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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2875
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0433
Ioan Hociota, Pankaj K. Mallick
Among the various high strength steels available today, boron steels are finding increasing applications in bumper beams and other crash resistant structures, primarily for their high strength. However, to overcome the forming difficulty at room temperature and to achieve the microstructural changes needed for high strength, manufacturing of boron steel parts is done under hot forming conditions. In this study, the effect of three principal bumper design parameters, namely depth, thickness and corner radius on the formability of a hat section bumper beam was considered. Using a forming simulation program, 27 different combinations of these three design parameters were examined for forming limits, failure types and failure locations. The bumper beams were also examined for energy absorption in pendulum impact tests. Recommendations are made for the design of boron steel bumper beams based on both impact energy absorption and formability.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0203
Steve Thorne, Bruce W. Leppla
ACC radar systems gather valuable data about the speed of forward vehicles, and then utilize that information to best regulate the spacing between those forward vehicles and the ACC host. However, such radar-gathered data can also be useful to help prevent rear-end collisions involving the host vehicle. Embedded in that data is information revealing decelerations of forward vehicles that holds particular value to any driver that might be trailing the host vehicle - especially if their vision is screened by the bulk of the host vehicle. In this paper, a hybrid stop lamp system is proposed whereby ACC radar data gathered by a host vehicle is automatically conveyed to the trailing driver utilizing a new light element integrated with the host vehicle's stop lamp system.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0108
Rainer Neumann, Thorsten Warwel
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0109
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0116
Josef Schug
Today, LED automotive exterior lighting is already widely used on high end and upper middle class vehicles. We see already first examples of application as the standard lighting solution even in the mid class segment. A compact design and the feasibility of car life sealed solution is a strong argument to use LEDs for CHMSLs. Long lifetime and new styling opportunities speak for LEDS in front or rear position lights as well as in daytime running lamps;. Mainstream penetration of LED lighting solutions will first happen for functions where the benefits of LEDs have the highest positive impact and where this value can be realized in the most cost-effective way. During the different phases of the introduction of LEDs different requirements dominate the decision process. Providing unique styling opportunity and showing advanced technical functionality is leading for the early adopters.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0114
Lawrence M. Rice
Light emitting diode (LED) modules (standardized light sources) for use in automotive illumination design will soon become available in production volumes. Designing products with these devices is not the same as working with conventional tungsten halogen or high intensity discharge (HID or Xenon) light sources. There are a number of LED module characteristics which must be kept in mind when designing lighting systems.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0111
John D. Bullough
Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0110
John D. Bullough
Recent technological developments have begun to add a number of new configurations for vehicle forward lighting to the realm of possibility, including high-intensity discharge and light-emitting diode headlamps, and adaptive forward-lighting systems. These systems can offer substantial differences in performance and appearance from conventional filament-based headlamps that have been ubiquitous for many decades. These differences have not gone unnoticed by the U.S. driving public. A review of newspaper articles published during the past several years was conducted in order to assess public perceptions of vehicle headlamps in terms of their ability to support visibility and their impacts on headlamp glare.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0118
Daniel Le Messurier, John S. Orisich
Monte Carlo simulations are shown to be a useful tool when determining the flux output of LED arrays during the design phase. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are able to show the statistical distribution of output flux based on multi-LED arrays, thus allowing engineers to optimise their design, rather than using worst case scenario design principles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0117
Sidharth Gupta
This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0126
Steven Gasworth, Triloka Tankala
Heat transfer between the ambient and the air in a vehicle cabin determines the nominal steady state load on the vehicle's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, a significant factor for vehicle efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper highlights the effect of glazing (i.e. window) thermal conductivity on steady state heat transfer, with high and low thermal conductivities represented respectively by monolithic glass and standard polycarbonate. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are summarized for a model car cabin including HVAC vents, interior seating, and a rooflite. Passenger and moisture effects are not included. Monthly temperature and radiation data for Phoenix, Arizona and Minneapolis, Minnesota are used to define hot and cold climate scenarios.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0070
Stuart J. Brown
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0490
Sharvin Motamedi, John Dennis, Ted T. Stawiarski, A.K. Khosrovaneh, Li L. Sun, Mohamed El-Sayed
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0595
Robert E. Llaneras, M. Lucas Neurauter, Charles Quinn, Charles Green
Research was conducted to assess driver acceptance and performance associated with a spotter mirror feature intended to reduce the incidence of lane-change conflicts by enhancing drivers' ability to detect vehicles in their side blind zone. The spotter mirror consisted of an integrated spherical convex blind zone mirror inset within a larger planar mirror. The spotter mirror's field-of-view was designed to target the vehicle's side blind zone area and to help drivers quickly detect the presence or absence of a vehicle in the blind zone. The study captured normative lane-change behavior during an extended drive on public roadways, with and without access to the spotter mirror system, for a sample of familiar and unfamiliar supplemental mirror users. In order to capture more naturalistic lane-change behavior, drivers were informed that the purpose of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of existing road signs for navigating to a destination.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0802
Yuping He
This paper presents the design of airfoil and briefly introduces a real physical prototype for an actively controlled wing to improve high speed vehicle safety. Conventionally, active safety systems of road vehicles, including active steering and differential braking, mainly manipulate the tire/road forces to enhance the lateral stability of vehicles. However, this active safety technology is hindered by the saturation of tire/road forces at high lateral accelerations and on icy slippery roads. In contrast, the use of controlled aerodynamic forces has received little attention. In this paper, the actively controlled wing is proposed to manipulate the negative lift force (downforce) to enhance handling capabilities of vehicles at high speeds.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0831
Shigeki Nitta, Kanako Ito
The purpose of this study is to define requirements for technological and business success in the world's first implementation of Reverse-Supply-Chain, in which bumper materials of end-of-life vehicles (ELV) are recycled for use as ingredients in new bumper materials. In Japan, ELVs are recovered following to the government regulation. About 20% (700,000 ton) of such collected ELVs are automotive shredder residues (ASR), most of which are burnt as fuel or used as landfill trash. ASRs are mainly plastics, which are largely used as materials of bumpers. The reverse-supply-chain was started as a small business by a collaboration between the car manufacture (Mazda), dismantler, and resource-recycling business operator, and enhanced by the development of easy-to-recycle bumpers, technologies of paint removal from crushed bumpers and sorting-out, a material quality control method, and improvement in transportation efficiency.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1396
Chang Hee Sohn, Ok Kim, Yong Chun, Jong Wook Lee
TPO (thermoplastic olefin) composite for rear bumper back beams was developed. In this study, the composition of PP (polypropylene), rubber and mineral fillers was optimized to minimize the intrusion and the failure after crash. The optimization of the composition was achieved using the mixture design of experiments. The physical properties of TPO composites with various compositions were investigated and the effect of each material on the crash performance of back beam was studied through CAE (computer-aided engineering). The back beams made of the optimized TPO composite for a subcompact car were prepared for the ECE 42 crash test and the TPO-based back beam showed even better performance than conventional PC/PBT-based counterpart. In addition, the newly developed composite has delivered a 15 ~ 40% cost saving and 4 ~ 10% weight reduction versus conventional PC/PBT and GMT (glass mat-reinforced thermoplastic).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1338
Sidharth Gupta
The proposed paper describes the hardware and software method used for detection of wash fluid level in water tank used in automotive; thereby eliminating the need for sensor (Reed type switch mounted on washer bottle) for low wash fluid detection. Wash motor is used for water spray on windscreen during wash and wipe operation. The proposed system makes use of hardware circuit used to drive the wash motor usually of DC (Direct current) type and a feedback circuitry to read back the current consumed by motor during particular wash operation. This hardware system is coupled with software algorithm such that during IGNITION ON instance wash motor will be turned on such as to get motor current readings to determine amount of load operated by motor which is related to wash fluid inside the washer bottle. Motor operation is optimized so as to avoid water spray causing nuisance to user.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1013
Sajjad Beigmoradi, Kambiz Jahani, Arash Keshavarz, Mohsen Bayani Khaknejad
Nowadays, outer surface design of passenger cars is not just a matter of styling and safety but air flow around car body and exterior accessories has significant effect on fuel consumption, performance and dominantly on the wind noise. In recent years, passenger comfort is one of the most challenging and important automotive attributes for car makers. Controlling the turbulence eddies that causes aerodynamic noise can remarkably affect passenger's comfort quality. Identification of aerodynamic sources is considered as the first step in order to control the wind noise. In this research, computational fluid dynamics method is applied to simulate the wind flow around the car and the investigation of aerodynamic noise pattern is performed by numerical method which is the most prevalent way that is used by auto industries.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2390
Aravindan V, Rejith Raj, Prashanth Moni, Gopisankar T, Vinamra Jain
The present invention relates to automobile headlamps, to be more precise static bending lamps. It is well experienced that driving at night times can be quite hectic as the ordinary headlamps do not trace the trajectory of the vehicle. This brought the idea of bending lamps; two different approaches have evolved for the same functionality, either to turn the light source or a projector, called dynamic bending and the second approach is to provide a secondary lamp at the corner focusing location for fulfilling the purpose. The present systems rely on the steering wheel sensor and the vehicle speed data for control. This requires the system to have a CAN transceiver module adding to the cost. In this paper, we will be focusing on static bending lamp in which the fixed-focus positioned lamp will be used for lighting the required area, moreover this gives design a more robustness and cost beneficial control system for the static bending lamp.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1541
Daniel G. Dickson
Much has been written over the years regarding the advantages of using microcellular polyurethane (MPU) within the area of chassis and suspension systems. However, there have been limited discussions in an open forum of the geometric design requirements for MPU jounce bumpers. The objective of this paper is to provide a primer for MPU jounce bumper design for engineers working in the chassis and suspension field. Geometric design principles and the effects on manufacturability and durability will be presented to systematically show the limitations and advantages of MPU technology in creating a final jounce bumper design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1700
Michael E. Carley, Venkat Mallela, Ajay K. Sharma
As vehicle manufacturers continue to become more aggressive with the styling of new vehicles, bumper system technologies will be required to find new solutions that fit into the reduced package spaces while continuing to meet the vehicle performance and cost requirements. The purpose of this paper is to introduce new and innovative Expanded Polypropylene (EPP) foam technologies and techniques.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1699
Eric Jaarda, Tansen Chaudhari, Dhiraj Uikey
Low speed bumper impact performance relies on the capability of the energy absorber (EA) to absorb energy efficiently through multiple impacts. Series impacts are typically assessed via physical part testing due to the difficulties of predicting multiple impacts accurately. This paper describes a predictive engineering method used to assess the performance of injection molded thermoplastic energy absorber systems in multiple impacts.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1702
Alok Nanda, Gopikrishna Surisetty, Subhransu Mohapatra, Shaleena AD, Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman
This paper discusses a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) based methodology for designing an injection molded bumper energy absorber to help meet vehicle pedestrian protection requirements. The development process is described, and an example is presented of its use in designing an injection molded energy absorber for a range of various vehicle styling parameters. First, an idealized set-up incorporating the car styling parameters critical for pedestrian protection requirements was developed. Then, the vehicle and Energy Absorber (EA) geometries were parameterized and a DFSS process was employed to investigate the design space using Finite Element Impact Analysis with a commercially available Lower Leg Form Impactor.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1703
Seishiro Murata, Satoru Shioya, Bert Suffis
The paper outlines some novel approaches to designing pedestrian safe bumper systems using expanded polypropylene, EPP. Traditional advantages of EPP, such as multiple impact performance and resilience are evaluated in the light of compatibility between conflicting impact requirements. The performance criteria of pendulum, insurance and pedestrian impacts are met by integrating the absorber into the complete energy management system and by the optimisation of the EPP design and density. The necessary packaging space remains minimal through the efficient use of the strain characteristics of EPP. Concept ideas related to fore/aft dual density as well as geometry-based dual-density are outlined. The concepts, developed and tested on a full car system, illustrate how soft initial contact can be combined with a high energy absorbing capacity.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1319
Joseph M. Nolan, Matthew Brumbelow, David S. Zuby, Matthew Avery
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1309
Simon Watkins
Effective rear view vision from external mirrors is compromised at high speed due to rotational vibration of the mirror glass. Possible causes of the mirror vibration are reviewed, including road inputs from the vehicle body and a variety of aerodynamic inputs. The latter included vibrations of the entire vehicle body, vibrations of the mirror “shell”, the turbulent flow field due to the A-pillar vortex (and to a lesser extent the approach flow) and base pressure fluctuations. Experiments are described that attempt to understand the relative influence of the causes of vibration, including road and tunnel tests with mirrors instrumented with micro accelerometers. At low frequencies, road inputs predominate, but some occur at such low frequencies that the human eye can track the moving image. At frequencies above about 20Hz the results indicate that at high speeds aerodynamics play a dominant role.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1283
Michael Hamm
1 ABSTRACT After about one decade HID headlamps are available on all major market areas. Since the design and manufacturing possibilities have changed in that period, the current light performance will be reviewed in the paper. The market penetration in the three major markets shows obvious differences. The penetration related to car platforms and classes will be discussed. It will be shown that HID headlamps have different penetration level in US, Japan and Europe. Additionally, the future styling development will be evaluated by the technical possiblities given today using reflector/projector type and additional illuminated areas. A future styling trend will be estimated for the three different markets. The future application of HID headlamps in adaptive lighting systems will be analyzed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1282
B. Wördenweber, H. Schäfer
The European Commission has set itself the ambitious target of cutting the figure of killed road users by half until the year 2010. In order to reach this goal it is absolutely necessary to check all possibilities and bring to bear measures with beneficial potential. Pedestrian protection is one such key point. With a voluntary agreement the European auto makers intend to comply with component safety tests similar to an EEVC proposal for the year 2005 and on. Beginning in 2010 the entire EEVC test procedure, or similar, will become obligatory. This paper lays down the requirements now arising for pedestrian protection and spells out the consequences for headlamp design.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1281
Ernst-Olaf Rosenhahn, Martin Lampen
The goal of the investigations was to find out if there is a correlation between the luminance distribution on the lens surface of projection type headlamps (e.g. maximum luminance) and the average subjective glare rating (discomfort glare) of subjects under night time traffic conditions. The luminance distributions of different projection type systems are measured with a luminance measurement system and compared concerning their characteristics. For the validation a glare rating experiment has been carried out with a standard type glare source of different size and luminance peaks similar to projection lens luminances. It was found out that for glare peaks up to a diameter of α = 2′ (observation angle) the candle power of the glare source is the proper parameter to calculate the subjective glare effect. For larger sizes of the glare sources there is a dependency to the diameter of the glare source for the glare effect.
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