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Viewing 1 to 30 of 362
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0266
J.Y. Wong
With growing globalization of the economy, to gain a competitive edge in world markets shortening the product development cycle is crucial. Virtual product development is, therefore, being actively pursued in the off-road vehicle industry. To implement this process successfully, the development of comprehensive and realistic computer-aided methods for performance and design evaluation of off-road vehicles is of vital importance. To be useful to the engineer in industry for the development and design of new products, the computer-aided methods should take into account all major vehicle design parameters and pertinent terrain characteristics. They should be based on the understanding of the physical nature and the mechanics of vehicle-terrain interaction. Their capabilities should be substantiated by test data.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0183
Brad Hopkins, Saied Taheri
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-2010
Jiantie Zhen, Aaron Brames, Tyler Williams, Clinton Metzger
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2427
Lorenzo Serrao, Giulio Ornella, Gilberto Burgio, Ettore Cosoli
The paper illustrates the development of a hydraulic hybrid powertrain concept for off-highway vehicles, which is the result of a three-year program at Dana's advanced technology centers. Engineers have conducted extensive simulations and tests while equipping a demonstration vehicle to determine feasibility, develop advanced features, and quantify benefits of hydraulic hybridization for traction. The system concept and operation as well as its development process are illustrated, focusing the system engineering principles and on the model-based approach to system design, control, and energy analysis. Experimental results are provided.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1330
Chaitanya Narula, Xiaofan Yang, Peter Bonnesen, Edward Hagaman
The leading approach for reduction of NOx from diesel engines is selective catalytic reduction employing urea as a reductant (NH₃- or urea-SCR). For passenger vehicles, the best known NH₃-SCR catalysts are Cu-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 and have been shown to function very well in a narrow temperature range. This technology is not directly transferable to off-road diesel engines which operate under a different duty cycle resulting in exhaust with different fractions of components than are present in passenger vehicle emissions. Our results show that Cu-ZSM-5 exhibits 90% NOx reduction efficiency in 250-450°C range while Fe-ZSM-5 is highly effective in 350-550°C range for off-road engines. However, a combination of these catalysts cannot efficiently reduce NOx in 150-650°C which is the desirable range for deployment in off-road diesel engines. In our efforts to increase the effective range of these catalysts, we initiated efforts to modify these catalysts by catalyst promoters.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1316
Teuvo Maunula, Toni Kinnunen, Markus Iivonen
The emission regulations for mobile off-road applications are following on-road trends by a short delay. The latest Stage 3B and 4 emission limits mean a gradual implementation of oxidation and SCR catalysts as well as particulate filters with off-road machines/vehicles in the 2010s. The driving conditions and test cycles differ from on-road truck applications which have been the first design base for off-road aftertreatment technologies. Aftertreatment systems for Stage 4 were first analyzed and they will include oxidation catalysts, a NOx reduction catalyst (SCR or LNT), a particulate filter and possibly units for urea hydrolysis and ammonia slip removal. The design and durability of V₂O₅/TiO₂-WO₃ catalysts based on metallic substrates were investigated by engine bench and field experiments. NOx emissions were measured with 6.6 and 8.4 liters engines designed for agricultural and industrial machinery.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2238
Shannon K. Sweeney
This work provides a theoretical analysis of the natural and forced lateral vibration in a driveline having a flexible coupling and universal joints. The analysis is specific to the front driveline common in many off-highway vehicles which usually consists of a flexible coupling at the engine flywheel, the driveshaft, and one or two universal joints. A torsionally flexible coupling is often needed in a front driveline to suppress torsional vibration. The problem is that most torsionally flexible couplings are also inherently flexible in their radial and cocking directions. These additional directions of flexibility, compounded by the presence of universal joints, can result in unexpectedly low lateral natural frequencies of the driveline. With a few axial dimensions, mass properties of the driveline, and stiffness properties of the flexible coupling, this work provides simple, closed-form calculations for the lowest lateral natural frequencies.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1732
David Copley, D. W. Herrin, Harvind Raman, Jiantie Zhen
Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0309
Ted Straten, Johan van den Berk
The next generation off-road vehicles will see additional exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, ranging from DOC-SCR only to full DOC-DPF-SCR-AMOX systems. This will increase system complexity and development effort significantly. Emission requirements and the high number of vehicle configurations within the off-road industry will require a new process for development and validation. The introduced model-based approach using physical models of aftertreatment can reduce development effort and cost, improve performance robustness and help to identify performance issues early in the development process. A method to investigate and optimize a large matrix of variations by simulation is introduced. This can lead to a significant reduction in the number of required calibrations and can assist in the development of design specifications for the aftertreatment system. A case study for SCR calibration successfully demonstrates the potential of model-based development.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0096
Amit Pingle, Venkateswara Reddy, Sameer Jog, Anand Raj, Subrahmanyam Chiramana
Weight reduction in construction equipment is sought to achieve energy conservation and also to comply with the vehicle safety and compliance regulations, managing the weight distribution across the rear and the front end of the equipment to achieve the optimum balancing. Of late the thrust on product weight has increased along with reduced time to market, leading to increased usage of structural optimization methods. This has been further supported by the availability of high performance computing at relatively low cost. VOC and CTQ tools provided the motivation and initial screening of the design variables. The structural optimization software provides an integrated platform for analysis as well as optimization of components. In this work, an optimization tool has been used for size and shape optimization of a construction equipment assembly and a commercial FEA package was used for verification and validation of the results.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0024
Sergey B. Shukhman, Vladimir E. Malyarevich
Over the past several years increasing concern is expressed over the impact of tractors and heavy-duty trucks on the environment. One of the factors specific to this type of vehicles is the level of soil damage inflicted by the vehicle. This article suggests methods of ameliorating this type of damage. It is suggested that the harmful impact of the vehicle on the soil be assessed on the basis of an index that takes into account the reduction in the soil's reproductive capacity due to being traversed by vehicular wheels. A computational method is suggested that allows the design of off-road vehicles; it takes into account the number of axles and their arrangement along the base; the distribution of load between the axles, the type and specifics of the drivelines, tire models and pressure, turning patterns, etc. This method allows comparative evaluation of various vehicles, whether already in existence or under design.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0186
Stefano Cordiner, Francesco mecocci, Vincenzo Mulone, Matteo Nobile
In 2011-2013, regulations will be tightened for non-road vehicles, via the application of Stage III-B standards in Europe. With state-of-the-art technology (high pressure common rail, cooled EGR), non-road diesel engines will require DPFs to control PM, as 90% reduction is requested with respect to STAGE III-A standards. Additional challenges may also foresee the obtainment of STAGE III-B standards with STAGE III-A engine technology, by means of retrofit systems for PM control. In that case, retrofit systems must furthermore guarantee simple control systems, and must be robust especially in terms of limited back pressure increase during normal operation. Moreover, retrofit systems must offer flexibility from the design point of view, in order to be correctly operated with several engines of same class, possibly characterized by totally different PM flow rates, temperature, NOx and O₂ availability.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1932
Ross Brown, Marcus Mazza, Dy Le, Muthuvel Murugan
This paper discusses research conducted by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) - Vehicle Technology Directorate (VTD) on advanced suspension control. ARL-VTD has conducted research on advanced suspension systems that will reduce the chassis vibration of ground vehicles while maintaining tire contact with the road surface. The purpose of this research is to reduce vibration-induced fatigue to the Warfighter as well as to improve the target aiming precision in-theater. The objective of this paper was to explore the performance effectiveness of various formulations of the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) algorithm in a simulation environment. Each version of the control algorithm was applied to an identical model subjected to the same ground disturbance input and compared to a baseline passive suspension system. The control algorithms considered include a GPC with Implicit Disturbances, GPC with Explicit Disturbances, and GPC with Preview Control.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1946
Reno Filla
Out of necessity, emission and fuel consumption test cycles are a simplified representation of the real-life use of a vehicle or component that is assumed to be most common. In reality, variations are introduced by both the driver and the environment - and to a lesser degree also by the vehicle itself through performance deviations because of tolerances in the components' characteristics. However, since such simplified test cycles exist and are accepted (or even required by law), OEMs tend to use them also in product development to benchmark their products against the competition, and to make decisions on how to optimize design. While this approach might give acceptable results for on-road vehicles, it fails to capture reality in the case of versatile working machines. Here, the variety of possible applications cannot be covered by one common application but rather demands a mix of several cycles.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0127
Nicola Terdich, Ricardo F. Martinez-Botas, David A. Howey, Colin D. Copeland, Aaron Costall
Turbocharged diesel engines are widely used in off-road applications including construction and mining machinery, electric power generation systems, locomotives, marine, petroleum, industrial and agricultural equipment. Such applications contribute significantly to both local air pollution and CO₂ emissions and are subject to increasingly stringent legislation. To improve fuel economy while meeting emissions limits, manufacturers are exploring engine downsizing by increasing engine boost levels. This allows an increase in IMEP without significantly increasing mechanical losses, which results in a higher overall efficiency. However, this can lead to poorer transient engine response primarily due to turbo-lag, which is a major penalty for engines subjected to fast varying loads. To recover transient response, the turbocharger can be electrically assisted by means of a high speed motor/generator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8041
Richard A. Romano, George D. Park, Victor Paul, R. Wade Allen
Abstract Motion cueing algorithms can improve the perceived realism of a driving simulator, however, data on the effects on driver performance and simulator sickness remain scarce. Two novel motion cueing algorithms varying in concept and complexity were developed for a limited maneuvering workspace, hexapod/Stuart type motion platform. The RideCue algorithm uses a simple swing motion concept while OverTilt Track algorithm uses optimal pre-positioning to account for maneuver characteristics for coordinating tilt adjustments. An experiment was conducted on the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) platform comparing the two novel motion cueing algorithms to a pre-existing algorithm and a no-motion condition.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2839
Rangaraj Ramanan Durai, Ashok Thirupathi, Mohith Krishna Shetty, Dilip Joy Mampilly
In this paper Longitudinal Force Slip (LFS) controller will be designed for controlling the traction force in each wheel when Rock Crawl Scenario prevails for commercial vehicles working in Off-Road condition. During Rock Crawling the wheels can have more longitudinal slip than lateral slip. Slip is caused by relative movement of tires with the rock. PID controller (Longitudinal Force Controller) will be designed in order to stabilize the traction force on individual wheels. Individual Lateral and Longitudinal force will be calculated for each wheel from Tire modeling. Optimal longitudinal force will be determined based on fuzzy model with the help of determined Mue. The designed LFS controller which controls the individual traction force by applying active braking. Active braking on individual wheel will be realized with the hydraulic system associated with Vehicle Stability Control ECU (VSC - ECU). Optimal engine torque will be calculated based on driver pedal request.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0014
Yadong Deng, Yulian Chen, Long Xie, Meng Xu
Abstract A key problem of designing a light off-road vehicle with separate frame construction is to improve its torsional characteristic, which has a significant influence on the performance of the vehicle. Inevitably, a certain distortion of the body would be produced by the vibration and impact passing from the road. In present research, an analysis model of light off-road vehicle is established based on the theories and methods of finite element (FEM). The static stiffness of the body is simulated and the deformation of openings on the body, mainly the windows and the doors of the vehicle is studied. On the working conditions of torsion and braking combination, torsion and cornering combination, diagonal dangling, ultimate torsion of unilateral wheels and diagonal wheels, the static strength of separate frame construction is studied as well. The stress concentration regions are obtained according to the results of simulation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0148
Jagadeesh Selvaraj, Dayalan Purushothaman, P T Haridas
Abstract Fuel economy is an important customer requirement which determines the position of earth-movers such as backhoe loaders in the market. Earth-movers are heavy duty machines that are used for construction works. Currently fuel consumption in earth-movers is quantified as fuel consumed per unit time (Liters per hour). Similarly, conventional measure of productivity of the earth-movers is in terms of volume of soil trenched per hour. Measurements using the above scales showed wide variations in measured fuel consumption and productivity, For the same equipment between measurements Two equipment of same make at different trench locations and Against the competitor equipment This inconsistency and lack of a proper measuring system made logical decision making extremely difficult. This paper describes the step by step procedures involved in deriving the methodology for robust fuel consumption measurement of earth-mover vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1103
Andrei Keller, Sergei Viktorovich Alyukov
Abstract The main indicators for mobility of a multipurpose wheeled vehicle are the maximum and average technical velocity (it is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time elapsed), and they are mainly determined by power-to-weight ratio and the parameters of the suspension. As our analysis shows, with the increase of the power-to-weight ratio of the vehicle and its weight, the growth rate of the velocity is reduced, and after reaching a certain value, the velocity remains almost constant. This is due to the fact that for operating conditions of the multi-purpose wheeled vehicle, movement on roads with different degrees of uneven distribution of the rolling resistance and adhesion, in both transverse and longitudinal directions, is typical.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1269
Naveen Kumar, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract The present study was carried to explore the potential suitability of biodiesel as an extender of Kerosene in an off road dual fuel (gasoline start, kerosene run) generator set and results were compared with kerosene base line data. The biodiesel was blended with kerosene in two different proportions; 2.5% and 5% by volume. Physico-chemical properties of blends were also found to be comparable with kerosene. Engine tests were performed on three test fuels namely K100 (Kerosene 100%), KB 2.5 (Kerosene 97.5% + Biodiesel 2.5%) and KB5 (Kerosene 95% + Biodiesel 5%). It was found that brake thermal efficiency [BTE] increases up to 3.9% while brake specific energy consumption [BSEC] decreases up to 2.2% with increasing 5% volume fraction of biodiesel in kerosene. The exhaust temperature for blends was lower than kerosene. The test engine emitted reduced Carbon monoxide [CO] emission was 7.4 % less than using neat kerosene as compared to kerosene-biodiesel blends.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1329
Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao Xu
Abstract Off-road dump truck body is exposed to abrasive wear during handling of granular materials. The wear rate of body of dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method (DEM) is used to simulate the granular materials of dump truck. The wear of body floor during one dumping process can be achieved by cosimulation of FEM-DEM. The wear depth variation of body has the stochastic characteristic which can be modeled by Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM). The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be estimated by the wear depth measuring data. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution of every grid point of the body floor by solving this stochastic differential equation. The simulation result of the wear model is helpful to optimize design of off-road dump truck body.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0266
Lucas Ventura, Thomas F. Junge, Filipe A. P. da Silva, Rodrigo R. de Oliveira, Thiago A. Malicheski
Abstract The start/stop functionality is widely used as a fuel saving solution for on-highway vehicles, being constantly studied and implemented in new series models. The subject of this work is to demonstrate the same start/stop functionality applied as a retrofit solution for off road vehicles that have high fuel consumption and operate many hours a day. The start/stop retrofit (SSR) solution includes an ECU added in the vehicle acting as the system’s controller, which must be adapted according to its specific application. These interventions are important discussions topics and include electrical modifications, battery monitoring strategies, adapted ways to retrieve the vehicle data and an important safety study to secure all the modifications. The implementation of the start/stop system in a mining truck aims for a reduction on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
1957-01-01
Technical Paper
570273
H. A. PUXON
2016-04-08
Magazine
Software's role continues to expand Design teams use different technologies to create new software and link systems together. Emissions regulations and engine complexity With the European Commission announcing a Stage V criteria emissions regulation for off-highway, scheduled to phase-in as earlly as 2019, there will be an end to a brief era of harmonized new-vehicle regulations. Will this affect an already complex engine development process? Evaluating thermal design of construction vehicles CFD simulation is used to evaluate two critical areas that address challenging thermal issues: electronic control units and hot air recirculation.
2016-06-03
Magazine
Executive viewpoints Industry leaders offer their insights on the state of the heavy-duty on- and off-highway industries in this annual series of opinion pieces. The executives share their views on the most pressing technologies and trends shaping their business and the industry moving forward. Annual Product Guide Top products from throughout the industry covering technologies such as Powertrain & Energy, Hydraulics, Electronics, and Testing & Simulation.
2016-11-16
Magazine
Focus on advanced safety systems and human-factor interventions The impact of REACH on the aviation sector Considered the most comprehensive chemical-regulation legislation to date, REACH presents serious ramifications for the aircraft industry. Lightweighting: What's Next? Experts weigh in on the challenges and future enablers in the battle to reduce vehicle mass. The best of COMVEC 2016 Autonomous vehicles and improved fuel efficiency via advanced powertrain solutions are pressing topics detailed in this select group of technical papers from the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. Optimizing waste heat recovery for long-haul trucks Autonomous solutions in agriculture Downsizing a HD diesel engine for off-highway applications Zero-emissions electric aircraft: Theory vs. reality
2010-11-01
Magazine
Competitions demonstrate effectiveness of project-based learning Mississippi State University students designed and fabricated award-winning hybrid-electric vehicles with support from industrial mentors. The journey of Lakehead University's rookies (of the year) Ryan Clark, communications manager, tells the two-year story behind a Formula SAE team with meager resources but big dreams. Chevrolet Volt When General Motors management approved its 2011 E-REV for production, the batteries-and other technologies-did not exist. Finding off-highway's top model Modeling, simulation advances help engineers get complex designs to market quickly. Behavioral interviews-3 steps to great answers Sometimes referred to as a competency-based interview, how a candidate responds to questions about previous behaviors can make or break the chances of landing a job.
2010-01-28
Magazine
For operators, a more quiet day at the office New materials that reduce weight and new strategies that control vibrations are finding their way into heavy equipment. The result is a bit more agility and efficiency.
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