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Viewing 1 to 30 of 269
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2427
Lorenzo Serrao, Giulio Ornella, Gilberto Burgio, Ettore Cosoli
The paper illustrates the development of a hydraulic hybrid powertrain concept for off-highway vehicles, which is the result of a three-year program at Dana's advanced technology centers. Engineers have conducted extensive simulations and tests while equipping a demonstration vehicle to determine feasibility, develop advanced features, and quantify benefits of hydraulic hybridization for traction. The system concept and operation as well as its development process are illustrated, focusing the system engineering principles and on the model-based approach to system design, control, and energy analysis. Experimental results are provided.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2395
Mohamed H. Zaher, Sabri Cetinkunt
This paper focuses on comparing the performance of the embedded control of a hybrid powertrain with the original and downsized engine. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system is completely disabled.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2396
Mohamed H. Zaher, Sabri Cetinkunt
This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. A rule based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and might be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work-machine and its position via GPS, and maps both of them to the gains.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0609
Adriano Adilson Antunes
The hybrid electric system for commercial vehicles introduction, redefine the load profile cycle used to evaluate common rail system components. This redefinition is necessary as result of the internal combustion engine number of starts enhanced, due to shared working cycle between diesel engine and electric motor. This load profile is mandatory to validate the common rail system components regarding lifetime for all application, conventional vehicle or hybrid. This new requirement, engine start numbers, places the hybrid electric vehicle as worst case load cycle, when compared with already known commercial vehicles cycle. The aim is also present the representative differences between both load cycles, more focused on hybrid. It will also give additional importance in common rail system requirements, applied for hybrid electric vehicles, an overview of instrumentation for the load profile measurement and the hybrid vehicle measurement particularities.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0081
Federico Millo, Rocco Fuso, Luciano Rolando, Jianning Zhao, Andrea Benedetto, Filippo Cappadona, Paolo Seglie
Nowadays the increasing demand for sustainable mobility has fostered the introduction of innovative propulsion systems also in the public transport sector in order to achieve a significant reduction of pollutant emissions in highly congested urban areas. Within this context this paper describes the development of the HYBUS, an environmental friendly hybrid bus for on-road urban transportation, which was jointly carried out by Pininfarina and Politecnico di Torino in the framework of the AMPERE project. The first prototype of the bus was built by integrating an innovative hybrid propulsion system featuring a plug-in series architecture into the chassis of an old IVECO 490 TURBOCITY. The bus is 12 meters long and has a capacity of up to 116 passengers in the original layout. The project relied on a modular approach where the powertrain could be easily customized for size and power depending on the specific application.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0066
Stanislav N. Florentsev, Dmitry B. Izosimov, Sergey B. Baida, Alexander A. Belousov, Andrey N. Sibirtsev, Sergei V. Zhuravljov
A city bus LIAZ 5292XX is a result of teamwork of "RUSELPROM" Corp. and the "Likino Bus Works." By the results of the International Automobile Forum, Moscow, Russia, 2008 the bus has been recognized as the best bus of year in Russia. LIAZ 5292XX with hybrid power train provides the following values: bus length is 12 m; maximum (peak) traction power is about 250 kW; maximum speed 90 km/h; movement on 20% (12°) grade is possible. The bus carries ICE; electric traction IM; generator IM; buffer super capacitor. Parameters and block diagrams of the traction electric equipment set (TEES) of the city bus are presented in the article. The control algorithm of power flows which provides the main fuel economy is considered. Results of benchmark tests are given. The special software - Service Computing System visualizes parameters of TEES operating variables; presents and processes of the graphic information; loads, saves and views in graphic and table form the files of emergency logs.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0064
Carsten Kaup, Thomas Pels, Peter Ebner, Raimund Ellinger, Kurt Gschweitl, Engelbert Loibner, Richard Schneider, Lukas Walter
The reduction of CO₂ emissions represents a major goal of governments worldwide. In developed countries, approximately 20% of the CO₂ emissions originate from transport, one third of this from commercial vehicles. CO₂ emission legislation is in place for passenger cars in a number of major markets. For commercial vehicles such legislation was also already partly published or is under discussion. Furthermore the commercial vehicles market is very cost sensitive. Thus the major share of fuel cost in the total cost of ownership of commercial vehicles was already in the past a major driver for the development of efficient drivetrain solutions. These aspects make the use of new powertrain technologies, specifically hybridization, mandatory for future commercial powertrains. While some technologies offer a greater potential for CO₂ reduction than others, they might not represent the overall optimum with regard to the total cost of ownership.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0067
Arghya Sardar, Sajid Mubashir
Emission reduction and fuel economy are the primary drivers for public transport authorities. Electric propulsion is efficient, and do not produce any local emissions. However, achieving range similar to IC engine vehicles would require large battery pack, and considering this plug-in hybrid technology may be attractive options for public transport buses. Advances in battery technology and power electronics have enhanced the possibility of plug-in hybrid vehicles penetrating market in near future. Rising fuel prices and concerns over green house gases as well as other emissions have made it essential to consider such options seriously. Globally there are many efforts towards development of plug-in hybrid vehicles and Indian vehicle manufacturers have also demonstrated plug-in hybrid buses. Such vehicles can offer higher benefits in Indian congested traffic. However, it is required to evaluate the comparative environmental performance of plug-in hybrid vehicles in life-cycle analysis.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0065
Yongrae Kim, Yonggu Lee, Kyonam Choi, Dongsoo Jeong
High-powered vehicles offer an advantage of superior fuel economy through use of regenerative braking and lowered transient emissions by reducing the operating portion of the engine to follow load as closely as in a conventional bus. A hybrid bus was designed and a prototype was developed. It has a parallel-type hybrid powertrain system and uses a 6-liter diesel engine which satisfy Euro-5 emission standard. 44-kW-electric motor, AMT (automated manual transmission) and Li-ion-type batteries were applied to this hybrid bus. Total 8 hybrid buses are test-running in 6 cities and the driving performances are monitored in terms of fuel efficiency, emission and convenience. This paper presents the performance, major component features and calibration procedures of hybrid powertrain systems. Test run monitoring result showed a benefit of fuel economy at least 36% by comparing to a conventional diesel-powered bus.
2011-10-04
Technical Paper
2011-36-0162
Ferdinand Panik, Ying Huang, Agenor Boff, Sidney Gonzalves, Emilio Battista
Long-term rise of oil prices, increasingly stringent emission regulations, combined with emerging regulations to reduce truck engine idling present a unique opportunity for hybrid trucks. Tutto Industria de Sistemas de Tracao Electrica is a Brazilian Company located in Caxias do Sul which is dedicated to develop and commercialize electric and hybrid drive trains for commercial vehicles. In this paper a case study for a Brazilian delivery truck application will be presented. First the fundamental architecture of a series hybrid delivery truck is described and simulation models for a conventional 8 t delivery truck and the responsive hybrid electric truck are built, and serve as a basis for powertrain components and control strategy analysis. Comparisons of the hybrid truck with the conventional truck are performed, and important factors relating to the vehicle performance (gross vehicle weight, drive cycles, control strategies) are investigated.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0139
Fabio Coelho Barbosa
Stricter environmental regulation and the increasing concern about fuel economy and emissions have driven transit agencies and operators toward environmental and economic concerns when selecting transit bus technology. In this scenario, hybrid bus, that combines two or more distinct propulsion systems (generally combustion engine and electric motor), has been seen as a choice that balances both the need for better environmental and efficiency performance and capital expenditures for introducing new technology-based transit bus fleets. The source of better performance of hybrid buses is the ability to i) optimize the operating point of combustion engine to achieve best fuel economy; ii) store energy generated during braking at storage devices (batteries, supercapacitors or flywheels), to be used to power the vehicle when needed, and, hence, iii) downsizing engine due to reduced average power requirements.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2049
Michael P. Lammert, Kevin Walkowicz, Adam Duran, Petr Sindler
This research project compares the in-use and laboratory-derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with “engine off at idle” capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles in this study included eleven model year 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids that were placed in service at a United Parcel Service (UPS) facility in Minneapolis, Minn., during the first half of 2010. These hybrid vehicles were evaluated for 18 months against eleven model year 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels that were placed in service at the same facility a couple months after the hybrids. Both vehicle study groups use the same model year 2009 Cummins ISB 200 HP engine. The vehicles of interest were chosen by comparing the average daily mileage of the hybrid group to that of a similar size and usage diesel group.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1987
Anthony Proust, Marius-Dorin Surcel
The objectives of this project were to evaluate the reduction in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions made possible by hybrid technology, and to identify good driving habits with this type of vehicle. Two diesel-electric hybrid pick-up and delivery trucks and one diesel-electric hybrid utility vehicle equipped with an electric driven PTO (power take-off) system were included in the project. The first phase was the evaluation in actual operating conditions. Onboard computers were installed in the vehicles to record parameters that make it possible to determine driving habits. Based on operational data, specific duty cycles were built and track tests were conducted to measure the fuel consumption on these duty cycles. It was therefore possible to compare the hybrid trucks with other diesel trucks featuring similar characteristics. The delivery hybrid trucks showed up to 34% fuel savings during the track tests.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2018
He Changming
The nonuniformity property of the temperature field distribution will not only affect on the battery charging and discharging performance but also its lifetime. In this paper the elementary structural design is implemented for Ni-Mh battery package and the corresponding test platform is constructed from the point of view of temperature difference control strategy, the test results show that the present structural design schemes can effectively restrain temperature difference enlargement among the battery stacks. Through the application of adopting the flow field uniformity method to control temperature difference, and flow field optimization inside the battery package, it is found that the flow field velocity change quantity ΔV is gradually reduced as the increase of the afflux hood angle Ak and air vent width Da, and the difference of battery temperature is relatively lower, which denoting that the corresponding relationship can be created based on test data.
2012-09-24
Journal Article
2012-01-2017
Ho Teng, Kim Yeow
Battery packs for plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) applications can be characterized as high-capacity and high-power packs. For PHEV battery packs, their power and electrical-energy capacities are determined by the range of the electrical-energy-driven operation and the required vehicle drive power. PHEV packs often employ high-power lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cells with large cell capacity in order to achieve high packing efficiency. Lithium-ion battery packs for PHEV applications generally have a 96SnP configuration, where S is for cells in series, P is for cells in parallel, and n = 1, 2 or 3. Two PHEV battery packs with 355V nominal voltage and 25-kWh nominal energy capacity are studied. The first pack is assembled with 96 70Ah high-power Li-ion pouch cells in 96S1P configuration. The second pack is assembled with 192 35Ah high-power Li-ion pouch cells in 96S2P configuration.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2023
Zhen Sun, Morgan Andreae
A range of cycle characteristics have been used to estimate the hybrid potential for vehicle duty cycles including characteristic acceleration, aerodynamic velocity, kinetic intensity, stop time, etc. These parameters give an indication of overall hybrid potential benefits, but do not contain information on the distribution of the available braking energy and the hybrid system power required to capture the braking energy. In this paper, the authors propose two new cycle characteristics to help evaluate overall hybrid potential of vehicle cycles: P50 and P90, which are non-dimensional power limits at 50% and 90% of available braking energy. These characteristics are independent of vehicle type, and help illustrate the potential hybridization benefit of different drive cycles. First, the distribution of available braking energy as a function of brake power for different vehicle cycles and vehicle classes is analyzed.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2025
Carrie Kowsky, Lindsey Leitzel, Frederick Oddi, Edward Wolfe
The thermal systems of commercial vehicles are changing to reduce operational costs and tailpipe CO₂ emissions and to address anti-idling legislation. As these systems transition they must recognize that waste heat from the internal combustion engine can longer be the only means of providing hot coolant for heating. The Unitary HPAC (Heat Pump Air Conditioner) provides the hot coolant needed for heating in addition to cold coolant that can be used for cooling. The Unitary HPAC is a refrigerant system that is coupled with a coolant system. It produces hot and cold coolant that is used to manage the vehicles thermal needs. It has the ability to scavenge heat from unused sources, which allows it to provide heating with COP's (Coefficient of Performance) greater than 1. The Unitary HPAC can be applied to any vehicle that does not have enough hot coolant available for heating purposes.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-2038
Alexandra Doan, James Yarosz, Zoran Filipi, Albert Shih
This paper investigates the development of a deaeration device to remove nitrogen from the hydraulic fluid in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). HHVs, which use accumulators to store and recycle energy, can significantly reduce vehicle emissions in urban delivery vehicles. In accumulators, nitrogen behind a piston cylinder or inside a bladder pressurizes an incompressible fluid. The permeation of the nitrogen through the rubber bladder into the hydraulic fluid limits the efficiency and reliability of the HHV system, since the pressure drop in the hydraulic fluid can in turn cause cavitation on pump components and excessive noise in the system. The nitrogen bubbles within the hydraulic fluid may be removed through the employment of commercial bubble eliminators if the bubbles are larger than a certain threshold. However, gas is also dissolved within the hydraulic fluid; therefore, novel design is necessary for effective deaeration in the fluid HHV circuit.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1945
Ian Briggs, Geoffrey McCullough, Stephen Spence, Roy Douglas, Richard O'Shaughnessy, Alister Hanna, Cedric Rouaud, Rachel Seaman
An increase in global oil consumption, coupled with a peak in oil production, has seen the price of fuel escalate in recent years, and consequently the transport sector must take measures to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles. Similarly, ever-tightening emissions legislation is forcing automotive manufacturers to invest in technology to reduce toxic emissions. In response to these concerns, this project aims to address one of the fundamental issues with the Internal Combustion Engine - approximately one third of the fuel energy supplied to the engine is lost as heat through the exhaust system. The specific aim of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of a diesel-electric hybrid bus by recovering some of this waste heat and converting it to useful power. This report details how turbocompounding can be applied to the engine, via the inclusion of a turbogenerator, and assesses its waste heat recovery performance.
2016-03-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-1721
Wachira Nilprapunt, Angkee Sripakagorn
Abstract Urban Mobility is one of the most critical issues at the present. Public transport in connection with feeder bus system is proposed to be one of the main solution. Chulalongkorn University has a fleet of electric feeder bus in operation for a few years now. The fleet service is, however, to be improved because of current limitations in battery energy capacity and long battery charging time. This paper aims to examine the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the electric feeder buses using various types of energy storage. The results on the sensitivity analysis highlight the major parameters that exert strong influence in the TCOs. The fast charging system using supercapacitor battery bus shows the lowest TCO for the present bus fleet. The travel distance (km/year) and operational years were illustrated to be the top two parameters that exert major influence towards the TCO.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1780
Nobunori okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
Next-generation vehicles which include Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are studied and expected to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The number of small delivery hybrid trucks has increased in the commercial vehicle class. The engine load of a commercial hybrid truck is reduced by using an electric motor. Fuel economy of the hybrid truck is improved with the assist. On the other hand, exhaust-gas temperature is decreased, and it has a negative effect on the purification performance of aftertreatment system. In this report, the fuel performance and emission gas characteristics of marketed small hybrid trucks were surveyed using the chassis dynamometer test system.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1781
Nobuhiro Kondo, Hideyuki Takahashi, Junichi Yamada, Keiki Tanabe, Takuya Kitasei, Genichiro Ishii
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system of heavy duty truck (HDT) for long haul application was studied to improve the fuel economy (FE). At first, the HEV system configuration and control functions were defined and optimized. Secondly the test vehicle was constructed and a test drive was carried out on Tomei express way, and then, 10% FE improvement compared to non-hybrid HDT was achieved. Additionally, HEV system with coasting technology, which had become attractive as a FE improvement technology for non-hybrid HDT, was considered to obtain further FE benefit. The effective usage of both “Electrical energy regeneration control” for HEV system and “Kinetic energy control” for coasting was studied with simulation. As a result, it was clarified that the effects for FE improvement depended on route profile and those combined operations advantaged for FE improvement compared to each individual operation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2849
Hariharan Venkitachalam, Axel Schlosser, Johannes Richenhagen, Mirco Küpper, Thomas Tasky
Abstract Electrification is a key enabler to reduce emissions levels and noise in commercial vehicles. With electrification, Batteries are being used in commercial hybrid vehicles like city buses and trucks for kinetic energy recovery, boosting and electric driving. A battery management system monitors and controls multiple components of a battery system like cells, relays, sensors, actuators and high voltage loads to optimize the performance of a battery system. This paper deals with the development of modular control architecture for battery management systems in commercial vehicles. The key technical challenges for software development in commercial vehicles are growing complexity, rising number of functional requirements, safety, variant diversity, software quality requirements and reduced development costs. Software architecture is critical to handle some of these challenges early in the development process.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0114
Siddharth Das, Sushil S Ramdasi, Rakesh Mulik, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract For zero tail pipe emission transportation, fuel cell technology is the best available option for replacing commercial IC engines. Worldwide lot of research work is going on in development of fuel cell vehicles. This work deals with the virtual development of system architecture for hybrid electric - fuel cell light commercial vehicle. The goal of this research work is to virtually design, model and convert an existing LCV model in to a hybrid electric fuel cell vehicle for the same performance and better efficiencies with zero tail pipe emissions. A unique fuel cell management system is developed and used for obtaining better efficiencies. A mathematical model of the vehicle is developed using GT-Drive which tracks the energy flow and fuel usage within the vehicle drivetrain. The vehicle is tested on chassis dynamometer to provide data for validation of the mathematical model. Model results and vehicle data show good correlation when validated.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0313
Andrej Ivanco, Kan Zhou, Heath Hofmann, Zoran S. Filipi
Abstract Design of military vehicle needs to meet often conflicting requirements such as high mobility, excellent fuel efficiency and survivability, with acceptable cost. In order to reduce the development cost, time and associated risk, as many of the design questions as possible need to be addressed with advanced simulation tools. This paper describes a methodology to design a fuel efficient powerpack unit for a series hybrid electric military vehicle, with emphasis on the e-machine design. The proposed methodology builds on previously published Finite element based analysis to capture basic design features of the generator with three variables, and couples it with a model reduction technique to rapidly re-design the generator with desired fidelity. The generator is mated to an off the shelf engine to form a powerpack, which is subsequently evaluated over a representative military drive cycles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8112
Jorge Leon, Jose M. Garcia, Mario J. Acero, Andres Gonzalez, Geng Niu, Mahesh Krishnamurthy
Abstract In order to improve efficiency and increase the operation of electric vehicles, assistive energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is modeled to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage for a pure electric articulated passenger bus. In this study a pump/motor machine is modeled to transform kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during braking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. The simulation of the proposed system was used to estimate battery savings. It was found that on average, approximately 39% of the battery charge can be saved when using a real bus driving cycle.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0176
Rajesh Siva, C. Janarthanan, P. Muthuvel, Gopkumar Kuttikrishnan, Gidugu Ramadass, Malayath Atmanand
Abstract The hybrid robot, will be a battery operated four wheel drive vehicle with a rigid chassis for all terrain operation. The vehicle will be suited for various payloads based on applications with geological, atmospheric sensors such as oxygen measurement, glacier thickness measurement, CO2 measurement, thermal properties measurement, salinity, buried object identification at a depth of 8 to 100 m., etc . The vehicle will be remotely controlled through a RF signal which allows it to maneuver up to 5 km. The novelty of the design, is its capability for all terrain and ease of trafficability based on skid steering, self alignment of sensors and vehicle traction in spite of possible inverted conditions and the vehicle can travel from land, snow, water and vice versa. The vehicle can be used in survey at coastline of water bodies, borderlines and can also be extensively used in polar region for studying glacier aging and as advance vehicle for the convoys and polar mapping.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2873
Suchismita Chatterjee, Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan
In the recent years, due to rising fuel costs, transportation technologies that provide better fuel economy than conventional vehicle are gaining in popularity with masses. Also, tighter emission norms by various governments have prompted OEMs to look at alternate solutions such as hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles employ an internal combustion engine as well as an alternate energy source to power road vehicles. Various types of hybrid vehicles are available such as mild hybrid, full hybrid, series, parallel and series-parallel hybrids. The level of hybridization (mild or full) and the different powertrain combination (series or parallel) result that on the same route, the engine in a hybrid vehicle operates very different to that of conventional vehicle. The fuel consumed and emissions are also significantly lower in hybrid vehicle. To certify hybrid vehicles, regulators in many countries have modified existing procedures applicable to conventional vehicles.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2828
Minghui Ren, Changfu Zong, Ying Wan, Mingxu Duan, Hongyu Zheng
The hybrid electric city bus, which consists of the electric motor and battery, is obviously different from the traditional buses. This paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission in hybrid electric city bus and does the following studies: firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratio and some structural parameters are optimized with CRUISE software; secondly, the volume and weight of the transmission structure is reduced and optimized by numerical optimization approach, with the limitation of the structural reliability.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3533
Derek K. Warinner, Eric L. Sailor, William A. Szabela, Ken A. Sherwin
The 4200 Hybrid Electric Vehicle is a Class 5-6 medium duty chassis usable in a variety of short range applications. The vision for this vehicle concept is a self contained hybrid diesel-electric vehicle with range and performance similar to a diesel-only vehicle along with improved fuel efficiency. The hydraulic steering system is an ideal candidate for energy savings due to its continuously running on-engine pump component. Electrically powered hydraulic steering (EPHS) pumps, along with a Column Drive electric assist unit, replace the conventional engine driven pump. The Column Drive masks any switching transients in the flow from the EPHS units and provides steering feel tuning. The system offers the benefits of improved on-center handling, increased returnability, speed proportional assist, and cross-wind compensation.
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