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Viewing 1 to 30 of 321
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2679
Richard L. Wurst
This paper describes equipment developed to measure engine output torque. Several vehicle flexplates were modified and strain gauges were applied to measure torque. Special attention was paid to minimize or eliminate any changes in flexplate torsional stiffness. Torque signals are transmitted from the rotating flexplate to a stationary receiver via RF telemetry. The electronics on the rotating flexplate are powered using an induction power technique. This method was developed as a less invasive and less costly alternative to strain gauging a crankshaft.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2688
Dogan San, Ergun Guraslan, Omer Rustu Ergen, Korhan Kanar
FORD OTOSAN has developed a new heavy-duty diesel engine, ECOTORQ, for the new Ford Cargo Trucks whose production started in September 2003. The engine is 7.3 liters, 6-cylinder in-line, with common rail fuel injection system and overhead camshaft design having 4 valves per cylinder. The engine meets the Euro-III exhaust emissions limits, which were in effect when it was introduced, and the engine incorporates the potential to meet Euro-IV. Modern computation and simulation methods were used and extensive experimental studies were made during the design and development stages, which helped reach the targets of compactness, modular structure, low fuel consumption, low noise level and low emissions.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2261
Jace Allen, Amanjot Dhaliwal, Jeff Warra
Currently, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing is the defacto standard for ECU verification and validation at the majority of the Commercial Vehicle OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. HIL Testing is used to shorten development and testing time for both engine and machine control systems. In order to use this process, many of these companies have to develop and maintain expertise in the area of Model-based development (MBD). This paper introduces an approach which allows for the effective use of HIL systems without having to directly work in a MBD environment. Many HIL tests can be done with stimulus and response analysis of the ECUs, given core knowledge of the expected behavior of its control software and I/O subsystems. For hardware interface and diagnostics validation, this open-loop testing of the controller may suffice. It is important to provide the tester with capabilities to easily modify these stimuli and evaluate the responses.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0038
Fabio Augusto Schuh, Leandro Luís Corso, Leonardo Hoss
Abstract Applying knowledge available at technical literature for cycle counting, damage caused by each load cycle through S-N curve, and fatigue damage accumulation by Palmgren-Miner rule, durability prediction is performed for a leafspring of a commercial vehicle with 6×4 suspension system. Max principal tension is measured by means of strain gages in the most representative points for fatigue life of the leafspring, determined with FEA, while vehicle runs over off-road track in a proving ground. Load and tension are also measured in a laboratory bench test for this component. Correlation between off-road track and bench test is then performed. Finally, representative samples of the component are tested with dynamic loading until fatigue fracture in bench test, and using data from these tests, statistical analysis is performed with application of Weibull distribution, allowing life prediction in statistical terms.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0028
Jihyun An, Seungwon Yoo, KwangChan Ko, Jongchan Park
Abstract This paper presents an industrial application of the Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) methodology to the optimal design of commercial vehicle steering and suspension system. This is a pilot study about the suspension and steering design of a semi medium bus, whose objective is to develop and introduce an ATC methodology to an automobile development process. In the conventional process, it is difficult not only to find design variables which meet the target of Ride and Handling (R&H) performance using a detailed full car model, but also to figure out the interrelation between the vehicle and its subsystems. In this study, ATC methodology is used in order to obtain the optimal values such as geometric characteristics satisfying both the vehicle's R&H target and the subsystem (suspension and steering system) 's target.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0005
Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, A. K. Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das, Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N. B. Chougule
Abstract Depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the unsteadiness of their prices and the increasingly stricter exhaust emission legislation put forward attention of world towards use of alternate fuels. The ever increasing demand for ecologically friendly vehicles can be met by use of clean fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). Lower carbon to hydrogen ratio of CNG makes it a cleaner fuel, due to this CNG is gaining popularity as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel in transport sector. Hydrogen fuel for IC engines is also being considered as a future fuel due to its simple carbon less structure. However, several obstacles have to be overcome before widespread utilization of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can occur in the transport sector. The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and could be considered a first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0474
Shukai Yang, Bingwu Lu, Zuokui Sun, Yingjie Liu, Hangsheng Hou
Abstract A low frequency vibration issue around 3.2 Hz occurs during a commercial heavy truck program development process, and it is linked to extremely uncomfortable driving and riding experiences. This work focuses on an analytical effort to resolve the issue by first building a full vehicle MBS (multi-body-system) model, and then carrying out vibration response analyses. The model validation is performed by using full vehicle testing in terms of structural modes and frequency response characteristics. In order to resolve the issue which is excited by tire non-uniformity, the influence of the cab suspension, frame modes, front leaf spring system and rear tandem suspension is analyzed. The root cause of the issue is found to be the poor isolation of the rear tandem suspension system. The analytical optimization effort establishes the resolution measure for the issue.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0242
Ashwin Vaidyanathan, Aono Noriaki
Abstract This paper reinforces the importance of correlation between CAE Analysis of CAB Bridge and Vehicle test data. CAB Bridge is a structural assembly, bolted to the Frame of a Truck. The initial objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of particular design modification on CAB Bridge. To perform CAE calculations, two different iterations of Boundary & loading conditions, were established and executed using CATIA V5. During Post processing of CAE results, detailed data analysis and interpretation were performed. The results of CAE Analysis and Vehicle test data were compared, to identify the iteration that correlated better with Vehicle test data. The data analysis and interpretation guided in finding key observations and concluding that the Torsion case as the most important loading condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0381
L. Karthik, R. Dinesh Kumar, E. Prasanna Kumar, V. Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract This abstract work describes a method of data acquisition and validation procedure followed for a metal bumper used in commercial vehicle application. Covariance is considered as major phenomenon for repeatable measurements in proving ground data acquisition and it is to be maintained less than 0.05. In this project covariance of data acquisition is analyzed before physical simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial testing were carried out to attain the failure. PG data is used for bi-axial vibration test and conventional constant spectrum signal (CSD signal) is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target duration for uni-axial test (Z direction) was arrived using pseudo damage calculation. Strain gauges were installed in failure locations to compare PG data and rig data as well as to calculate strain life. Failures were simulated in bi-axial vibration test.
1938-01-01
Technical Paper
380010
E. S. Twining
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3508
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Chad Serrell, Shiju Jacob, Rob Morin, Zlatomir Kircanski, Mike McCarthy
Knitted wiremesh along with radial gas tight seals provide reliable mounting system for low temperature underbody converters. The compression characteristics of the wiremesh is modified by wire material, wire diameter, wire geometry, mesh crimp heights; wire density, wiremesh courses per inch, needle count, number of strands, wiremesh temper, wiremesh surface profile and surface characteristics. The radial mounting pressure provided by the wiremesh is matched with the mounting pressure requirement. Wiremesh systems can be tailored to any required radial mounting pressure from conventional to ultra thin-wall substrates. The wiremesh mounting system is proven durable, without any failure on more than 25 million underbody converters in light duty vehicles. Cp and Cpk show the capability of the manufacturing process. Thus the wiremesh mounting support is a viable alternate for low temperature gasoline and diesel applications.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3509
Yougen Kong, Tom Kozakiewicz, Randy Johnson, Chris Huffmeyer, Jon Huckaby, John Abel, Jon Baurley, Kendall Duffield
A Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is needed to meet the Particulate Matter (PM) requirements of US EPA 2007 regulations for diesel engines. A catalyzed diesel particulate filter (cDPF or CSF) in combination with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is effective if the DOC has achieved light-off. However, for some applications, exhaust temperature will be too low to achieve DOC light-off. Therefore a reliable active regeneration means will be required. This paper presents a diesel-fired filter regenerator that works with an uncoated DPF. During regeneration, the thermal regenerator raises the exhaust temperature to 650 °C at the filter face at any engine condition, including idle. The thermal regenerator was tested on a cordierite filter placed on a heavy-duty diesel engine with cooled-EGR (2007 calibrations). THC, CO and NOx emissions, as well as opacity, in the tailpipe were measured at both steady state and transient engine conditions.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3500
Cameron Massey, Arthur Bekaryan, Ping Liu, Antony Parulian, Lance Turner, Damon Frisch, Trudy Weber, Mark Verbrugge
Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) testing is a means for validating and verifying component designs in a system context. Most current HWIL work with electrochemical systems for automotive applications has focused on the pack level, providing valuable feedback to system designers. Further benefits are realized by implementing this concept earlier in the development process; applying test vectors to an individual cell, but attenuating the stimulus and feedback to pack levels. This paper reports on a cell-level HWIL system designed to evaluate electrochemical cells and associated subsystems for advanced hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The architecture of the system is described along with an example of its application applied to a commercially available supercapacitor and a state-of-charge algorithm in an HEV-based configuration.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3641
Richard Fraer, Han Dinh, Kenneth Proc, Robert L. McCormick, Kevin Chandler, BuchholzBruce Buchholz
Biodiesel has been used to reduce petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. B20, a 20% blend of biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel, has become the most common blend used in the United States. Little quantitative information is available on the impact of biodiesel on engine operating costs and durability. In this study, eight engines and fuel systems were removed from trucks that had operated on B20 or diesel, including four 1993 Ford cargo vans and four 1996 Mack tractors (two of each running on B20 and two on diesel). The engines and fuel system components were disassembled, inspected, and evaluated to compare wear characteristics after 4 years of operation and more than 600,000 miles accumulated on B20. The vehicle case history-including mileage accumulation, fuel use, and maintenance costs-was also documented. The results indicate that there was little difference that could be attributed to fuel in operational and maintenance costs between the B20- and diesel-fueled groups.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0093
Kati Lehtoranta, Pekka Matilainen, Juha-Matti Åsenbrygg, Ari Lievonen, Toni-JJ Kinnunen, Jorma Keskinen, Anu Solla
The effect of a novel particle oxidation catalyst (POC®) on diesel particle emissions is studied in heavy duty and light duty applications. Regulated particulate matter (PM) emission measurement is followed by analyzing either soluble organic fraction (SOF) or volatile organic (VOF) fraction. In addition, in heavy duty diesel application, size distributions are measured. Results show that PM reductions as high as 48-79% can be achieved when using POC in combination with a conventional diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). As expected, the volatile fraction of the PM was very effectively reduced, but also the non-volatile fraction (i.e. soot) was reduced. In tested steady state driving modes soot reduction was found to be 31-55%.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4271
A. R. Mache, S. G. Joshi
Abstract In this paper, the use of an electromagnetic damper has been demonstrated for control of vibration of a typical road vehicle suspension system. For this purpose, a quarter car model of a conventional passive suspension system has been modified by including an electromagnetic damper. The theoretical frequency response characteristics of this model have been determined and have been correlated with those obtained by the experimental analysis. For this purpose, a laboratory type 2DOF quarter car model with an electromagnetic damper has been fabricated. The electromagnetic damper used in the experimental analysis has been developed by using a combination of an electromagnet and the permanent magnet keeping an air gap between them. Experimental frequency response characteristics have been obtained using an experimental test set up developed for the same.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4204
Helmer R. Acevedo G., Juan M. Mantilla G., Carlos H. Galeano U., Carlos A. Duque D.
The purpose of this work was to study the use of blends with up to 10% of bio-fuels in Bogotá. Two and three component mixtures were used containing petroleum petrodiesel fuel plus crude and refined African palm oil, oleine and anhydrous ethanol. Tests were made on the exhaust gases for opacity and weight of the particulate matter retained by filtration on glass filters. Torque, power, rpm and temperature of the combustion gases were recorded. Tests were run for NOx, CO, and SOx. Three different diesel engines were used: a single cylinder Lister engine fitted for tests, a 6 cylinder Cummins engine and a 6 cylinder Caterpillar engine. The results show a positive potential of palm oil RBD, palm oil oleine and anhydrous ethanol for blends with commercial petroleum diesel fuel in the Andes mountains.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4208
Xubin Song, Thomas Genise, Daniel G. Smedley
ADVISOR is a flexible drivetrain analysis tool, developed in MATLAB/Simulink® to compare fuel economy and emissions performance between different drivetrain configurations. This paper reports a couple of numerical issues with application of ADVISOR 2002 to commercial vehicles with traditional powertrain systems. One instance is when ADVISOR model is set up to simulate running a heavy-duty (HD) truck with an automated manual transmission (AMT) on a demanding pickup-delivery duty cycle. The other is highlighted during an analysis of a medium-duty (MD) truck with an automatic transmission (AT) where wide-open throttle, i.e., fast acceleration is requested. These two cases have shown different numerical difficulties by using ADVISOR 2002. Based on studying the details of the models, solutions to these numerical issues are developed. The simulation results will demonstrate the effectiveness of these solutions.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4209
Rui Chen, Yugong Luo
This paper developed a control system for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in off-road series hybrid electric special vehicle. A control system configuration was designed according to the requirements of the high voltage system in series hybrid electric special vehicle. Then optimal engine operating areas were defined. A gain scheduling engine speed PI controller was designed based on these areas. A closed loop voltage regulator was designed for the synchronous generator. The proposed control system was first validated on an APU control test bench. The test results showed the control system guaranteed the diesel APU good dynamic response characteristics while remaining stable output voltage. Finally, the APU control system was implemented on a diesel APU in an off-road series hybrid electric vehicle and a road test was conducted. The road test results showed the APU control system promised good performance in both vehicle dynamics and vehicle high voltage system.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4210
Rafał Longwic
The results of indicating the Diesel engine in dynamic conditions have been presented in the paper. Dynamic conditions of engine work were achieved by free running up of the engine caused by the step change of the position of the lever controlling the fuel dose. The parameters of the combustion process were calculated: mean indicated pressure, maximum combustion pressure, the angle of combustion start occurrence, the angle of maximum combustion pressure occurrence, maximum velocity of pressure rise, the angle of self-ignition lag. The influence of the angle of dynamic fuel pumping start and injector opening pressure on the values of mean indicated pressures obtained in dynamic conditions were the subject of analysis. The method of neural network was used for the purpose of investigation. The results may be useful to effective control of the diesel engine under dynamic conditions.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4215
Liborio Bortoni-Anzures, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Rodrigo Castañeda-Miranda, Miguel Martínez-Madrid
This paper presents an on-board instrumentation to evaluate articulated vehicle maneuvers, using a system that combines a set of sensors and a GPS receiver with custom-made evaluation software. This system allows evaluating vehicle maneuverability and the performance of the truck's driver in real time. Also the performance measures and test maneuvers are briefly described.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4224
Scott Chase, Ryan Nevin, Richard Winsor, Kirby Baumgard
Experimental investigations were conducted on a novel, Stoichiometric Compression Ignition (SCI) combustion system designed to operate a diesel engine at stoichiometric equivalence ratios. Development of such a combustion concept offers the potential to retain the advantages of the diesel cycle while combining simple, reliable three-way catalyst technology for NOx control. Traditionally, operation of a diesel engine at near stoichiometric equivalence ratios has resulted in excessive particulate matter (PM) emissions due to the heterogeneous, stratified nature of diesel combustion in conjunction with reduced A/F ratios. However, development of the SCI combustion concept has displayed the potential to reduce PM emissions at stoichiometric equivalence ratios to levels manageable by a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions would meet Final Tier 4 standards, assuming conservative three-way catalyst conversion efficiencies are obtainable.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4189
H Rabibunnisa, Swarna Ramesh
The Suspension systems of Armoured Fighting Vehicles demand non-linear spring characteristics, variable damping, good ride cum handling characteristics and excellent crew comfort. Mechanical System Laboratory of CVRDE has carried out extensive performance evaluation and endurance testing activity of the Hydro gas Suspension Systems in the existing test rig. The tests involve measurement of spring characteristics and damping behavior. The stringent design requirement of futuristic combat vehicles has called for severe test conditions, accurate simulation of terrain and extensive fatigue testing for design validation. Hence MSL has taken up the design of state of the art Suspension Test Facility to meet the test protocol. This facility is capable of conventional testing of components using constant frequency - constant amplitude, simulation of service loads, acceptance testing, durability and endurance testing with fixed end configuration.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2637
Mark Pecqueur, Kristof Ceustermans, Pieter Huyskens, Dimitrios Savvidis
Green fuels or alternative fuels are growing fast now days and can be used in every passenger car but also in many commercial vehicles. In various countries all around Europe such as Italy, Netherlands and Belgium LPG is a reasonable alternative fuel for small and medium cars. This study evaluated the performance of a Suzuki Liane fitted with a multipoint in-line gas fuel injection system. During the tests various exhaust gasses (CO, CO2, NOx, O2 and HC) and temperatures were measured in different load condition on a chassis dynamometer. All tests were conducted in the engines laboratory at Karel de Grode Hogeschool (KDG) in Antwerp, Belgium. The car was tested on a chassis dynamometer similar to the one described in [1], [2], [3] and various loads were applied at different gear settings. All measurements were taken under full load and four different gears (2nd gear, 3rd gear, 4th gear and 5th gear) were selected in the gear box.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3587
Leo P. Miller, Carlos E. Agudelo
Military and commercial fleets share many challenges, most of which are driven by Federal laws, regulations, and policies. The US military has one of the largest and most varied wheeled vehicle fleets in the world with a broad range of vehicle weights and types, most over 10,000 lbs GVW. These vehicle brake systems include disc and drum, using mechanical, hydraulic, and air actuation systems. The US military buys vehicle systems only, not the individual components or subsystems other than for spare parts (a.k.a. Secondary Items). In addition, brake shoes are bought as assembled units only and not as separate brake blocks or lining. The objective of the Government project presented in this paper was to provide a decision-making tool so that the responsible engineering authority could make a reasoned decision on the acceptability of alternative spare parts and sources through a Government-approved standardized off-vehicle testing process.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3582
Liang Chu, Jiayun Gu, Jun Zhang, Li Liu, Minghui Liu, Wenruo Wei
In the performance evaluating of Electronic Brake System, conventional test methods have some inconvenience in existence. For example, the fixing of pressure sensors and wheel speed sensors is restrained by the installation position, and the precision of measuring is prone to be affected by the environment conditions. Since Electronic Brake System is featured by CAN (Controller Area Network) communication, special testing instrument can be connected with CAN bus, monitoring signals transmitting on the bus. This paper outlines the results of the study performed to analyze the application of CAN communication in the way of performance evaluation of Electronic Braking System.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3567
Lawrence J. Dalimonte, Adam Kotrba, Keith Olivier, Ruth Latham
A unique validation method is proposed for mount designs of Lean NOx Traps (LNT's), in which characteristic curves of failure points as functions of thermal cycles and vibration amplitudes are generated. LNT's are one of the several new types of emissions control devices applied to Diesel Exhaust Systems, and they reduce the amount of NOx through chemical adsorption. Desulfation must occur nearly every hour, which involves raising the inlet gas temperature of the LNT to around 700°C to “burn off” sulfur from the catalyst, which otherwise would decrease its catalytic activity. This temperature is held for several minutes, and its cyclic occurrence has a negative effect on the long-term performance of the support mat, a major component of its mount design. As substrate temperatures increase, shell temperatures do as well, and thermal growth differences between the ceramic substrate and metallic shell cause the gap between them, which is filled by the support mat, to increase.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3571
Liang Chu, Shaomin Ming, Yongsheng Zhang, Yajun Zhu, Minghui Liu, Wenruo Wei
The new control algorithm for parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented systematically, in which engine operation points are limited within higher efficient area by the control algorithm and the state of charge (SOC) is limited in a range in order to enhance the batteries' charging and discharging efficiency. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine, the control strategy uses a lookup table to determine the torque output of the engine. The off-line simulation model of parallel HEV power train is developed which includes the control system and controlled objective (such as engine, electric motor, battery pack and so on). The results show that the control algorithm can effectively limite engine and battery operation points and much more fuel economy can be achieved than that of conventional one.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3563
Helmut Dannbauer, Matthias Meise, Otmar Gattringer, Michael Steinbatz
This paper discusses different aspects of linking virtual and physical testing methods. Key technologies for this are Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Multi Body Simulation (MBS), virtual iteration techniques (VIT) and fatigue life prediction (FLP). On the one hand simulation can be used to set up, improve and run test rigs more efficiently. On the other hand methods from testing can be used in CAE to generate loads, adapt model parameters or find simpler loads that still deliver the desired test result. In the future it should get practical to simulate tests in full detail before physical testing. All this will help to reduce effort and time during the vehicle development process.
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