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2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1537
In industrial automotive transmissions, several noises can't be avoided such as gear rattle and gear whine noises. Indeed they result from the choice of gear technology. They just can be reduced by an appropriate design. It is widely acknowledged that gear whine noise is mainly due to transmission error, which depends on many parameters such as driveshaft deflection, gear stiffness and operating torque. All these parameters are not necessarily well-known, which may sometimes result in the choice of a gear geometry that doesn't minimize transmission error. That can lead to customer claims once the vehicle is manufactured. To cope with whine noise customer claims, we investigated a statistical gear optimization method. The principle is to use whine measurement data base on benches to find the best geometry against whine noise after a statistical treatment. The main advantage is that it is not necessary to know precisely all the parameters involved in whine noise.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900255
Shigeki Sugiura, Toshio Yamada, Tokuta Inoue, Koji Morinishi, Nobuyuki Satofuka
Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900251
MarK J. Jennings, Thomas Morel
An important aspect of calculation of engine combustion chamber heat transfer with a multi-dimensional flow code is the modeling of the near wall flow. Conventional treatments of the wall layer flow employ the use of wall functions which impose the wall boundary conditions on the solution grid points adjacent to solid boundaries. However, the use of wall functions for calculating complex flows such as those which exist in engines has numerous weaknesses, including dependence on grid resolution. An alternative wall modeling approach has been developed which overcomes the limitations of the wall functions and is applicable to the calculation of in-cylinder engine flows. In this approach the wall layer flow is solved dynamically on a grid spanning a very thin boundary layer region adjacent to solid boundaries which is separate from the global grid used to solve the outer flow.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900253
D. H. Gibson, W. A. Mahaffey, T. Mukerjee
This paper details the development of a mathematical model to simulate the incylinder processes in the Caterpillar 1.7L Diesel engine and the results obtained during compression stroke and early part of the combustion stroke. The model includes accurate representation of the geometry of the 1.7L combustion chamber via Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) which conform to the shape of the piston-dish and cylinder. Also included are the combustion model and evaporation model. This 3-D model predicts average cylinder pressure and temperature variations with degree crank angle which are in good agreement with Caterpillar measurements for this engine.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900252
Kang Y. Huh, I-Ping Chang, Jay. K. Martin
- Three different models, the law-of-the-wall, a modified law-of-the-wall, and an approximate one-dimensional solution to the energy equation are compared for the spatially-resolved prediction of engine heat tranfer. The multidimensional hydrodynamic code KIVA is used for the fluid mechanic simulation. Two different engine geometries are studied; one being a pancake-shaped chamber, and the other a bowl-in-piston geometry. The comparisons are done for a range of initial conditions of gas flow. Rates-of-pressure-rise were also varied to represent rates typical of those encountered in motored engines, and those found in fired engines. Comparisons with experimental results show that the heat transfer predictions using the law-of-the-wall may be in error when source terms such as the transient, work and chemical energy terms have a significant effect in determining the temperature profile in the boundary layer.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900242
Munehiro Karasudani, Shinji Miyata, Kazuyuki Doi, Naotoshi Higashiyama
1 ABSTRACT Currently, digital audio source such as a compact disk (CD) and a digital audio tape (DAT) has come to be mounted in cars to complement the sophisticated audio system . To mount these new functions in the limit set space, however, the conventional source such as the FM/AM tuner must be built more compact and lightweight. On the other hand, to view the FM/AM tuner perspective from the standpoints of set design and manufacture, there are various problems such as given below. Set variations are flung from those for the U.S.A. and Europe to those for Japan. It is difficult, if not impossible, to design the set designer for each of these set variations because of the limited designer availability. Also, amid the tendency for world production base to be spread and increasingly numerous, high quality level is of the utmost importance for audio sets no matter where are manufactured. This paper describes an effective solution to these problems.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900240
Eric Danstrom
Several methods of indirectly measuring total harmonic distortion (THD) in a power amplifier by measuring characteristics of the input and output waveforms are presented. The relative accuracies of each method is discussed. While the emphasis is on practical methods that can be implemented in a automobile car radio, sensing THD levels within 1% of the target level can be realized.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900464
Ken Nakagawa, Tatsuhiro Ootsubo
It is becoming more and more complex and time consuming to have a newly developed vehicle meet the safety requirement these days. On the other hand, with the aid of computers and software technology, detailed crash simulation are possible. ISUZU MOTORS LTD. has applied these to the passenger car from the early stages of development in order to optimize the car's behavior in the 35MPH frontal barrier test. Crash simulations were performed by using the detailed full vehicle FEM model and the crash simulation program PAM-CRASH. This simulation focussed on the collapsing mode of the front structure, especially on the front of the side rails and the attached parts. Section forces, accelerations, and deformed shapes were investigated and optimized to improve energy absorption. The effect was confirmed by the experimental barrier test. This procedure contributed greatly to reducing the time required for development as well as the number of prototype vehicles needed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900470
Paul Green, John Boreczky, Seung-Yun (Sylvia) Kim
To develop easy-to-use control panels, it is essential to measure driver performance, compare it with behavioral specifications, modify the design based on driver feedback, and then retest. Rapid prototypers help engineers do this quickly. This paper identifies the I/O capabilities, ease of use, ability to record user behavior, and real-time performance for several prototypers. Two example HyperCard prototypes are described here. The first, a car clock, shows how HyperCard can vary button size and location, labeling, auditory feedback, and the mapping of switches to system functions. The second, a car radio, shows that continuous controls and digitized sound can be handled.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900466
J. C. Liaw, A. C. Walton, J. C. Brown
Use is made of the KRASH program to simulate a simplified car-into-barrier impact. A step-by-step modelling technique is illustrated whose application at an early stage in the design process, allows an understanding of the contribution of individual components to the overall crash-performance of a vehicle.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900463
Tomohiko Ariyoshi
To analyze the rear end crash of a motor vehicle using a beam-element model, it is important how to model the upper body panel members such as rear doors or rear quarters. This paper describes the method of modeling each panel member into a beam element considering the “effective areas” in each member section. The panel member is cut into several sections along its longitudinal axis. Applying the thin-shell buckling theory and experimental analysis to each section, “effective areas”, which withstand up to the yield stress when the panel member is subjected to longitudinal compression, can be selected. With the section characteristics of the “effective areas”, a beam element for the panel member is defined. The results of the calculation by this method showed a good correlation to the experimental results of three kinds motor vehicles with the body deformation mode or crash length etc.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900462
Tomasz Wierzbicki, Wlodek Abramowicz
CRASH-CAD is a commercially available computer aided design package that specifically addresses design problems of components and sub-assemblies of automotive bodies subjected to crash loading. The program is fully interactive and leads an engineer in several steps towards an improved crashworthy design. The objective of the present paper is to give a theoretical foundation of this new computer program and demonstrate its various capabilities. CRASH-CAD enjoys unparalleled modelling simplicity. It requires only basic cross-sectional dimensions of a given member and a discretization into Superfolding Elements is done automatically. The current version of CRASH-CAD is applicable to prismatic members subjected to predominantly axial compressive loads.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900467
Hideaki Kobayashi, Eiji Kawa, Yung S. Chen, Kajiro Watanabe, Hiroyuki Ishizuka
This paper describes how to realize an accurate, compact, and economical fuel gauge by the pneumatic method for deformed and flexible tanks which shake and vibrate, whose attitude changes and in which liquid sloshes and the temperature changes. The basic concept employed in the pneumatic method involves the use of the ideal gas law. The volume of liquid in a closed tank can be obtained by subtracting the volume of gas in the tank from the tank capacity. To determine the gas volume, both a reference tank attached to the main tank and the main tank were subject to the sinusoidal displacement. From the equations based on the dynamics of the pressure in the main tank derived from the ideal gas law and flow of gas thought a pipe, relations were obtained that gave the gas volume in the main tank from the filter pressure signals in the both tanks.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900469
Richard C. Berry
Application-independence is the key to reusability and universal interfacing of dot matrix display subsystem designs. Special design rules can be applied during the development of these systems that promote the removal or localization of all application-specific components, resulting in display products that can be applied without modification to many varied applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900471
Jiro Tanaka, Kazuo Hirano, Hiroaki Nobuta, Toshiyoki Itoh, Sellchi Tsunoda
This paper describes a navigation System for private automobiles. This system shows the accurate position of the vehicle on a CRT map display and also displays useful Information such as the locations of hotels, golf clubs, etc. A sophisticated map matching method is employed to find the vehicle's position. In this method, a set of correlation coefficients between the locus and the mapped roads is used to determine the vehicle's location statistically. A unique automatic calibration function is also added to the magnetic field sensor to compensate for malfunctioning and detection errors caused by distortion due to the earth's magnetism and to magnetization of the vehicle at points of high field density such as railroad crossings. In this system, we can see the current position of the vehicle indicated by a pointer on the smooth scrolling map display.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900479
Norimasa Iida, Kou Hirawo, G. Takeshi Sato
The process of forming mixtures of injected fuels and ambient air has significant effects on the ignition and combustion process in the direct injection engine. In these engines fuel is injected intermittently and fuel jet impinges on a combustion chamber wall. This study deals with a fundamental experiment on the mixing process of the transient gas jet together with the instantaneous concentration measurement and statistical analysis of the transient turbulent mixing process in the jet. Helium or carbon dioxide is injected at constant pressure into quiescent atmosphere through the single shot device. This paper presents a laboratory automation system for measuring the characteristics of transient gas jet and processing the data. A discussion on the process of mixture formation of transient gas jets impinging on a wall is carried out with time- and space- resolved concentration distribution.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900480
C. Arcoumanis, E. Cossali, G. Paal, J. H. Whitelaw
The spatial and temporal characteristics of a diesel spray injected into the atmosphere through a multi-hole nozzle used in small DI Diesel engines have been investigated by laser techniques as a function of pump speed and load. The results showed that spray tip penetration and velocity depend on injection frequency rather than injected volume and the spray is asymmetric during the early and main part of the injection period. In the time/space domain different structures have been identified within the injection period, with the early injection period characterized by a well atomized cloud of droplets, the main period by the spray head and a dense core and the late injection period by the disintegrating dense core and the spray tail. IN DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES for passenger cars, fuel is injected through multi-hole nozzles at high pressure to promote mixing with the rapidly swirling air inside the combustion chamber.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900483
Hisamitsu Takagi, Toshihisa Ohno, Tsuyoshi Asanuma
Instantaneous temperature of in-cylinder gas provides a lot of useful and local information for analyzing the combustion process in an internal combustion engine, so many optical pyrometries have been proposed and developed. Among others, the infrared monochromatic radiation pyrometry is considered to be more applicable to a practical engine due to requirement of only a single optical window, whereas two optical windows are indispensable for the conventional infrared absorption pyrometry. In this paper, the former pyrometer is used to measure the mean gas temperatures averaged on an optical path (or cylinder diameter) of a spark ignition engine, of which a prechamber is connected to the main chamber by a torch nozzle of various area sizes.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900477
Toshikazu Kadota, Shuhji Mizutani, Chinn-Yuan Wu, Mitsunori Hoshino
An experimental study was made of the time and space resolved measurements of the diameter of the fuel droplets inside the combustion chamber which were resultant from the timed injection of liquid fuel into the intake port of a motored automotive spark ignition engine. The determination of the individual droplet diameter during the intake and the compression strokes was based on the intensity of the light scattered from the droplet which was subjected to the monochromatic irradiation of He-Ne laser with uniform intensity profile. A theoretical analysis was also done to simulate the evaporation history of a fuel droplet subjected to the highly transient environments in the combustion chamber of the engine. The results showed that the droplets survived at the last stage of the compression stroke while their diameters decreased with crank angle elapsed due to evaporation. The effects of engine parameters on the droplet diameter were extensively discussed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900478
J. Emerson, P. G. Felton, F. V. Bracco
The objective of this study is to characterize the operation of an air-assisted fuel injector. This characterization involves four sets of tests: fuel and air flow calibration; instantaneous measurements of fuel and air solenoid signals, internal pressure in the injector, and poppet lift; photographs of the spray; and droplet sizing. The injector poppet was designed to form a spray of 80° included angle. Nitrogen, instead of air, was used to assist the injection of unleaded gasoline into steady, compressed nitrogen at room temperature. The following conditions were used: nominal fuel flow rates of 10, 20, and 30 mm3/injection; spray chamber pressures of 0.1, 0.169, and 0.445 MPa; and nominal injections per minute (IPM) of 1600 and 3000. Results showed a linear increase in total fuel mass supplied to the injector as fuel solenoid pulse width was increased, except at the highest IPM and chamber pressure when the total fuel mass tended to level off.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900482
M. C. Leschiutta, J. A. Eng, J. K. Martin
A nonintrusive diagnostic technique has been developed by which dynamic axial piston-position and tilt-angle measurements have been made in a single-cylinder research engine. A laser beam, introduced into the combustion chamber through an optical port in the cylinder head, was reflected by a polished surface on the piston crown. Motion of the reflected beam, carrying with it information on piston position and piston tilt, was monitored by a set of receiving optics. Piston motion was studied as a function of both engine speed and cylinder pressure (i.e., piston loading.) Measured axial piston-position was found to deviate from the theoretical position calculated from the measured crank-shaft position owing to the effects of tilt and piston loading. Furthermore, evidence of piston veer (tilt of the piston in a plane parallel to the axis of the wrist pin) was observed, which had an effect on the accuracy of the axial piston-position measurement.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900492
Richard E. Riley
For many years, fluid level measurement in fuel tanks has been accomplished using a float and lever arm to operate a variable resistor. The resistance reading is translated by any of several gauge designs. The float and lever arm sensor requires a significant amount of tank space and has accuracy and reliability problems. A new family of linear sensors utilizing various thick film materials is discussed. The devices utilize conductive plastic or cermet resistors on various substrates and may be operated as a 2-wire variable resistor or 3-wire potentiometer. Significantly less space is required and the shape of the signal output curve can be adjusted to fit a variety of tank designs. The linear sensors are adaptable to the modular reservoir fuel delivery systems now in use.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900485
Francois Galliot, Wai K. Cheng, Chun-On Cheng, Mark Sztenderowicz, John B. Heywood, Nick Collings
The residual gas fraction prior to ignition at the vicinity of the spark plug in a single cylinder, two-valve spark ignition engine was measured with a fast-response flame ionization hydrocarbon detector. The technique in using such an instrument is reported. The measurements were made as a function of the intake manifold pressure, engine speed and intake/exhaust valve-overlap duration. Both the mean level of the residual fraction and the statistics of the cycle-to-cycle variations were obtained.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900436
John J. Truhan, R. Douglas Hudgens
Cast aluminum alloys 356 and 319 and wrought alloy 3003 were corrosion tested in a commercial (Fleetguard DCA-4) supplemental coolant additive (SCA) package modified by varying the potassium nitrate level. Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the stability of the passive film as a function of nitrate concentration. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic galvanostaircase polarization were the principle techniques used and compared. In the presence of the other inhibitors, the passive film stability did not change as the nitrate concentration varied. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was more dependent on the alloy chemistry with 3003 being the most resistant and 319 being the least. The two electrochemical techniques provided results consistent with each other.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900432
Greg P. Reny, Guy L. Titley
: An anhydrous coolant based on propylene glycol has been developed by DOW CHEMICAL CANADA INC. Formulated specifically for automotive cooling needs, its development involved standard ASTM corrosion testing as well as actual fleet testing. This anhydrous coolant, though not commercially available, presently meets or exceeds the current corrosion performance characteristics of present ethylene glycol based automotive coolants. Performance data accumulation from existing fleet service is ongoing and indicates satisfactory results. The latter service testing will be brought to a conclusion at a later date.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900445
Barbara M. Grimm, R. T. Johnson
Three simplified thermodynamic methods for calculating combustive heat release are presented. The first method requires two pressure transducers for the data collection and is generally used for a divided chamber engine. The second method is a simple thermodynamic method for single chamber engines, and the third method calculates the pressure change due to combustion, and from this pressure calculates the combustive rate of heat release. The latter two methods require data from one pressure transducer. In this study all three methods have been applied to divided chamber and single chamber diesel engines. All three methods give information about the length and type of combustion. The dual transducer method gives a slightly longer period of combustion than the other two methods but the third method, the combustion pressure method, gives the same information about the beginning of combustion as the dual transducer method.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900455
Roberto Cipollone
The theoretical evaluation of the thermal fields in a cylinder liner of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (I.C.E.) requires some attention due the characteristics of the real boundary conditions. For small engines, in fact, these conditions may strongly differ from an axisymmetrical state due to the influence of the thermofluodynamic disuniformities at the gas and, more importantly, at the cooling fluid side. The paper brings together an experimental research on the temperatures at the boundaries with a theoretical analysis on the three-dimensional thermal fields occurring on the liner of a small one cylinder spark ignition research engine operating up to 5000 RPM. The differences found in calculating the heat exchanged using an axisymmetric analysis with respect to the real situation demonstrate the importance of considering the disuniformitites that really occur under working conditions.
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