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Viewing 1 to 30 of 342
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0154
Vyankatesh Madane, Abhijit Swami, Mihir Shah, S. S. Sane
Products from the developed western countries are brought to India by different manufacturers. It is needed to look at the different aspects of the vehicles like performance parameters, structural stability, serviceability etc, as the requirement of the local market differ vastly from those requirement of the original markets. Indian market condition demands the vehicle suitable for taking the abuse load on the rough roads as the road conditions in the mofussil area and country side are bad. This paper describes the definition and validation of the carryover products, to suit the Indian conditions by using different techniques, to reduce time to market. This paper describes the creation of accelerated endurance test cycle for a mini truck which is representative of Indian customer usage of 120,000 km. Relative damage method is used for correlation of proving ground (track) with customer usage pattern on selected channels.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0335
Ana Cristina Soares, Bibiana Quintiliano, Rogério Dias
Evaluation of vehicle performance is one of the most important phases of the new vehicle development. Start Ability and Top Speed are factors that are noticed by users, therefore are very important to the final product. Vehicle performance evaluation has been largely benefited from the use of simulation tools. In fact, MAN Latin America (ML) employs simulation programs to evaluate the performance of its vehicles (trucks and buses) achieving good results. However, those programs are normally “closed codes” which makes difficult the physical comprehension of results. Altogether, this article presents Vehicle Dynamics, a macro developed by ML engineering team. The aim of this macro is the automatic calculation of Start Ability, Grade Ability, Top Speed, among other performance parameters.
1999-09-14
Technical Paper
1999-01-2817
Subrata Roy, Phillip Cho, Fred Périé
A comprehensive finite element methodology is developed to predict the compressible flow performance of a non-symmetric 7-blade axial flow fan, and to quantify the source strength and sound pressure levels at any location in the system. The acoustic and flow performances of the fan are predicted simultaneously using a computational aero-acoustic technique combining transient flow analysis and noise propagation. The calculated sound power levels compare favorably with the measured sound power data per AMCA 300-96 code.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0930
Bryon J. Sohns, Jeffrey L. Stein, Loucas S. Louca
Vital to the effectiveness of simulation-based design is having a model of known quality of the system being designed. The purpose of this paper is to validate a simplified dynamic model of an FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles) for a range of system parameters using a previously developed technique for determining model robustness and accuracy within a design space. The literature provides an algorithm called AVASIM (Accuracy and Validity Algorithm for Simulation) for assessing model validity systematically and quantitatively. AVASIM assess the validity of a model based on a specific input and set of system parameters. The literature also defines a procedure for evaluating the robustness and accuracy of a model with respect to input and system parameter variations based on the AVASIM algorithm.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8019
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Adime Kofi Bonsi
Abstract The main objective of this project was to compare the fuel consumption and dynamic performances of direct-drive and overdrive transmission tractors. Fuel consumption was evaluated at constant high speed and on various road profiles, while the dynamic performance was assessed on various road profiles only. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure (J1526) was used for constant high speed fuel consumption track test evaluations. The direct-drive transmission tractor consumed less than the overdrive transmission tractor, even though it was heavier. The testing on various road profiles was conducted using a towing dynamometer, for comparing the dynamic capability of the tractors when simulating the same towing load on two hilly road profiles: the Townes Pass path (in the Rocky Mountains) and the Saguenay path (in the Saguenay region of Quebec). Each tractor was to haul the set load along the given path while trying to attain 90 km/h speed.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0338
Harish Sonawane, Gaurav Paliwal, Swejal Jain, Umashanker Gupta
Abstract Tractor-semitrailers make up large proportion of heavy commercial vehicles, handling stability of tractor-semitrailers is critical to driving safety. Handling behavior of Tractor-semitrailers is complex and depends on various parameters. This paper presents a mathematical approach & multi body dynamics (MBD) simulation based study to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of the articulated vehicle affect it’s handling behavior and thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of vehicle handling. A Full vehicle multi body dynamic model is created and steady state cornering maneuvers are performed on simulation tool MSC ADAMS/View for calculating understeer gradient using constant radius test method. Various parameters affecting understeer gradient are identified, studied and their relative effect on understeer gradient is measured. These critical parameters were then optimized using MSC ADAMS/View tool to achieve the desired handling targets.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0145
Sankaranarayanan Arthanathan
Abstract The objective of this project is “Bringing Field to Lab”. Normally in field, tractors are utilized for various applications like harvesting and threshing operation in a dusty environment which consists of paddy, sand, straw etc. These dusts would affect the tractor performance and often cause problem like engine choking at severe condition. Field data on threshing acquired from north Indian places like Jaitsar, Jalandhar where threshing done in summer at a temperature around 50°C. Also during threshing full tractor power is used through (PTO) power take off and this load fluctuates according to manual loading of paddy in thresher.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0144
Pankaj Brijbihari Sharma, Prafulla Dahiwade
Abstract This paper discusses the off-road performance prediction of military application mini UGVs using terramechanics work deals with the development of performance simulation model for mini UGV in the Matlab/Simulink Software. Transient forward vehicle propulsion model and soil terrain interaction model have been built in the Simulink® software. It is a semi-empirical mobility model which predicts mini UGV performance on given terrain. The interaction between vehicle and the terrain causes resistances to vehicle propulsion. The model calculates these resistances, compares them to both the power limitations of the vehicle and the tractive limitations of the soil/terrain, to determine if the vehicle is immobilized. If not, then the vehicle speed is calculated based on available drawbar pull. The terrain is defined in terms of the soil parameters measured by the Bevameter. Semi-empirical equations suggested by Bekker have been used to model the soil terrain interaction.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0237
Rajendra More, Darshan Vachhani, Chetan Raval
Abstract Strength and durability of commercial vehicle structure is of prime importance to users while quicker time to market and least material cost are demands of competitive world. This requires assessment not just with simplistic loadcases but robust and accurate predictions closely co-relating real proving ground conditions. This paper demonstrates systematic approach of first road load predictions using MBD model, then stress analysis using FE model and finally life prediction using fatigue solver. MBD model was built using flex body, air suspensions with rigid links and tires with FTire characteristics. Same model ran on various virtual proving grounds and load history at various joints were extracted. Then inertia relief stress analysis with unit loads were carried out in Nastran and output stresses were mapped against load history in fatigue solver.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2819
Vasu Kumar, Dhruv Gupta, Mohd Waqar Naseer Siddiquee, Aksh Nagpal, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0028
Jihyun An, Seungwon Yoo, KwangChan Ko, Jongchan Park
Abstract This paper presents an industrial application of the Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) methodology to the optimal design of commercial vehicle steering and suspension system. This is a pilot study about the suspension and steering design of a semi medium bus, whose objective is to develop and introduce an ATC methodology to an automobile development process. In the conventional process, it is difficult not only to find design variables which meet the target of Ride and Handling (R&H) performance using a detailed full car model, but also to figure out the interrelation between the vehicle and its subsystems. In this study, ATC methodology is used in order to obtain the optimal values such as geometric characteristics satisfying both the vehicle's R&H target and the subsystem (suspension and steering system) 's target.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0314
Larry Michaels, Curtis G. Adams, Michael Juskiewicz
Abstract A simulation approach is defined that integrates a military mission assessment tool (One Semi-Automated Forces) with a commercial automotive control/energy consumption development tool (Autonomie). The objective is to enable vehicle energy utilization and fuel consumption impact assessments relative to US Army mission effectiveness and commercial drive cycles. The approach to this integration will be described, along with its potential to meet its objectives.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1105
Andrei Keller, Sergei Aliukov
Abstract This paper is devoted to development of methodology of system analysis of power distribution systems and development of methods of synthesis of objective laws in the power distribution among drive wheels of a multipurpose wheel vehicle. The methodology of system analysis provides for formulation of the problem; structural analysis of power distribution systems; the synthesis of objective laws in the power distribution; development of methods for their implementation. The methodology is based on the theory of the synthesis of technical systems. In this paper it has been solved the inverse problem of dynamics, namely: in accordance with specified requirements to effectiveness of the multipurpose wheeled vehicle, expressed in the form of formulated performance criteria, it is necessary to determine parameters of characteristics of control actions.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0334
Antonio H. Dutra Cardoso, Eduardo Hiroaki Nishi, Rodolfo Silva Guimarães
Abstract Currently the high demand for quality and low pollutant emissions in the Diesel commercial vehicles market, it is notable the increase in the sensitivity variation of components. In a commercial vehicle, we have the engine as the main agent, since it has many components under industrial manufacturing processes which may present variations, mainly when it requires critical adjustments. One of the most significant components in the engine performance is the turbocharger. Based on the difficulty to meet the design specification adjustment, this study was performed to detect the possible influences of the waste-gate actuator adjustment. In addition, the study also considers the contribution in terms of emissions, whereas the current legislation requires stringent levels. Therefore, the research was divided into vehicle tests (performance) in a controlled test track with different settings and emissions tests in a steady-state dynamometer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0436
Tianjun Zhu, Bin Li
Abstract A new extended planar model for multi-axle articulated vehicle with nonlinear tire model is presented. This nonlinear multi-axle articulated vehicle model is specifically intended for improving the model performance in operating regimes where tire lateral force is near the point of saturation, and it has the potential to extend the specific axles model to any representative configuration of articulated vehicle model. At the same time, the extended nonlinear vehicle model can reduce the model's sensitivity to the tire cornering coefficients. Firstly, a nonlinear tire model is used in conjunction with the 6-axle planar articulated vehicle model to extend the ranges of the original linear model into the nonlinear regimes of operation. Secondly, the performance analysis of proposed nonlinear vehicle model is verified through the double lane change maneuver on different road adhesion coefficients using TruckSim software.
1938-01-01
Technical Paper
380160
Merrill C. Horine
1954-01-01
Technical Paper
540216
M.J. Waclawek
TORQUE converters have many advantages for industrial and commercial vehicles. Some of those listed by the author are: 1. Smooth acceleration. 2. Engine need not be declutched when it is unloaded or idling. 3. More horsepower delivered at low output speeds and during acceleration, compared with conventional transmissions. 4. Operator mistakes of improper gear selection and missing of shifts are reduced to a minimum. 5. Load held to power source at all times. 6. Damping out of engine torsional vibration. 7. Increased life for drive train beyond transmission. 8. Cushioning of shock loads during starting and shifting, and of sudden increases in load.
1949-01-01
Technical Paper
490054
Merrill C. Horine
1952-01-01
Technical Paper
520104
C. W. SMITH, L. F. LARSEN
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2679
Antonio Ficarella, Antonio Giuffrida, Domenico Laforgia
This paper deals with numerical investigations concerning the working behavior of a hydraulic impact machine. Attention is focused on the moving elements inside the casing of the breaker, taking the main targets to be achieved by the designer into account. On one hand, there is the operating performance optimization, with particular care devoted to the impact energy of the breaker; on the other hand, the energy conversion efficiency, related to the power transmission, in order to minimize the power requirement to the feeding system. Use of a parameterized numerical model is made in order to better understand the effects of parameters characteristic of distributor and striking mass on breaker performance and to achieve possible improvements in both impact energy and efficiency. The key-variable, which leads to better performance, is found to be the working pressure.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2673
Peter Jackson, Bart Addis, Sarang Thakare
The paper covers the design and development of a new 13L heavy-duty diesel engine. It describes in detail some of the design techniques that were used. To meet these exacting requirements, extensive use was made of Analysis-Led Design, which allows components, sub-systems and the entire engine, aftertreatment and vehicle system to be modeled before designs are taken to prototype hardware. This enables a level of system and sub-system optimization not previously available. The engine was designed primarily for on-highway use in China, and the paper describes the emissions strategy for China, and the physical design strategy for the new engine, and provides some engine performance robustness details. The engine architecture is discussed and the paper details the analysis of the major components - cylinder block, head, head seal, power cylinder, bearings and camshaft drive.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2637
Mark Pecqueur, Kristof Ceustermans, Pieter Huyskens, Dimitrios Savvidis
Green fuels or alternative fuels are growing fast now days and can be used in every passenger car but also in many commercial vehicles. In various countries all around Europe such as Italy, Netherlands and Belgium LPG is a reasonable alternative fuel for small and medium cars. This study evaluated the performance of a Suzuki Liane fitted with a multipoint in-line gas fuel injection system. During the tests various exhaust gasses (CO, CO2, NOx, O2 and HC) and temperatures were measured in different load condition on a chassis dynamometer. All tests were conducted in the engines laboratory at Karel de Grode Hogeschool (KDG) in Antwerp, Belgium. The car was tested on a chassis dynamometer similar to the one described in [1], [2], [3] and various loads were applied at different gear settings. All measurements were taken under full load and four different gears (2nd gear, 3rd gear, 4th gear and 5th gear) were selected in the gear box.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2609
M. Himabindu, G. Sathyanarayanan, S. Thomson, N. V. Mahalakshmi
Diesel engines are used for automotive application because they have lower specific fuel consumption and superior efficiency compared to the SI engines. However, in spite of these advantages oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions from the diesel engine causes serious environmental problems. In the present work, homogeneous charge diesel combustion (HCDC) concept is used for simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke emissions. Ethanol is used as a premixed fuel and injected into the port at low pressure during the suction stroke by solenoid-operated injector. Diesel is used as secondary fuel and conventionally injected at the end of the compression stroke. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) technique was also adapted to find the maximum possible reduction in NOx emission without abrupt increase in hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2611
Dimitrios Savvidis, John Triandafyllis, Vasilios Grammatikis, Mark Pecqueur
In this study the influence of various blends biodiesel on steady state exhaust emissions was determined using, in terms of technology, two different cars. A first series of tests were conducted in Greece and a second series of tests were conducted in Belgium. An old technology Ford Escort 86 model, 1.6L, 4 cylinders with indirect injection system engine was used on a chassis dynamometer in Greece and a Volvo V70 2.5L was tested in Belgium. The Ford Escort test car was not equipped with an engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and run on the dynamometer with full load on three different gear settings (second gear, third gear and fourth gear). The Belgian car was a modern Volvo V70 2.5 L Turbo diesel. Seven fuels were used in both cases, a high sulfur diesel in Greece, and blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight biodiesel in neat diesel or (B10), (B20), (B30), (B40), (B50) and (B100) respectively.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2610
Rob Jokai, WenLi Duo
FPInnovations investigated the impact of different diesel/biodiesel blend ratios on engine performance, exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption. A CAT 3406E engine was used for this evaluation. The objective was to give those considering using biodiesel in their operations a reference of how their equipment would perform with different biodiesel blends. Testing was conducted in January and February 2008 in Vancouver, B.C. at the British Columbia Institute of Technology, Heavy Equipment Group Campus. The following blend levels were tested: 100% diesel (typical winter diesel for the local area), B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, and B100. The biodiesel fuel used for this study met ASTM D6751 specifications and was made from virgin canola feedstock provided by Milligan Bio-Tech of Foam Lake, Sask. An engine dynamometer was used to run the engine through a series of duty cycles with the different fuel blends.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3578
Hong Lin, Robert R. Binoniemi, Gregory A. Fett, Thomas Woodard, Mick Deis
To improve fuel economy and possibly reduce product cost, light weight and high power density has been a development goal for commercial vehicle axle components. Light weight materials, such as aluminum alloys and polymer materials, as well as polymer matrix composite materials have been applied in various automotive components. However it is still a huge challenge to apply light weight materials in components which are subject to heavy load and thus have high stresses, such as gears for commercial vehicle axles or transmissions. To understand and illustrate this challenge, in this paper we will report and review the current state of art of carburized gear steels properties and performance.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3557
Roland L. Ruhl, Louis V. Inendino, Ericka J. Southcombe, Roland A. Ruhl, Daniel A. Fittanto
Construction of a transient model for a Class 8 tractor-trailer negotiating mountain terrain is presented. Four basic brake models for free and forced cooling (GSRS, UMTRI, Limpert, and HVE Brake Designer®) are converted to consistent units. The units have been reduced to those accepted variables in the thermodynamic/heat transfer literature (hc, A, cp, M), thereby facilitating model comparison and coefficient selection from the published literature. The data has been compared to real test published data. The effect of varying the desired vehicle speed, vehicle weight, number of adjusted brakes, and slope magnitude on brake drum temperatures is explored.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3545
Matthew Baus, Anthony Cook, David Schaller
Commercial vehicles carry more than 10 billion tons of goods - approximately 70 percent of all freight shipped and travel over 450 billion miles each year in the United States. These vehicles are the exclusive mode of delivery in over 75 percent of U.S. communities. Such utilization and dependency demand commercial vehicles be reliable, durable, and cost effective. The heart of these commercial vehicles (Classes 3-8) is the diesel engine. The widespread use of the diesel engine can be attributed to its reliability, durability, and cost effectiveness. However, the 2007 and 2010 EPA emissions regulations are creating significant challenges for diesel-powered commercial vehicles. Engine and vehicle manufacturers must strike a balance between emissions, performance, and affordability. A consequence of the evolution of the diesel engine to meet the increasingly stringent emissions regulations is that more effort to accommodate the associated changes is driven to the vehicle manufacturers.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3493
Michael R. Sevcovic
This paper describes how mind mapping software can help to visualize: System performance requirements Product attributes that satisfy performance requirements Mapping between performance requirements and product attributes An example is given using a partial model for vehicle performance developed by the International Truck and Engine Corporation. The mind map software used in this study is Mind Manager Pro version 6 by Mindjet. Anecdotal evidence is offered for the benefits and challenges of implementing a visual Mind Map scheme; however, the judgment of overall effectiveness is left to the reader.
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