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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1632
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0437
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Due to the importance of the fast transportation under every circumstance, the transportation process may require a high speed heavy vehicle from time to time, which may turn the transportation process more unsafe. Due to that fact the truck safety during braking and the ride comfort during long distance travelling with high speeds should be improved. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a control system which combines the suspension and braking systems. The control system consists of three controllers; the first one for the active suspension system of the truck body and cab, the second one for the ABS and, the third for the integrated control system between the active suspension system and the ABS. The control strategy is also separated into two strategies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0399
Andre Ferrarese, Jason Bieneman, David J. Domanchuk, Thomas Smith, Thomas Stong, Peter Einberger
Changing emission legislation limits are challenging the engine developers in many aspects. Requirement to improve combustion and engine efficiency have resulted in increased loads and higher levels of abrasive particles within the engine environment. Concerning piston rings and piston ring grooves, such engine modifications are leading to critical tribological conditions and side wear is becoming a key issue in the design of these components. Historically one of the most common forms of side wear protection on piston rings has been chromium plate. This solution has limitations on durability (low thickness) and on topography (rough surfaces). In response to these limitations, nitrided stainless steel top rings have been used to improve the side protection; it is harder and typically has a smoother surface finish when compared to chromium coating.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0656
Jason A. Lustbader, John P. Rugh, Brianna R. Rister, Travis S. Venson
In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs per year primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on solutions to this challenge through the CoolCab project. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. To help assess and improve idle reduction solutions, the CoolCalc software tool was developed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0240
Saurav Talukdar, Salil Kulkarni
The planar rigid bicycle model is one of the most popular models used in vehicle dynamics. It has widely been used in studying vehicle handling characteristics and designing steering control system for vehicles. This paper analyses a modified dynamic model called the "Elastic Bicycle Model." This model improves upon the classical bicycle model by taking into account the flexibility of the vehicle frame by using concepts from the Euler beam theory. Complete set of the resulting dynamic equations of this model are presented. Non-dimensional versions of the equations are used to investigate the steady state response of the model. Finally, the results of the response study obtained by modeling a small truck with an elastic model and the classical bicycle model are presented. These include the steady state solutions as function of different parameters as well as a transient solution in response to a saw-tooth steering input and a step input. Octave® has been used for simulation purpose.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0174
Lisa Larsson, Torbjörn Wiklund, Lennart Löfdahl
The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0162
Ming Jiang, Huaizhu Wu, Kebing Tang, Minsuk Kim, Sivapalan Senthooran, Heinz Friz, Yingzhe Zhang
The engineering process in the development of commercial vehicles is facing more and more stringent emission regulations while at the same time the market demands for better performance but with lower fuel consumption. The optimization of aerodynamic performance for reduced drag is a key element for achieving related performance targets. Closely related to aerodynamics are wind noise and cabin soiling and both of them are becoming more and more important as a quality criterion in many markets. This paper describes the aerodynamic and aero-acoustic performance evaluation of a Dongfeng heavy truck using digital simulation based on a LBM approach. It includes a study for improving drag within the design of a facelift of the truck. A soiling analysis is performed for each aerodynamic result by calculating the accumulation of particles emitted form the wheels on the cabin. One of the challenges in the development process of trucks is that different cabin types have to be designed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0651
Joshua Pryor, Matt Pierce, Eric Fremond, Yanick Michou
This paper presents the efforts done by Volvo 3P, through a partnership with ThermoAnalytics Inc, to develop transient thermal simulation methodologies of the under hood of a truck. The verification process for the hot spots analysis currently in use at Volvo 3P is described and the key transient situations for the hot spots analysis are identified: hot shutdown, DPF regeneration and long drive cycle, are currently only covered by physical testing late in the project, contrary to steady-state operating conditions that are already managed through simulations in the early stage of the development phase. The goal of this work is to develop simulation methodologies for these transient situations which are likely to increase the efficiency of the verification process. The key issues to be satisfied are to minimize the model development and the simulation times while achieving an acceptable accuracy level.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-2008
Steven Jorro, John Zehme, Sam Mleczko, Eglind Myftiu, Blake Rager
The reduction of full acceleration truck pass-by noise conforming to Type ECE-51 regulation (Reference 1) was predicted in a hemi-anechoic chassis dynamometer chamber with microphone arrays and compared with actual test track results. This gave a close match to the track data, with both showing a 4 dB reduction in the A-weighted overall noise level after identical acoustic treatments were applied. Noise control materials were selected to perform as acoustic barriers and absorbers. These were optimized by analyzing the 1/3 octave spectra, determining dominant frequency bands, in critical source locations and engine speeds, and using combinations that dissipate or contain energy well within those bands. With the truck being stationary while tested, important source locations could be quickly identified both subjectively and with localization tools such as Beamforming.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1343
Marco Mammetti, David Gallegos, Alex Freixas, Jordi Muñoz
The focus of the work is to carry out a study of the relative impact of the rolling resistance measurements on CO₂ emission and fuel consumption reduction for heavy-duty vehicles. For the purpose of the study, friction coefficients of the tires from tire test machine according to UN/ECE Regulation No 117 test procedure have been used. The rolling resistance coefficient has also been obtained from SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 procedure for coast-down determination on proving ground. The fuel consumption has been simulated and tested on the proving ground by following FIGE standard cycle and stabilized speed conditions. A simulation tool has been developed and validated by testing different rolling resistance coefficient tires, analyzing their effect on the fuel consumption. The analysis of the contribution of the tires to fuel consumption achieved on the test track has been correlated with the experimental results and those obtained from the simulation tool.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1354
Wenguang Wu, Zhengqi Gu
Electric wheel dump trucks are mainly used in open pit mines, where the working environment is very harsh and the driver's continuous working time is extremely long, therefore, the ride comfort of the truck is pretty important. This paper evaluates and optimizes the ride comfort, according to ISO2631, and Chinese standard GB/T4970-1996 and Chinese standard QC/T76.8-1993, while the ride comfort test had been done in a open pit mine. After the test data was analyzed, the results showed that the ride comfort of this truck needs to be improved and optimized. The multi-body system dynamic model was built in MATLAB/SIMULINK for this dump truck, to simulate the realistic working condition using a D-class road, which was reconstructed according to ISO/DIS8608 and Chinese standard GB7031-86, while the simulation results were in coincidence with the test ones.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2474
Helmut Theissl, Alois Danninger, Thomas Sacher, Herwig Ofner, Erwin Schalk
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2451
Lian Soto Izquierdo, Gian Gomes Marques, Vanessa Balieiro
Studies aimed at partial or total use of renewable fuels in diesel engines has increasingly attracted the interest of the automotive industry, in particular due to its characteristics of strength, durability and greater thermal efficiency. The oil esters derived from biological sources, who receive the generic name for biodiesel, is one of the alternatives used internationally. Their physicochemical properties are similar to diesel oil for providing an acceptable dynamic process of preparation and combustion in the engine. This paper presents and evaluates the results of experimental tests carried out in four trucks used exclusively B20 biodiesel (20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel), and one with B100 (pure biodiesel), in real operating conditions.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2421
Donald W. Stanton
With increasing energy prices and concerns about the environmental impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a growing number of national governments are putting emphasis on improving the energy efficiency of the equipment employed throughout their transportation systems. Within the U.S. transportation sector, energy use in commercial vehicles has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles. A 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected from 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2394
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao
This paper focuses on the safety performance of Commercial Vehicle Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) that include Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Collision Mitigation Braking (CMB) technology as applied to heavy trucks, including single unit and tractor semitrailers. The study estimated the safety benefits of a commercially available F-CAM system considered to be representative of products currently in service. The functional characteristics were evaluated and its performance generically modeled to estimate safety benefits. This was accomplished through the following steps: (1) first characterize the actual performance of these systems in various pre-crash scenarios under controlled test track conditions, and then reverse engineering the algorithms that control warnings and automatic braking actions; (2) developing a comprehensive set of simulated crash events representative of actual truck striking rear-end crashes.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2392
Daniel Blower, John Woodrooffe
Heavy truck rollover remains a primary factor in truck driver fatalities and injury. Roll stability control (RSC) and electronic stability control (ESC) are technologies that have been introduced to reduce the incidence of rollover in heavy truck crashes. This report provides an analysis of the real-world experience of a large for-hire company that introduced RSC into its fleet starting in 2004. The carrier provided a well-documented set of data on the operations of its truck-tractors, including both those equipped with RSC and those that did not have RSC installed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine the effect of RSC on the probability of rollover, as well as to identify other factors that either contribute to rollover or help reduce its incidence. This study presents results on the incidence of rollover both in terms of rollovers per 100 million miles traveled and the percentage of crashes that resulted in rollover.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2354
Gediz Kulac, Berzah Ozan, Yahya Oz
Steering performance as a vehicle dynamics attribute of a heavy commercial vehicle is dependent on series of design and tunable steering system parameters. The driver steering input as angle and torque is transmitted through steering column to the steering box with a combined function created by the steering column angles and orientations. In case the angle and torque transmission from steering wheel to steering box through steering column cannot be linearized because of the design constraints, the steering column input and output torque, angle and angular speed relations should be optimized for a good vehicle dynamics performance and in compliance with the OEM brand DNA This paper represents series of CAE analyses, optimization studies, verification tests and subjective evaluations related to the tunable parameters of the steering column.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2712
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2647
Douglas A. Swift, Carl Talaski
A sensor system was developed to measure loads in truck wheels. The system has the unique capability to measure each individual wheel in a dual set. This paper covers the development and testing of the system. Sample data from road tests is also presented.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2709
Caner Demirdogen, Jim Ridge, Paul Pollock, Scott Anderson
Design of suspension systems for Heavy Trucks is always challenging due to the heavy loads the system is exposed to and the long life requirements for the total system. Historical solutions were over designed structures to get the needed life and reliability. This always meant heavier parts. In today's economy, the vehicle weight of commercial heavy trucks is a very important feature for our customers and the end user. Lighter, well-designed suspension components provide better ride quality to the drivers through lower un-sprung weight, lower initial costs and greater payloads. The latest available structural optimization techniques are a business requirement for tomorrow's products. This paper describes the developed methodology used by DANA Engineers to design a weight optimized upper control arm for Commercial Heavy Trucks in step by step fashion. The method starts with determining the loads on the component part.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0110
Max Kofod, Trevor Stephenson
The EU Commission's “Clean Power for Transport” initiative aims to break the EU's dependence on imported oil whilst promoting the use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among the options considered is the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a substitute for diesel in long haul trucks. It is interesting to ask how the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of LNG compare with conventional diesel fuel for this application. The LNG available in Europe is mainly imported. This paper considers the “well-to-tank” emissions of LNG from various production routes, including: gas production, treatment and liquefaction, shipping to Europe, terminal, distribution and refuelling operations. “Tank-to-Wheel” emissions are considered for a range of currently-available engine technologies of varying efficiency relative to diesel.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0029
Sujit Mungale, Leo S
Driver safety is one of the key considerations in truck design and development. Virtual simulation offers opportunities to reduce development time and the number of physical prototypes consumed for design verification and validation for safety parameters. Thus, the application of virtual simulations of crash has become an integral part of the vehicle development process. The continuously emerging scenarios involving challenging test requirements can only be tested by means of virtual simulation techniques. This paper presents simulations that are performed to verify various safety aspects to ensure crashworthiness of the truck cabin. The cabin structure was evaluated for various national/international safety regulations. The FE model and simulation methodology was validated through physical testing and correlated for frontal impact test and roof strength test as per AIS 029/ECE R29. Analysis performed to ensure compliance to upcoming regulation ECE R29 Revision 03 is also discussed.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0145
S. Narayanan, S. Mithun, T. Sahul Hameed
A lift axle suspension system in a heavy commercial vehicle enables raising and lowering of the lift axle depending on the vehicle load condition. The states (raising and lowering) of the axle will be in logical sequence which depends on the vehicle load, ignition state, gear state and traction requirement. To arrive this complicate logic, the Lift Axle Control valve is designed. This LACV is an intricate assembly of pneumatic 3/2 valve, 5/2 valve, relay valve and solenoid valves. To predict the performance of this valve under various vehicle conditions, the entire valve is modeled in one of the commercially available multi-domain physical modeling software employing bond graph technique and lumped system and the performance is predicted. This paper deals with the modeling of LACV, simulation of misbehavior of LACV under certain condition, and the design analysis carried out to arrive design solution.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0146
A. N. Palkar
Transport plays major a role in the economic growth of the Nation and social welfare of the community. Wrong practices followed by Transport Operators result in environmental degradation and damage to Transport Infrastructure. To improve productivity and Safety of commercial transport sector in India, it is necessary for all transportation users to calculate, analyze and control the internal and external expenses. Dynamic weight of the moving truck is one of the methods which help to improve environmental quality, increase life of roads and bridges, increase life of the vehicle, enhance productivity and ensures high amount of safety. This paper describes System involving sensing techniques, design and integration, operational and feasibility analysis towards making it affordable, accurate and adaptable. This includes a proposal for regulatory bodies to respond to the challenge of implementation of rules for the productivity and safety of commercial road transport.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0154
Vyankatesh Madane, Abhijit Swami, Mihir Shah, S. S. Sane
Products from the developed western countries are brought to India by different manufacturers. It is needed to look at the different aspects of the vehicles like performance parameters, structural stability, serviceability etc, as the requirement of the local market differ vastly from those requirement of the original markets. Indian market condition demands the vehicle suitable for taking the abuse load on the rough roads as the road conditions in the mofussil area and country side are bad. This paper describes the definition and validation of the carryover products, to suit the Indian conditions by using different techniques, to reduce time to market. This paper describes the creation of accelerated endurance test cycle for a mini truck which is representative of Indian customer usage of 120,000 km. Relative damage method is used for correlation of proving ground (track) with customer usage pattern on selected channels.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0150
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Ajit Kumar Jindal
Air brake system is widely used in heavy duty trucks and buses due to its great performance and efficiency. Dual brake valve (DBV) is one the of major and crucial component of an air brake system as it is controlling the air flow from reservoir to brake chamber during braking operation. Currently, due to its own complexity, it is very difficult for designer to optimize different parameters. As experimentation is tedious and time consuming task, hence it is very important to have mathematical model of DBV during in early design stage. Differential equations have been formulated for individual component of DBV such as primary piston, primary valve, relay piston, and relay valve etc. system level mathematical model has been formulated and implemented in Matlab/Simulink to capture the dynamic pressure characteristic of DBV. At the same time mathematical model of DBV has been created in AMESim to check the validity of approach.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0151
Arvind K. Jain, Sathish Madaswamy, Sudarsanam S, Venkat Srinivas
Demand for a refined Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) is increasing due to rapid Indian economic growth, while the operating conditions and road infrastructures are still in a transition state of development. The same vehicle model will be operated in a range of operating road conditions like mining sites, construction sites, and highways with varying payloads and speeds by customers that are spread across the country. This variety of road inputs, payloads and speeds has made ride tuning as one of the major challenging process in the development process. This paper describes the attempt to assess ride comfort of HCV with fully suspended cab using numerical based simulation tools and its correlation with physical test results. The best suspension combination was finalized based on vertical and pitch acceleration at Center of Gravity (CG) of the cab. The trend of vertical acceleration obtained from the virtual model was correlated with the same obtained from physical test.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0153
Prashant R. Pawar, Yogesh V. Dhage, M. R. Saraf, Vratislav Ondrak
The demands for safe, reliable, lighter, energy efficient and competitively priced products put a new emphasis on predictability of rolling bearing performance. This has prompted designers and engineers to estimate bearing life and optimize the design by taking into account different market requirement. Estimation of actual dynamic bearing load and life for specified class of vehicle depends upon various factors such as usage pattern, vehicle Gross Vehicel Weight (GVW), type of roads, speed, driving pattern, geographical area, ambient temperature, acceleration etc. For estimation and prediction of life of the particular wheel bearing type it is required to identify and measure customer usage loads for different targeted markets. The measurement maps all the affecting parameters to arrive at a generalized duty cycle for bearings.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0256
Taboada Gonzalo
This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic. In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The next steps for the project are: Search specific data (manufacturers, companies, dealers) on the different types of failures and their respective analysis, in order to model and interpret correctly my analysis and simulation. Take a drive current park representative to mount the rear axle and are within one standard warranty period for a truck plant (1 to 2 years or 100,000 km. 200,000 km. respectively). Analyze data obtained in point 2 (number of faults, fractures) to have a database, with respect to reliability, unreliability and hazard rate.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0171
Marcel Wilson G. Martins
The purpose of this paper is to suggest guidelines for new projects of soft tonneau covers for pickup truck beds made up of aluminum framework and soft coverage. As the main objective, this paper will make an overall about new accessories projects focusing on each one of the main components of the assembly. The target is to obtain a low cost tonneau cover with a great performance regarding functionality, water accumulation, sealing, noise, robustness, vibration and compatibility with another pick up box's accessories. This article also explores basic procedures for testing and validation of a new soft tonneau covers or a carry over one, with its use extended to a different pickup truck. It is one of the first technical documents about truck soft tonneau covers available, so few references could be found in technical databases.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0154
Rafael V. Carvalho, Ludmila C. A. Silva, Milton Amaro, Alessandro A. Ferreira, Aparecido M. da Rosa
Heating generation in rolling bearings is a critical point for development and application, specially for heavy trucks. Several problems can occur in the rolling bearing and in the system when the temperature increases. For example, at high temperature levels the rubber sealing can change its proprieties and volume, creating a high interference at the contact with the rings. The grease can also be affected and modify its viscosity, generating a possible leakage, which is not allowed during life. This papers aims to study the heat generation and evaluate, experimentally, the temperature stabilization in clutch release bearings for heavy duty application. With this purpose, several tests were performed and the results were analyzed to find the main factors that can be influenced.
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