whose production started in September 2003. The engine is 7.3 liters, 6-cylinder in-line, with common rail fuel injection system and overhead camshaft design having 4 valves per cylinder. The engine meets the Euro-III exhaust emissions limits, which were in effect when it was introduced, and the engine incorporates the potential to meet Euro-IV. Modern computation and simulation methods were used and extensive experimental studies were made during the design and development stages, which helped reach the targets of compactness, modular structure, low fuel consumption, low noise level and low emissions.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2733
William P. Fornof
A coalescing filter is typically used in a compressed air system to remove liquid and oil aerosols. A coalescing filter is most efficient when located downstream of an air dryer. The air dryer removes most of the liquid oil condensed in the compressor discharge line. Measuring the percent of oil removed by a coalescing filter is useful for determining efficiency. This paper covers a laboratory method to reproduce oil aerosols much like the filter will see in an actual application. High duty cycles produce the maximum amount of oil from the compressor. The air dryer acts as pre-filter for the coalescing filter. The coalescing filter element and its associated housing should be tested as a unit since the element's inherent efficiency is effected by the design of the housing.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2648
Christopher W. Ferrrone
Current regulations (49 CFR Part 396.11 and 396.13) mandate that a commercial driver inspect the vehicle at the conclusion of the duty shift. This inspection should note any defects which were noticed during use. This report must be in writing. Unfortunately, many drivers have chosen not to do the inspection, but falsely fill out the report form or simply do nothing at all. A 2002 study shows that as many as 23.7% of all commercial vehicles inspected (levels 1, 2, 5) were found to be defective1. A 2003 study showed that as many as 23.2% of large trucks and 10.3% of commercial buses were deemed out of service2. This poor behavior has a direct effect on safety. Specifically an increased number of accidents related to maintenance defects. In fact, as much as a 5% increase in fatal accidents can be attributed to mechanical defects3. A product has been developed which forces the driver to go to each of the legally prescribed areas of the inspection.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2697
Leonard Kuo-Liang Shih, Tien-Chou Hsu
In the past decades, the diesel engines are considered as the major power source, not only because of their high thermal efficiency, high torque output, and easy maintenance; but also due to the improved exhaust emissions reduction technology. In order to increase the thermal efficiency, the low heat rejection ceramic coating engine is one of the possible solutions for future engine manufacturing. Due to the thermal insulating effects of the ceramic material (low thermal conductivity), the cylinder charge and engine components' temperatures are substantially increased. However, the thermal impact problem and the possible high friction characteristics of the new coating material can be deadly to the engine's lifetime. Various non-ceramic and ceramic materials are tested in this research to decide their thermal insulating effects on the engine performance and their downside on the friction and thermal impact problems.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3437
Paulo Pedro Kenedi, Leydervan de Souza Xavier, Ricardo A. Amar de Aguiar, Rafael de Oliveira Sampaio, Thiago Fontes Carvalho de Queiroz
In order to resist impact loadings that usually occurs in an off-road circuit an integrated approach of mechanical design is developed to obtain an optimized vehicle suspension. Efforts were made to model a front suspension, type double A of an off-road vehicle Mini-Baja. The focus was stressed in the transmissibility of mechanical forces through front suspension. A simple analytic model was done to esteem the reactions generated at points of linkage of suspension and structure of Mini-Baja, during a transient impact load. Numerical simulation softwares were also used to visualize dynamic behavior of different front suspension configurations. Finally experimental test was done with data acquisition system, with the use of load cells, to generate a reference data to compare analytic and numerical models.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1648
Xubin Song, Mehdi Ahmadian
This paper presents a parametric study of two semiactive adaptive control algorithms through simulation: the non-model based skyhook control, and the newly developed model-based nonlinear adaptive vibration control. This study includes discussion of suspension model setup, dynamic analysis approach, and controller tuning. The simulation setup is from a heavy-duty truck seat suspension with a magneto-rheological (MR) damper. The dynamic analysis is performed in the time domain using sine sweep excitations without the need to linearize such a nonlinear semiactive system that is studied here. Through simulation, the effectiveness of both control algorithms is demonstrated for vibration isolation. The computation flops of the simulation in the SIMULINK environment are compared, and the adaptability is studied with respect to plant variations and different excitation profiles, both of which come across typically for vehicle suspension systems.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1768
Wolfram Hohmann
In this paper we will explore how 15 years after being introduced into avionics systems, “by-wire” technologies have entered the automotive world. The use of software within safety-relevant application areas like restraint systems, braking, steering and vehicle dynamics support and control systems, is requiring changes in the processes and methodologies used for embedded software development.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0038
S. R. Nigade, S. S. Dandge, R. S. Mahajan, H. V. Vankudre
Automotive Industry Standard (AIS)-031 specifies the requirement of strength of large passenger vehicles in case of rollover. In India the certificate is granted after the successful completion of rollover test of the vehicle as per AIS-031. Complete vehicle is used for rollover test in which the vehicle is tilted laterally in the ditch of 800 mm. Such tests with complete vehicle are costly and unaffordable to small bus body builders. So according to Annex 2 of AIS-031, manufacture can carryout rollover on body sections of the vehicle. This is an equivalent approval method which is less costly compared to rollover test on complete vehicle. It requires detailed study of superstructure and selection of weakest body sections from the given superstructure of bus, which in turn requires mass and energy calculation of body section. For doing rollover analysis using body section, bus is selected which has already passed a full-rollover test.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0137
Sivashankar S, Hari Krishna SV, Alfred Nixon Mendez, Colin J. Dodds
Every class of commercial vehicle has an entirely different usage pattern based on customer application and needs. To perform accurate durability testing, these prototypes should run on real customer usage locations and loading conditions for the target life. However, this is time consuming and not practical, hence resulting in Proving Ground (PG) testing. It is also known that a standard PG durability cycle cannot be valid for every class of vehicle and every application. So a statistical approach was followed to develop an accelerated durability test cycle based on in-house PG test surfaces in order to match the real customer usage to the durability target life. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability Validation test cycles for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on a heavy duty tipper and an intermediate commercial vehicle.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0154
Vyankatesh Madane, Abhijit Swami, Mihir Shah, S. S. Sane
Products from the developed western countries are brought to India by different manufacturers. It is needed to look at the different aspects of the vehicles like performance parameters, structural stability, serviceability etc, as the requirement of the local market differ vastly from those requirement of the original markets. Indian market condition demands the vehicle suitable for taking the abuse load on the rough roads as the road conditions in the mofussil area and country side are bad. This paper describes the definition and validation of the carryover products, to suit the Indian conditions by using different techniques, to reduce time to market. This paper describes the creation of accelerated endurance test cycle for a mini truck which is representative of Indian customer usage of 120,000 km. Relative damage method is used for correlation of proving ground (track) with customer usage pattern on selected channels.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0151
Arvind K. Jain, Sathish Madaswamy, Sudarsanam S, Venkat Srinivas
Demand for a refined Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) is increasing due to rapid Indian economic growth, while the operating conditions and road infrastructures are still in a transition state of development. The same vehicle model will be operated in a range of operating road conditions like mining sites, construction sites, and highways with varying payloads and speeds by customers that are spread across the country. This variety of road inputs, payloads and speeds has made ride tuning as one of the major challenging process in the development process. This paper describes the attempt to assess ride comfort of HCV with fully suspended cab using numerical based simulation tools and its correlation with physical test results. The best suspension combination was finalized based on vertical and pitch acceleration at Center of Gravity (CG) of the cab. The trend of vertical acceleration obtained from the virtual model was correlated with the same obtained from physical test.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0313
Fernando Z. Sánchez, Carlos V. M. Braga, Leonardo C. Braga, Sergio L. Braga, Flávio G. Dias, Franck Y. Turkovics, Renata N. C. De Souza
Nowadays, many researches are being carried out to replace the diesel by alternative fuels. Biodiesel and ethanol are strong candidates for this purpose. However, the experimental study of the combustion of biofuels in engines is not an easy task. Due to the large differences between the properties of the new fuels and the conventional diesel, radical changes may be needed in current engines, developed specifically for the fossil fuel. So, the experimental study of ethanol compression ignition (CI) combustion is not simple to be obtained in conventional engines. Therefore, some experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM), are useful to conduct this kind of study. This paper describes the RCM adaptations made in order to run CI combustion tests using Ethanol-Powered (ED95) and Diesel (S50) for different compression ratios and injection timing.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0817
Chenaniah Langness, Michael Mangus, Christopher Depcik
Abstract In order to perform cutting-edge engine research that applies to modern Compression Ignition (CI) engines, a sophisticated test cell is needed that allows control of the engine and its auxiliary systems. The primary obstacle to the completion of such a test cell is the up-front expense. This paper covers the construction of a low cost, single-cylinder engine test cell while demonstrating the type of research that can be accomplished along the way. The components necessary for the construction, instrumentation, and operation of such a test cell, neglecting emissions analysis equipment, can be obtained for less than $150,000. The engine utilized, a naturally-aspirated single-cylinder Yanmar L100V, was purchased as an engine-generator package.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1163
Mrinmoy Dam, John Nuszkowski, Gregory J. Thompson
Diesel engines are highly reliable, durable and are used for a wide range of applications with low fuel usage owing to its higher thermal efficiency compared to other mobile power sources. Heavy-duty diesel engines are used for both on-road and off-road applications and dominate the heavy-duty engine segment of the United States transportation market. Due to their high reliability, there are considerable numbers of on-road legacy heavy-duty diesel engine fleets still in use in the United States. These engines are relatively higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) producers than post 2007 model year diesel engines. There have been various emission certification or verification programs which are carried out in states like California and Texas for different aftermarket retrofit devices, fuels and additive technologies for reducing NOx and PM emissions from these legacy diesel engines.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2291
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Yves Provencher
This project's objective was the development of an on-road vehicle fuel consumption test procedure for representative stop-and-go urban duty cycles. The scope of the project included a review of existing stop-and-go urban duty cycles, the development of a track testing methodology for measuring the fuel consumption on stop-and-go urban duty cycles, and testing with a view to the validation of the methodology. Literature review analyzed several transport activities to determine specific stop-and-go urban duty cycles, such as pick-up and delivery operations, refuse collection, bus transport, and utility and service operation. It was found that driving cycles should be easy enough to recreate and replicate on the test track and should be representative of application driving patterns. The cycles should be adapted for fuel economy testing, and geometric cycles are easier to follow than the cycles based on actual drive traces.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2292
Tianlei Zheng, Yuefu Jin, Zhao Wang, Michael Wang, Freda Fung, Fatumata Kamakate, Huiming Gong
To restrain the environmental and energy problems caused by oil consumption and improve fuel economy of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, China started developing relevant standards from 2008. This paper introduces the background and development of China's national standard “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”, and mainly describes the test method schemes, driving cycle and weighting factors for calculating average fuel consumption of various vehicle categories. The standard applies to heavy-duty vehicles with the maximum design gross mass greater than 3500 kg, including semi-trailer tractors, common trucks, dump trucks, city buses and common buses. The standard adopts the C-WTVC driving cycle which is adjusted on the basis of the World Transient Vehicle Cycle[1, 2] and specifies weighting factors of urban, rural and motorway segments for different vehicle categories.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2261
Jace Allen, Amanjot Dhaliwal, Jeff Warra
Currently, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing is the defacto standard for ECU verification and validation at the majority of the Commercial Vehicle OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. HIL Testing is used to shorten development and testing time for both engine and machine control systems. In order to use this process, many of these companies have to develop and maintain expertise in the area of Model-based development (MBD). This paper introduces an approach which allows for the effective use of HIL systems without having to directly work in a MBD environment. Many HIL tests can be done with stimulus and response analysis of the ECUs, given core knowledge of the expected behavior of its control software and I/O subsystems. For hardware interface and diagnostics validation, this open-loop testing of the controller may suffice. It is important to provide the tester with capabilities to easily modify these stimuli and evaluate the responses.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0511
Andre Oliveira, Lucas Coser, Vinicius Porto
Methods for determining the acoustic absorption coefficient of materials are broadly known in NVH engineering and traditionally rely on measurements performed in specimens carefully prepared such as those used in the Kundt's tube. It is understood that the acoustic behavior of a material slice in a well-controlled test bench provides very different circumstances from those found when the material is used in its application location (in situ condition) mostly because of the structural interactions and the boundary conditions involved. Many questions arise when the goal is to understand which absorbing material will be more effective and, moreover, if its cost is worth enough to solve particular noise issues. To answer those questions, acoustic impedance determination using direct particle velocity measurements were used in this work, in which several absorbing coatings used in specific regions of Brazilian truck cabins were mapped and compared.
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