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Viewing 1 to 30 of 841
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2466
Steffen Daum, Sadanand Bhosale, Gernot Graf, Dipankar Ray
The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. In parallel to transient test cycles, increased emission durability as well as real driving emissions must be fulfilled. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the specific operation requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits. The publication shows a cost efficient, reliable and durable approach based on the example of a tractor engine jointly developed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. (M&M) and AVL. It was found that a naturally aspirated (NA) application equipped with common rail and combined with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is able to fulfill all legal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 requirements with a minimum effort on the exhaust aftertreatment side by using only a diesel oxidation catalyst.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2755
Saurabh gupta, Robesh Maity Sr, Shrirang Kulkarni cEng
Paddy farming in India needs extensive water usage. Due to the rapidly declining ground water and ever increasing monsoon uncertainty, there is significant drive on water conservation for paddy farming through sustainable agriculture practices. The wide variability of irrigation water in Indian rice field, as high as 160 mm, necessitates an extra 100 mm of water in the field to provide complete water coverage. This is primarily due to inaccurate manual land leveling, often practiced in Indian paddy farming. In the present work, architecture of laser land leveler has been created by integrating low cost electronics, hydraulics and GPS technology. This paper will provide an overview of the current practices and suitable operating mode to meet the future demand on land leveling. The presentation would compare the laser land leveler with GPS land leveler solution architectures. The technological differences along with individual merits and limitations would be detailed.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9093
Rodrigo Mayer de Ávila, Milton Borsato
Facing a competitive and globalized market and with increasingly demanding customers, companies must constantly seek the development of practices in the development of new products. One of the current practices is the adoption of modularity. In that sense, the objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of this practice in a Brazilian company, which manufactures agricultural machinery. The applicability of modular design in current products is focused. Therefore, a case study approach has been chosen. First, a review of the scientific literature was conducted, followed by field research, for collecting data based on interviews with product engineers and technical documentation. The case study shows the applicability of the modular design concept in a combine header, by increasing the number of repeated components. The modular header approach facilitates the implementation of engineering changes and allows greater standardization of components.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2342
Ravindran V, B. Prakash
This paper deals with the techniques of reducing noise in agricultural tractors. Noise reduction in agricultural tractors is an emerging concern and apart from meeting the noise norms it helps in increasing the productivity of farmers. Noise is also a factor affecting the health of the farmers. Two major European regulatory requirements are driver ear noise level and passer by noise level. Of the two regulatory requirement, driver ear noise is critical, since the limit is 86 dB (A) compared to 89 dB (A) of passer by noise limit which is measured at 7.5 meters from tractor. Various strategies for noise reduction are discussed in this paper including reduction at source level and passive solutions. Passive solutions are used where the timeline for development is short. Various passive solutions like acoustic foam design are discussed. Finally with the combination of active and passive solutions, driver ear noise target was met successfully.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2705
Jeffrey R. Stokes, Paul W. Claar
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to examine the efficiency of 74 front wheel assist agricultural tractors from three U.S. manufacturers. The outputs of drawbar horsepower and power takeoff horsepower are modeled in a constant returns-to-scale framework using three productive performance inputs (fuel consumption, slip, and center of gravity), and one price input, namely, retail tractor price. The results suggest that by and large, John Deere tractors are more DEA efficient than their competitor's tractors. However, competitor's tractors that are DEA efficient are most often the top benchmarks for DEA inefficient tractors. These results suggest that while John Deere appears to produce many quality tractors, competitor's like CNH and AGCO produce a few tractors that may be of even higher quality.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2706
Kenji Kato, Satoshi Machida, Masao Takagi, Keishiro Nishi
1. ABSTRACT The New Kubota Grand L30 Series Compact Tractors are powerful, user-friendly compact tractors that have advanced functions to provide the maximum performance. Many new features such as IntelliPanel enable users to obtain high workability, comfort, and operability. IntelliPanel is an advanced function that displays information on a liquid crystal display to help users' with operation and maintenance. An electronically controlled multi-gear GST (Glide Shift Transmission) enables users to choose gears for 12 travel speeds using one lever, during travel without operating a clutch. An ECU (Electric Control Unit) controls solenoid valves and a proportional reducing valve to allow for smooth gear changes.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2707
Rosca Radu, Rakosi Edward, Manolache Gheorghe
The paper attempts to determine which traction model best fits with experimental data for a romanian lugged tractor tire. Different models for predicting net traction and traction efficiency for off-road conditions were considered. These models assume different tire-ground pressure distributions (constant, parabolic) over the undertread area and different contact patch length calculations. Experiments were conducted and the results were compared to the theoretical data. Two of the models are the best fit with the experimental data; both models assumed a parabolic pressure distribution over the undertread.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0093
Vilas Gorakh Umbare
The design and analysis plays a major role for determining the root cause for the problem. Once the problem and its root cause were well defined, the solution for addressing the problem would be made clear. The engine excitation frequency and the chassis natural frequency were coming closer and it leads chassis to resonate. The resonance increases vibration levels at the Tractor footrest which was reducing comfort level of the operator. The vibration reduction methodologies like stiffening the structure, isolating the source from excitation and dampening techniques were studied to reduce vibration levels at footrest. The benchmarking evaluation was done with selected tractor models qualitatively to assess the difference in vibration level perception for customers. The test methodology and data acquisition methodology was formulated and used for better analysis and discussions.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0097
Sachin Pawar, Murali Bodla, Rajesh Bhangale, Mansinh Kumbhar
Whole Body Vibration (WBV) of tractors was measured on different surfaces in real world usage pattern of Indian customers on tractors of various capacities. Vibration levels were measured at the interface of the seat and the operator, on the seat base/floor and on the head. The mean weighted Root Mean Square (RMS) values along the different axes, the vector sum of weighted RMS values along the three orthogonal axes, the crest factor, Vibration Dose Value (VDV) and 8 h exposure levels were calculated according to ISO 2631-1. In addition to the above parameters, the transmissibility between the seat base and the seat interface (SEAT) and between the seat interface and the operator head (TR) were also calculated. Finally, these parameters were correlated with the subjective feel of customers which was captured through suitable questionnaires. It is observed that the Indian tractor operators are exposed to WBV that exceeds the cautionary boundaries set in place by the ISO 2631-1.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0103
P. S. Yadav, A. A. Gaikwad, S. Y. Badgujar, Y. V. Surkutwar, N. V. Karanth
High noise at Operator Ear Level (OEL) of tractor is the major cause of fatigue to the operator. With growing competition, and upcoming legislative requirement there is ominous need for the agricultural tractor manufacturers to control noise levels. Objective of the present study is noise reduction on agriculture tractor by identifying and controlling key noise sources unaffecting performance parameters like power, torque and fuel efficiency to meet upcoming noise legislations. Noise Source Identification (NSI) is carried out to identify and rank airborne and structure borne noise sources. The airborne sources such as cooling fan, exhaust silencer and intake are evaluated using elimination method at tractor level. The NSI on engine is carried out separately in hemi anechoic chamber to identify the major noise radiating components by using noise and vibration measurement, sound intensity mapping tools.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2302
Jude Liu, Benjamin Kemmerer
Methods of estimating tractor performance including power efficiency and fuel consumption under field operational conditions were discussed based on a tractor and a large square baler. Methods recommended by ASAE standards were used and results indicated that ASAE standards predicted 15% higher fuel consumption compared to that tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Field trials were conducted in switchgrass fields to verify and demonstrate these methods. Fuel consumption and the material capacity of the tractor-baler system were measured and also estimated using ASAE standards and Nebraska tractor test results. Field test results indicated that the fuel consumption of baling switchgrass was approximately 60% of the fuel consumption estimated with ASAE standards and tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Measured material capacity of the large square baler was approximately 40% of its theoretical capacity.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1730
Glenn Pietila, Gabriella Cerrato, Brad Tadlock, Brian Kascht, Shawn Entriken
As an agricultural tractor OEM was moving a new tractor model from development into production, an objectionable cab “boom” was identified that was not present in the preproduction pilot -level tractors. The cab boom was identified as a low frequency tone causing an increase of 7 (dBA) over the level in the pilot tractors, which was deemed unacceptable. The process used by the tractor OEM engineering team to address this problem has been widely used and refined in the automotive industry, but it is relatively new in the agricultural/off-road vehicle industry. This paper describes the source-path-receiver approach that led to identifying the exhaust tip as the source and the vibro-acoustic coupling of a windshield structural mode with an acoustic cab cavity mode as the path of the boom event.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2837
Dennis D Swanson
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2829
A. Uspenskiy, V. Boikov
Speed measurement accuracy of computers installed on wheeled tractors, not equipped with radar velocity transducers depends on the following: the rolling radius of the wheel to which the speed sensor is connected; the number of sensor's pulses per revolution; and algorithms used for processing the data that arrives from the speed sensor. The work deals with the effect of static tire characteristics and other factors influencing the speed measurement accuracy of wheeled tractors by means of on-board computers. Recommendations are given aimed at accuracy improvement when measuring tractor speed.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2820
Phillip Cho, Arjun Karavadi
Sound quality has become an important factor in determining customer perception of overall vehicle quality and value in the automotive industry [1]. Recently, in the agricultural and construction machinery industry, the concept of sound quality has gained merit as a possible vehicle for delivering quieter products to customers [2]. This paper studies the application of sound quality methodology for agricultural and construction machinery. Accordingly, the state of agricultural and construction machinery sound quality in the market place is evaluated and sound quality metrics that correlate well with the customers' subjective preferences are identified. The relevance of the chosen sound quality metrics is established by combining the results of the listening-jury evaluation and the requirements for product noise control as driven by competition and regulations.
1999-11-15
Technical Paper
1999-01-3732
Brent A. Clark, Roland L. Ruhl, Mark G. Strauss, Tim Mahal, Dan A. Fittanto
The transporting of live cattle involves the use of Class 8 tractors and livestock semi-trailers for transportation from farms and feedlots to processing plants. This travel may include unimproved roads, local streets, two lane highways, as well as interstate highways. Typically, cattle are compartmentalized in a “double deck” fashion as it provides utility and comports with size and weight limits for commercial Class 8 vehicles. Concern has been expressed for the effect of cattle movement upon the dynamic performance of the loaded Class 8 tractor-livestock trailer assembly. Loading guidelines exist for cattle that attempt to prevent injury or debilitation during transit, and literature exists on the orientation and some kinematics of loaded cattle. Considerable literature exists on the effect of liquid slosh in tankers and swinging beef carcasses suspended from hooks in refrigerated van trailers on the dynamic response and roll stability of those vehicles.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0082
Ankit Shrivastava, Rao G. Srinivasa, T. Vijay, Niraj Bhatt, John Wesley
An automated tool to enable users effectively select compatible loaders specific to tractors, virtually simulate all the possible positions loader could take while on work and to verify its load performance and stability through a user friendly interface. This can also give a competitive comparison between various tractor-loader-tire combinations. This automated tool, utilizes tool kit provided by commercially available CAD software. It gives a systematic step by step approach of selecting the compatible combinations of Tractor-Loader-Tires. The compatibility is defined through a pre-defined database having all the parameters of the existing tractors, Loaders and Tires. Then it calculates the loader performance characteristics and stability based on the commercially available software's calculation. The output report is generated as a PDF file with all the data, characteristic curves, and calculation results and assembled diagram of the complete assembly.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0024
Sergey B. Shukhman, Vladimir E. Malyarevich
Over the past several years increasing concern is expressed over the impact of tractors and heavy-duty trucks on the environment. One of the factors specific to this type of vehicles is the level of soil damage inflicted by the vehicle. This article suggests methods of ameliorating this type of damage. It is suggested that the harmful impact of the vehicle on the soil be assessed on the basis of an index that takes into account the reduction in the soil's reproductive capacity due to being traversed by vehicular wheels. A computational method is suggested that allows the design of off-road vehicles; it takes into account the number of axles and their arrangement along the base; the distribution of load between the axles, the type and specifics of the drivelines, tire models and pressure, turning patterns, etc. This method allows comparative evaluation of various vehicles, whether already in existence or under design.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1180
Mohamed Ali Emam
This paper presents a safety mechanism that is supposed to be used to enhance in the agricultural tractors. A tractor instability situation may be occurring when drawbar force becomes large enough to cause no load (weight) on its front axle. This endangers the tractor stability and the tractor will be overturned rearward. The proposed tractor safety mechanism is based on monitoring the location of tractor center of gravity and progressively shifting forward in a dead weight to counteract for the effect of tractors front lift-up. A laboratory tractor model has been developed in such a way that the lift of its front is sensed and accordingly a mechanism that shifts a movable dead weight ahead to the front a distance that automatically ensures its longitudinal stability. Such arrangement provides a solution that practically ensures longitudinal tractor stability in the situations when maximum drawbar-pull is suddenly developed.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1965
Piotr Lijewski, Jerzy Merkisz, Pawel Fuc
The paper discusses the measurement of the PM emissions from non-road vehicles (a farm tractor and an excavator) under actual operating conditions. Full exploration of the relations between the operating parameters of these vehicles and their emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of their operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated if, beside the PM mass, we also wish to obtain the PM size distribution and particle number (PN). One of the more important technical issues is the difficulty in fitting of the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. a farm tractor). That is the reason why the investigations were carried out in a laboratory. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through external devices - a hydraulic system for the excavator and a brake coupled to the farm tractor power takeoff.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1902
Manish Malik, Sandeep Kshirsagar, Sachin Barve
Rollover Protective Structures (ROPSs) are used in off-highway vehicles to protect operator in case of accidents involving overturning of vehicle. The role of a ROPS is to absorb the energy of Rollover without violating the protected operator zone. The performance of a ROPS is determined by its ability to absorb energy under prescribed loading conditions. The performance depends upon design parameters, such as tube thicknesses, material grades, ROPS tube cross-sections, etc., that define the structure. In this paper, we describe a method that uses Design of Experiments (DOE) to determine the correlation between the performance of a ROPS for a small tractor and its critical design parameters. The correlation results are discussed for two types of loading conditions, namely “front push loading” and “side push loading”. The correlation obtained is further used to identify the optimal design parameters for maximum energy absorption under constraints on allowable deflections.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1437
Giorgio Previati, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Abstract The paper is focused on both the subjective and the objective ride comfort evaluation of farm tractors. The experimental measurement of the relevant accelerations occurring at the tractor body, at the cabin and at the seat was performed on a number of different farm tractors. A subjective rating of the ride comfort level was performed by considering five different drivers. The comfort index was computed according with ISO 2631 and other standards. The acceleration of the seated subject was computed by means of a proper mechanical model of a farm tractor and derived at different positions on the subject body. It turned out that the acceleration of the lower torso was particularly relevant for establishing a matching between the subjective perception and the objective measurement and computation. A number of indices have been derived from the measured data which are able to correlate the subjective driver feeling with the measured accelerations.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8024
Saurabh Gupta, Gopichand Vunnava
Abstract In search of higher productivity, farmers are taking more than two crops in a year. In this farming pattern they don’t have much time for field preparation due to which rear mounted plough have become longer and heavier, necessitating the use of additional front-end weights and assister rams on the hydraulic lift. As plough length increases, the evenness of working depth over the full length of the implement deteriorates. To complete the farm work in one or two passes by utilizing maximum tractor power in order to save the fuel as well as time. The usage of front hitch and front PTO system on tractor forms a gateway for farmers to control the traffic on farm fields which is responsible for the soil compaction and emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by reducing the number of passes in agricultural field operations.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210033
OSCAR W. SJOGREN
Before taking up the results of the tests, the author states briefly the provisions of the Nebraska tractor law, the kind of tests conducted and the equipment used. Applications covering 103 different tractors were received during the season; of the 68 that appeared for test, 39 went through without making any changes and 29 made changes. The results of the tests are described and illustrated by charts. The fuel consumption was studied from the three different angles of volumetric displacement, engine speed and the diameter of the cylinders, the tractors being classified accordingly and the results presented in charts which are analyzed. The weaknesses of the tractor as shown by the tests are commented upon at some length with a view to improvement of the product.
1921-01-01
Technical Paper
210031
J C THORPE
The paper treats of the service, commercial and technical aspects of the subject in turn. The author calls attention to the fact that there can be no such thing as free service, because the customer pays in the end, and gives a specific definition of service. He argues that the engineering departments should urge upon merchandising departments intelligent distribution through dealers, the stocking of an adequate supply of parts and the maintaining of a well qualified mechanical force for the purpose of making engineering development work in the form of farm power automotive apparatus effective. There is a great need for a suitable system of training mechanics for tractor service work, and there should be a definite plan to assure that men making repairs and adjustments in the field are well qualified.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Abstract Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0225
Yakov lobachevskii, Zahid Godzhaev, Vladimir Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Aleksandr Merzlyakov, Oleg Sizov
Abstract The present article addresses issues related to the development of a scientifically-based classification of agricultural tractors with consideration of problems associated with international harmonization of testing requirements and classification parameters; it describes the disadvantages of classification of tractors by maximum towing power achieved on a concrete surface, which is used abroad. The authors state the requirements for towing and power classification of agricultural tractors, which should act as a framework for energy harmonization of sets of tractors with sets of machines independently from developers and manufacturers; and demonstrate the need for harmonization of typical size classification series of towing and power parameters with series of preferred numbers recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0235
Vinaykumar Dhangar, Solairaj Perumal, Abhay Kumar, Dinesh Redkar, Arun Mahajan, Abhirup Chakraborty, T Ganesan
Abstract A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230023
C M EASON
The author (Chicago Tractor Meeting paper) divides the history of the application of mechanical power to farm work into three periods, reviews each one and comments upon the various phases of progressive development that influence the type of tractor most desirable for satisfying present needs. The requirements of farm work are outlined, and the different types of tractor built and being constructed to meet these demands are reviewed, discussion of large versus small tractors, type of drive, power needed, control, methods of operation and the factors constituting general-purpose service being included. So far as adopting the tractor for farm usage is concerned, the author believes that the present limitation of such utilization lies with the tractor industry and with tractor engineers, rather than with the farmer.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0092
Sadanand Bhosale, Rajendiran Suresh, Dipankar Ray
Abstract India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
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