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2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1537
In industrial automotive transmissions, several noises can't be avoided such as gear rattle and gear whine noises. Indeed they result from the choice of gear technology. They just can be reduced by an appropriate design. It is widely acknowledged that gear whine noise is mainly due to transmission error, which depends on many parameters such as driveshaft deflection, gear stiffness and operating torque. All these parameters are not necessarily well-known, which may sometimes result in the choice of a gear geometry that doesn't minimize transmission error. That can lead to customer claims once the vehicle is manufactured. To cope with whine noise customer claims, we investigated a statistical gear optimization method. The principle is to use whine measurement data base on benches to find the best geometry against whine noise after a statistical treatment. The main advantage is that it is not necessary to know precisely all the parameters involved in whine noise.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900255
Shigeki Sugiura, Toshio Yamada, Tokuta Inoue, Koji Morinishi, Nobuyuki Satofuka
Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900251
MarK J. Jennings, Thomas Morel
An important aspect of calculation of engine combustion chamber heat transfer with a multi-dimensional flow code is the modeling of the near wall flow. Conventional treatments of the wall layer flow employ the use of wall functions which impose the wall boundary conditions on the solution grid points adjacent to solid boundaries. However, the use of wall functions for calculating complex flows such as those which exist in engines has numerous weaknesses, including dependence on grid resolution. An alternative wall modeling approach has been developed which overcomes the limitations of the wall functions and is applicable to the calculation of in-cylinder engine flows. In this approach the wall layer flow is solved dynamically on a grid spanning a very thin boundary layer region adjacent to solid boundaries which is separate from the global grid used to solve the outer flow.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900253
D. H. Gibson, W. A. Mahaffey, T. Mukerjee
This paper details the development of a mathematical model to simulate the incylinder processes in the Caterpillar 1.7L Diesel engine and the results obtained during compression stroke and early part of the combustion stroke. The model includes accurate representation of the geometry of the 1.7L combustion chamber via Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) which conform to the shape of the piston-dish and cylinder. Also included are the combustion model and evaporation model. This 3-D model predicts average cylinder pressure and temperature variations with degree crank angle which are in good agreement with Caterpillar measurements for this engine.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900252
Kang Y. Huh, I-Ping Chang, Jay. K. Martin
- Three different models, the law-of-the-wall, a modified law-of-the-wall, and an approximate one-dimensional solution to the energy equation are compared for the spatially-resolved prediction of engine heat tranfer. The multidimensional hydrodynamic code KIVA is used for the fluid mechanic simulation. Two different engine geometries are studied; one being a pancake-shaped chamber, and the other a bowl-in-piston geometry. The comparisons are done for a range of initial conditions of gas flow. Rates-of-pressure-rise were also varied to represent rates typical of those encountered in motored engines, and those found in fired engines. Comparisons with experimental results show that the heat transfer predictions using the law-of-the-wall may be in error when source terms such as the transient, work and chemical energy terms have a significant effect in determining the temperature profile in the boundary layer.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900242
Munehiro Karasudani, Shinji Miyata, Kazuyuki Doi, Naotoshi Higashiyama
1 ABSTRACT Currently, digital audio source such as a compact disk (CD) and a digital audio tape (DAT) has come to be mounted in cars to complement the sophisticated audio system . To mount these new functions in the limit set space, however, the conventional source such as the FM/AM tuner must be built more compact and lightweight. On the other hand, to view the FM/AM tuner perspective from the standpoints of set design and manufacture, there are various problems such as given below. Set variations are flung from those for the U.S.A. and Europe to those for Japan. It is difficult, if not impossible, to design the set designer for each of these set variations because of the limited designer availability. Also, amid the tendency for world production base to be spread and increasingly numerous, high quality level is of the utmost importance for audio sets no matter where are manufactured. This paper describes an effective solution to these problems.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900464
Ken Nakagawa, Tatsuhiro Ootsubo
It is becoming more and more complex and time consuming to have a newly developed vehicle meet the safety requirement these days. On the other hand, with the aid of computers and software technology, detailed crash simulation are possible. ISUZU MOTORS LTD. has applied these to the passenger car from the early stages of development in order to optimize the car's behavior in the 35MPH frontal barrier test. Crash simulations were performed by using the detailed full vehicle FEM model and the crash simulation program PAM-CRASH. This simulation focussed on the collapsing mode of the front structure, especially on the front of the side rails and the attached parts. Section forces, accelerations, and deformed shapes were investigated and optimized to improve energy absorption. The effect was confirmed by the experimental barrier test. This procedure contributed greatly to reducing the time required for development as well as the number of prototype vehicles needed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900470
Paul Green, John Boreczky, Seung-Yun (Sylvia) Kim
To develop easy-to-use control panels, it is essential to measure driver performance, compare it with behavioral specifications, modify the design based on driver feedback, and then retest. Rapid prototypers help engineers do this quickly. This paper identifies the I/O capabilities, ease of use, ability to record user behavior, and real-time performance for several prototypers. Two example HyperCard prototypes are described here. The first, a car clock, shows how HyperCard can vary button size and location, labeling, auditory feedback, and the mapping of switches to system functions. The second, a car radio, shows that continuous controls and digitized sound can be handled.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900466
J. C. Liaw, A. C. Walton, J. C. Brown
Use is made of the KRASH program to simulate a simplified car-into-barrier impact. A step-by-step modelling technique is illustrated whose application at an early stage in the design process, allows an understanding of the contribution of individual components to the overall crash-performance of a vehicle.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900463
Tomohiko Ariyoshi
To analyze the rear end crash of a motor vehicle using a beam-element model, it is important how to model the upper body panel members such as rear doors or rear quarters. This paper describes the method of modeling each panel member into a beam element considering the “effective areas” in each member section. The panel member is cut into several sections along its longitudinal axis. Applying the thin-shell buckling theory and experimental analysis to each section, “effective areas”, which withstand up to the yield stress when the panel member is subjected to longitudinal compression, can be selected. With the section characteristics of the “effective areas”, a beam element for the panel member is defined. The results of the calculation by this method showed a good correlation to the experimental results of three kinds motor vehicles with the body deformation mode or crash length etc.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900462
Tomasz Wierzbicki, Wlodek Abramowicz
CRASH-CAD is a commercially available computer aided design package that specifically addresses design problems of components and sub-assemblies of automotive bodies subjected to crash loading. The program is fully interactive and leads an engineer in several steps towards an improved crashworthy design. The objective of the present paper is to give a theoretical foundation of this new computer program and demonstrate its various capabilities. CRASH-CAD enjoys unparalleled modelling simplicity. It requires only basic cross-sectional dimensions of a given member and a discretization into Superfolding Elements is done automatically. The current version of CRASH-CAD is applicable to prismatic members subjected to predominantly axial compressive loads.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900475
Hiro Hiroyasu, Masataka Arai
The objective of this paper is to summarize experimental results which were previously reported by the authors and to derive many useful empirical equations concerning the diesel fuel sprays. The empirical equations for break-up length, spray angle, spray tip penetration and drop size distribution of the diesel sprays are introduced to discuss the internal structure of the spray. According to the effect of injection pressure and ambient pressure on the break-up length and drop size of the diesel spray, the spray structure can be divided into two categories; incomplete and complete sprays. The equations which express the break-up length and mean diameter of the incomplete and complete sprays were obtained using different techniques according for the dominance of one or more break-up mechanisms.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900469
Richard C. Berry
Application-independence is the key to reusability and universal interfacing of dot matrix display subsystem designs. Special design rules can be applied during the development of these systems that promote the removal or localization of all application-specific components, resulting in display products that can be applied without modification to many varied applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900471
Jiro Tanaka, Kazuo Hirano, Hiroaki Nobuta, Toshiyoki Itoh, Sellchi Tsunoda
This paper describes a navigation System for private automobiles. This system shows the accurate position of the vehicle on a CRT map display and also displays useful Information such as the locations of hotels, golf clubs, etc. A sophisticated map matching method is employed to find the vehicle's position. In this method, a set of correlation coefficients between the locus and the mapped roads is used to determine the vehicle's location statistically. A unique automatic calibration function is also added to the magnetic field sensor to compensate for malfunctioning and detection errors caused by distortion due to the earth's magnetism and to magnetization of the vehicle at points of high field density such as railroad crossings. In this system, we can see the current position of the vehicle indicated by a pointer on the smooth scrolling map display.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900479
Norimasa Iida, Kou Hirawo, G. Takeshi Sato
The process of forming mixtures of injected fuels and ambient air has significant effects on the ignition and combustion process in the direct injection engine. In these engines fuel is injected intermittently and fuel jet impinges on a combustion chamber wall. This study deals with a fundamental experiment on the mixing process of the transient gas jet together with the instantaneous concentration measurement and statistical analysis of the transient turbulent mixing process in the jet. Helium or carbon dioxide is injected at constant pressure into quiescent atmosphere through the single shot device. This paper presents a laboratory automation system for measuring the characteristics of transient gas jet and processing the data. A discussion on the process of mixture formation of transient gas jets impinging on a wall is carried out with time- and space- resolved concentration distribution.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900480
C. Arcoumanis, E. Cossali, G. Paal, J. H. Whitelaw
The spatial and temporal characteristics of a diesel spray injected into the atmosphere through a multi-hole nozzle used in small DI Diesel engines have been investigated by laser techniques as a function of pump speed and load. The results showed that spray tip penetration and velocity depend on injection frequency rather than injected volume and the spray is asymmetric during the early and main part of the injection period. In the time/space domain different structures have been identified within the injection period, with the early injection period characterized by a well atomized cloud of droplets, the main period by the spray head and a dense core and the late injection period by the disintegrating dense core and the spray tail. IN DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES for passenger cars, fuel is injected through multi-hole nozzles at high pressure to promote mixing with the rapidly swirling air inside the combustion chamber.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900481
Toshikazu Kadota, Fu-Quan Zhao, Katsuya Miyoshi
Laser Rayleigh scattering was applied for the remote, nonintrusive measurements of the time history of the transient fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber which was caused by the timed injection of unleaded regular gasoline, n-Pentane and n-Hexane into the intake port of a motored automotive spark ignition engine. The results denonstrated that the fuel vapor concentration increased with the time elapsed from the start of the fuel injection and reached a peak after which it decreased during the intake stroke. It showed a very slight increase during the compression stroke. It was also revealed that the fuel vapor concentration increased with an increase in the quantity of fuel injected, the engine speed and the fuel injection pressure. It showed a maximum as a function of the fuel injection timing.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900483
Hisamitsu Takagi, Toshihisa Ohno, Tsuyoshi Asanuma
Instantaneous temperature of in-cylinder gas provides a lot of useful and local information for analyzing the combustion process in an internal combustion engine, so many optical pyrometries have been proposed and developed. Among others, the infrared monochromatic radiation pyrometry is considered to be more applicable to a practical engine due to requirement of only a single optical window, whereas two optical windows are indispensable for the conventional infrared absorption pyrometry. In this paper, the former pyrometer is used to measure the mean gas temperatures averaged on an optical path (or cylinder diameter) of a spark ignition engine, of which a prechamber is connected to the main chamber by a torch nozzle of various area sizes.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900477
Toshikazu Kadota, Shuhji Mizutani, Chinn-Yuan Wu, Mitsunori Hoshino
An experimental study was made of the time and space resolved measurements of the diameter of the fuel droplets inside the combustion chamber which were resultant from the timed injection of liquid fuel into the intake port of a motored automotive spark ignition engine. The determination of the individual droplet diameter during the intake and the compression strokes was based on the intensity of the light scattered from the droplet which was subjected to the monochromatic irradiation of He-Ne laser with uniform intensity profile. A theoretical analysis was also done to simulate the evaporation history of a fuel droplet subjected to the highly transient environments in the combustion chamber of the engine. The results showed that the droplets survived at the last stage of the compression stroke while their diameters decreased with crank angle elapsed due to evaporation. The effects of engine parameters on the droplet diameter were extensively discussed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900478
J. Emerson, P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco
The objective of this study is to characterize the operation of an air-assisted fuel injector. This characterization involves four sets of tests: fuel and air flow calibration; instantaneous measurements of fuel and air solenoid signals, internal pressure in the injector, and poppet lift; photographs of the spray; and droplet sizing. The injector poppet was designed to form a spray of 80° included angle. Nitrogen, instead of air, was used to assist the injection of unleaded gasoline into steady, compressed nitrogen at room temperature. The following conditions were used: nominal fuel flow rates of 10, 20, and 30 mm3/injection; spray chamber pressures of 0.1, 0.169, and 0.445 MPa; and nominal injections per minute (IPM) of 1600 and 3000. Results showed a linear increase in total fuel mass supplied to the injector as fuel solenoid pulse width was increased, except at the highest IPM and chamber pressure when the total fuel mass tended to level off.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900482
M. C. Leschiutta, J. A. Eng, J. K. Martin
A nonintrusive diagnostic technique has been developed by which dynamic axial piston-position and tilt-angle measurements have been made in a single-cylinder research engine. A laser beam, introduced into the combustion chamber through an optical port in the cylinder head, was reflected by a polished surface on the piston crown. Motion of the reflected beam, carrying with it information on piston position and piston tilt, was monitored by a set of receiving optics. Piston motion was studied as a function of both engine speed and cylinder pressure (i.e., piston loading.) Measured axial piston-position was found to deviate from the theoretical position calculated from the measured crank-shaft position owing to the effects of tilt and piston loading. Furthermore, evidence of piston veer (tilt of the piston in a plane parallel to the axis of the wrist pin) was observed, which had an effect on the accuracy of the axial piston-position measurement.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900484
G. R. Sleightholme
Abstract The inhomogeneity of the charge in a spark-ignition engine cylinder has been examined by means of a novel fast-response flame ionisation detector. In the experiments presented here propane was used as a fuel, either completely pre-mixed (as a control experiment) or in varying degrees of inhomogeneity, including injection just behind the inlet valve to give a situation similar to that in a gasoline port-injection system. The engine was a single-cylinder Ricardo E6 research engine. The equipment used here provides an insight into the inhomogeneity of the incoming cylinder charge and into the mixing process in the cylinder. The cylinder charge inhomogeneity has been characterised in terms of the average inhomogeneity of the charges, of the cyclic variations therein, and of the cyclic fluctuations in the amount of fuel admitted.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900485
Francois Galliot, Wai K. Cheng, Chun-On Cheng, Mark Sztenderowicz, John B. Heywood, Nick Collings
The residual gas fraction prior to ignition at the vicinity of the spark plug in a single cylinder, two-valve spark ignition engine was measured with a fast-response flame ionization hydrocarbon detector. The technique in using such an instrument is reported. The measurements were made as a function of the intake manifold pressure, engine speed and intake/exhaust valve-overlap duration. Both the mean level of the residual fraction and the statistics of the cycle-to-cycle variations were obtained.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900486
David Nutton, Robert A. Pinnock
In order to accurately control the ignition and fuelling of a gasoline engine, in the presence of environmental and system variability, it is necessary to measure the effect this variability has on the combustion process and then to initiate control action dependent upon this effect. Various systems have been proposed to gain a more comprehensive combustion measure than today's Lambda sensors can provide, including in-cylinder pressure, ionization probes, wide range exhaust gas oxygen sensors, etc. None of these systems has proven truly practical for volume production either because of the very high sensor cost, the computational load required by the signal processing, or performance limitations. This paper describes the application of in-cylinder optical probes to combustion feedback and control.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900429
F. Bolza
Recently there have been moves to reduce costs in the automotive industry. Models have become internationalised and are increasingly shared amongst past competitors. Currency movements have seen countries like Australia emerging as viable exporters of cars and components. Such changes have implications for automotive coolant manufacturers for continuing survival in the global market. Local and overseas standards have often conflicting requirements not satisfied by single formulations. Countries with divergent influences from the US, Japan and Europe, need to develop universally acceptable products and help realisation of truly international specifications and recommended practices.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900443
Wolfgang F. Wachter
A heavy duty diesel engine was developed to meet US-EPA 1991 emission standards, and heavy duty diesel transient cycles (HDDTC) were run with different engine versions. Actual engine data such as speed, torque, air mass flow, gaseous emissions, temperatures and the carbon- and HC-fraction of particulate matter were transiently recorded. For each limited pollutant the phases of the HDDTC were identified, where a major contribution to the total cycle emission occurs. Comparing different engine versions, strategies for further reduction of emissions were elaborated. Emphasis was placed on particulate matter.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900438
T. Minami, I. Yamaguchi, M. Shintani, K. Tsujimura, T. Suzuki
Two types of high pressure injection equipment, which can produce a pressure of 250MPa, have been developed. One is a hydraulic pressure intensified type, having a “GRADUAL RISE AND SHARP CUT” injection rate pattern. The other is a pressure accumulator type, having a “SQUARE” injection rate pattern. These equipments have been evaluated with a high pressure vessel for analyzing the effect of injection pressure and injection rate upon the characteristics of non-evaporating fuel spray. High speed photography, shadow photography, holography and image analysis techniques were used for these studies. It was found that the fuel injected under high pressure forms finer droplets and produces a leaner mixture. It was also found that several differences exist in the structure of fuel spray between the accumulator type and the pressure intensified type. The reasons for these differences are discussed herein.
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