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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2399
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0340
Akram Zahdeh, Peter Rothenberger, Wai Nguyen, Muniappan Anbarasu, Simon Schmuck-Soldan, Jörg Schaefer, Thomas Goebel
A comprehensive experimental and theoretical approach was undertaken to understand the phenomenon of pre-ignition and to assess parameters to improve or even eliminate it completely. Oil mixing with fuel was identified as the leading theory of self ignition of the fuel. End of compression temperature has to meet a minimum level for pre-ignition to take place. In this work a comprehensive list of parameters were identified that have a direct and crucial role in the onset of pre-ignition including liner wetting, injection targeting, stratification, mixture motion and oil formulation. Many secondary effects were identified including ring dynamics, ring tension, spark plug electrode temperature and coolant temperature. CFD has been extensively used to understand test results including wall film, A/F ratio distribution and temperature at the end of compression when looked at in the context of fuel evaporation and mixing.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0685
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Daniele Ettorre, Tommaso Lucchini, Federico Brusiani, Giulio Cazzoli
Today, Direct-Injection systems are widely used on Spark-Ignition engines in combination with turbo-charging to reduce the fuel-consumption and the knock risks. In particular, the spread of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) systems is mainly related to the use of new generations of multi-hole, high-pressure injectors whose characteristics are quite different with respect to the hollow-cone, low-pressure injectors adopted in the last decade. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign conducted on the spray produced by a GDI six-holes injector into a constant volume vessel with optical access. The vessel was filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Different operating conditions were considered for an injection pressure ranging from 3 to 20 MPa. For each operating condition, spray images were acquired by a CCD camera and then post processed to evaluate the spray penetration and cone angles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0653
Vijayakanthan Damodaran, Siva Murugan, Vinod Shigarkanthi, Sunil Nagtilak, Karthikeyan Sampath
This paper deals with the development of a generic approach for the thermal management of batteries used in electric vehicles. A lumped parameter model was used to determine the worst case scenario of the battery operation from thermal management standpoint. Certain driving conditions were identified as the worst load cases of battery thermal management and these driving conditions were then used to conduct on-road tests. Using the results obtained from the vehicle performance simulation and on-road tests CFD simulations were carried out to establish a relationship between the air flow requirements and the heat generated from the battery. These relations help to obtain a quick estimate of the air flow requirement to keep the battery within safe temperature limits. This methodology developed is valid for all types of batteries used in electric vehicles such as Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Ni-MH etc.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0656
Jason A. Lustbader, John P. Rugh, Brianna R. Rister, Travis S. Venson
In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs per year primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on solutions to this challenge through the CoolCab project. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. To help assess and improve idle reduction solutions, the CoolCalc software tool was developed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1111
Karthikeyan Natchimuthu, Jayanthamani Sureshkumar, V. Ganesan
Increasing the efficiency of engine auxiliary systems have become a challenge. Oil pump, identified for this study, is one such engine system which is used for lubrication of engine parts. To achieve higher efficiencies, there is a need for math-based analysis and design. This can be achieved by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The main aim of this paper is to simulate the flow through Gerotor Oil pump using Computational Fluid Dynamics. A 3D model of the entire flow domain is created and meshed in preprocessor GAMBIT. The mesh for various pressure outlet conditions is exported to FLUENT solver for analysis. The predicted results are validated with the experimental results. The comparison shows that the CFD predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. In particular, such a simulation offers a scope for visualizing the flow through the Gerotor oil pump.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0177
Pascal Theissen, Johannes Wojciak, Kirstin Heuler, Rainer Demuth, Thomas Indinger, Nikolaus Adams
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0172
David Sims-Williams
This paper provides a published counterpart to the address of the same title at the 2010 SAE World Congress. A vehicle on the road encounters an unsteady flow due to turbulence in the natural wind, due to the unsteady wakes of other vehicles and as a result of traversing through the stationary wakes of road side obstacles. This last term is of greatest significance. Various works related to the characterization, simulation and effects of on-road turbulence are compared together on the turbulence spectrum to highlight differences and similarities. The different works involve different geometries and different approaches to simulating cross wind transients but together these works provide guidance on the most important aspects of the unsteadiness. On-road transients include a range of length scales spanning several orders of magnitude but the most important scales are in the in the 2-20 vehicle length range.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0171
Dirk Baeder, Thomas Indinger, Nikolaus Adams, Friedhelm Decker
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is state of the art in the aerodynamic development process of vehicles nowadays. With increasing computer power the numerical simulations including meshing and turbulence modeling are capturing the complex geometry of vehicles and the flow field behavior around and behind a bluff body in more detail. The ultimate goal for realistic automotive simulations is to model the under-hood as well. In this study vehicle simulations using the finite volume open source CFD program OpenFOAM® are validated with own experiments on a modified generic quarter-scale SAE body with under-hood flow. A model radiator was included to take account of the pressure drop in the under-hood compartment. Force and pressure measurements around the car, total-pressure and hot-wire measurements in the car flow field and surface flow patterns were simulated and compared with the experiment.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0170
Ashok D. Khondge, Sandeep Sovani, Gunjan Verma
Thorough design exploration is essential for improving vehicle performance in various aspects such as aerodynamic drag. Shape optimization algorithms in combination with computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) play an important role in design exploration. The present work describes a Free-Form Deformation (FFD) approach implemented within a general purpose CFD code for parameterization and modification of the aerodynamic shape of real-life vehicle models. Various vehicle shape parameters are constructed and utilized to change the shape of a vehicle using a mesh morphing technique based on the FFD algorithm. Based on input and output parameters, a design of experiments (DOE) matrix is created. CFD simulations are run and a response surface is constructed to study the sensitivity of the output parameter (aerodynamic drag) to variations in each input parameter.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0130
Darshan Gopalrao Pahinkar, Vivek Kumar
An analytical model, which takes care of thermal interactions of human body with surroundings via basic heat transfer modes like conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation, is compiled. The analytical model takes measurable inputs from surroundings and specific human parameters. Using these parameters a quick calculation entailing all heat transfer modes ensues in net heat exchange of human body with surroundings. Its magnitude and direction decides the qualitative indication of thermal comfort of concerned human being. The present model is scaled on actual human beings by noting the subjective assessment in comfortable as well as uncomfortable surroundings. As a part of validation, it is implemented in an actual Climatic Wind Tunnel Heater test, where temperatures and other parameters on different parts of the body are noted down and fed to the model as input. Output of the equation is then compared with the subjective assessment of human beings.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0158
Stephane Cyr, Kang-Duck Ih, Sang-Hyun Park
Aerodynamic simulation results are most of the time compared to wind tunnel results. It is too often simplistically believed that it suffice to take the CAD geometry of a car, prepare and run a CFD simulation to obtain results that should be comparable. With the industry requesting accuracies of a few drag counts when comparing CFD to wind tunnel results, a careful analysis of the element susceptible of creating a difference in the results is in order. In this project a detailed 1:4 scale model of the Hyundai Genesis was tested in the model wind tunnel of the FKFS. Five different underbody panel configurations of the car were tested going from a fully paneled car to a car without panels. The impact of the moving versus static ground was also tested, providing over all ten different experimental results for this car model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0161
Tsuneaki Ishima, Yasushi Takahashi, Haruki Okado, Yasukazu Baba, Tomio Obokata
In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0163
Robert Lietz, Burkhard Hupertz, Neil Lewington, Rafael Silveira, Christian Taucher
A benchmark study was conducted to assess the capability of an open source CFD based process to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around various vehicle types. The ICON FOAMpro process was used to simulate the flow field of four baseline geometries of a Truck, CD-Car, B-Car and an SUV. Further studies were carried out to assess the effects of geometry variations on the predicted aerodynamic lift and drag. A Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) approach was chosen for the benchmarks. In addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values, the results for surface pressure data, surface and wake flow fields were calculated. These results were compared with values obtained using Ford's existing CFD processes.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0109
Flavio Cimolin, Michele Rabito, Andrea Menotti
A complete methodology for the thermo-mechanical analysis of optical devices for the automotive industry is presented. The objective is to predict the thermal field all over the lamp, highlighting the zones with risk of melting, and the deformations and stresses associated with it. The proposed approach is based on a Computational Fluid-Dynamic (CFD) simulation capable of capturing all the heat transfer phenomena occurring inside and outside the lamp: conduction between different components of the device, natural convection associated with density changes in air (buoyancy effects), and radiation heat transfer. The latter requires a fairly complex modeling strategy in order to provide a satisfactory (and conservative) treatment for the source of power, i.e. the filament, which can be obtained by means of a proper inclusion of transparency.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0126
Steven Gasworth, Triloka Tankala
Heat transfer between the ambient and the air in a vehicle cabin determines the nominal steady state load on the vehicle's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, a significant factor for vehicle efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper highlights the effect of glazing (i.e. window) thermal conductivity on steady state heat transfer, with high and low thermal conductivities represented respectively by monolithic glass and standard polycarbonate. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are summarized for a model car cabin including HVAC vents, interior seating, and a rooflite. Passenger and moisture effects are not included. Monthly temperature and radiation data for Phoenix, Arizona and Minneapolis, Minnesota are used to define hot and cold climate scenarios.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0644
Shailendra Kaushik, Kuo-huey Chen, Taeyoung Han, Bahram Khalighi
Energy efficient HVAC system is becoming increasingly important as higher Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are required for future vehicle products. The present study is a preliminary attempt at designing energy efficient HVAC system by introducing localized heating/cooling concepts without compromising occupant thermal comfort. In order to achieve this goal of reduced energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort it is imperative that we use an analytical model capable of predicting thermal comfort with reasonable accuracy in a non-homogenous enclosed thermal environment such as a vehicle's passenger cabin. This study will primarily focus on two aspects: (a) energy efficiency improvements in an HVAC system through micro-cooling/heating strategies and (b) validation of an analytical approach developed in GM that would support the above effort.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0500
Dipali Ghodake, Zakirul Haque
Compartment noise has gained significant importance to meet customer expectation. One of the sources of noise is air intake noise. Intake noise is produced by both opening and closing of the inlet valve. This makes source noise critical to the development of air induction system. The new approach has been thought for noise analysis of Air Induction System (AIS) to identify source noise using 1D-3D coupling. It is very difficult to simulate engine and air induction system in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) due to complexities in geometry. The objective of the present study is to predict the pulsed noise and flow noise using 1D-3D coupling. The engine with 1D code and AIS with 3D CFD code is simulated. Engine pulsation from GT-Power is provided as an input boundary condition to ANSYS Fluent. GT-Power exchanges boundary values to 3D computation domain at each CFD time step through special connections. The CFD code is run with implicit discretisation scheme and SAS turbulence model.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0507
Shuming Chen, Dengfeng Wang, Wei Li, Jianming Zan
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0495
Fan Li, Stephen D. Sibal, Ian Francis McGann, Raphael Hallez
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-2000
Ronald Gerdes, Jonathon Alexander, Thomas Herdtle
In recent years, interest in microperforated panels (MPPs) has been growing in the automotive industry and elsewhere. Acoustic performance prediction is an important step toward understanding and designing MPPs. This paper outlines a start-to-finish procedure to predict the transfer impedance of a particular MPP based on its hole geometry and to further use this information in a simple plane wave application. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to calculate the impedance of the MPP and the results compared to impedance tube and flow resistance measurements. The transfer impedance results were then used to create a computationally efficient acoustic finite element (FE) model. The results of the acoustic FE model were also compared to impedance tube measurements.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0799
Sachin R Kamath, Prajwal Kumar M P, Shashank S N, Vinay Damodaran, Anand S R, Prakash Kulkarni
Engine overheating problems have been the major cause for vehicle breakdown during FSAE endurance runs. Therefore, it is crucial to study the cooling performance, which is affected by the air flow through the side-pod. CFD is used as a tool for this study and simulation based on the complete race car 3D model (NITK Racing 2012 formula student race car - NR XII) is carried out for different cases. Further, Wind Tunnel Experiment is carried out to validate these results. The results obtained for different cases are analyzed to decide the best configuration of the cooling duct. CFD analysis helped in calculating the mass flow rate through the radiator at various velocities. Pressure distribution and velocity distribution were also obtained along the length of the side-pod for different velocities of the car. Area of flow separation and turbulence is visualized and thus smooth airflow into the radiator core area is ensured.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1163
Khaled Saleh, Vikrant Aute, Kurt Reinhard Radermacher
Complex engineering design optimization often requires multiple executions of computationally expensive simulation tools such as those based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Some CFD simulations can take several hours to complete, thus potentially making the design optimization task infeasible. In this paper, a combination of two powerful methodologies is presented that has the potential of reducing the engineering time required for CFD based design by more than 90%. The first methodology, termed as Parallel Parameterized CFD (PPCFD) allows for speeding up multiple CFD runs to explore a given design space very efficiently. The second approach is Approximation Assisted Optimization (AAO). AAO techniques are used to reduce the time and effort involved in conducting optimization with computationally expensive simulations. The PPCFD methodology needs to be tailored or customized for an individual geometry of interest.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2417
Lisa Henriksson, Erik Dahl, Peter Gullberg, Lennart Lofdahl
This paper presents results and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method for simulation of a detailed louvered fin for a multi-louvered compact heat-exchanger. The airflow was angled at 90°, +30° and −30° relative to the heat-exchanger to evaluate changes in static pressure drop and airflow characteristics. The investigation was based on three heat-exchangers with thicknesses of 52mm and two of 19mm. One period of a detailed louvered fin was simulated for two airflows for each heat-exchanger. The pressure drop data was thereafter compared to experimental data from a full-size heat-exchanger. From the pressure drop and the airflow characteristic results recommendations were made that those kinds of simulations could be defined as steady state, and with the kω-SST turbulence model. For the same heat-exchanger angle the airflow within the core was similar, with a turbulent characteristic behind it.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0149
Marco Chiodi, Antonella Perrone, Paolo Roberti, Michael Bargende, Alessandro Ferrari, Donatus Wichelhaus
In the last years motorsport is facing a technical revolution concerning the engine technology in every category, from touring car championships up to the F1. The strategy of the car manufacturers to bring motorsport engine technology closer to mass production one (e.g. turbo-charging, downsizing and direct injection) allows both to reduce development costs and to create a better image and technology transfer by linking motorsport activities to the daily business. Under these requirements the so-called Global Race Engine (GRE) concept has been introduced, giving the possibility to use one unique engine platform concept as basis for different engine specifications and racing categories. In order to optimize the performance of this kind of engines, especially due to the highly complex mixture formation mechanisms related to the direct injection, it is nowadays mandatory to resort to reliable 3D-CFD simulations.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0140
Francesco Vivio, Vincenzo Vullo, Gino Bella, Michele Ferracci, Luigi Arnone
An engine head of a common rail direct injection engine with three in line cylinders for Light Transportation Vehicle (LTV) applications has been analyzed and optimized by means of uncoupled CFD and FEM simulations in order to assess the strength of the components. This paper deals with a structural stress analysis of the cylinder head considering the thermal loads computed through an CFD simulation and a detailed FV heat-transfer analysis. The FE model of the cylinder head includes the contact interaction between the main parts of the cylinder head assembly and it is subjected to the gas pressure, thermal loads and the effects of bolts tightening and valve springs. The results, in term of temperature field, are validated by comparing with those obtained by means of experimental analyses. Then a fatigue assessment of the cylinder head has been performed using a multi-axial fatigue criterion.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0143
G. Bella, V. K. Krastev, M. Testa, E. Leggio
Though CFD methods have become very popular and widespread tools in the early as well as more advanced automotive design stages, they are still not so common in the motorcycle industry branch. The present work aims at the development of a comprehensive simulation environment, based on the open-source finite volume toolbox OpenFOAM®, for the aerodynamic and thermal fluxes optimization of a full motorcycle-and-rider geometry. The paper is divided in two parts: in the first one, the OpenFOAM® code is evaluated for a cold flow aerodynamic analysis, using a slightly simplified version of the Aprilia RSV4 motorbike geometry; in the second one, a mixed reduced scale-full scale methodology is proposed for the simultaneous assessment of aerodynamic forces and heat transfer performances of the engine cooling system. Results have been compared against other well established commercial CFD packages and, where available, with experimental measurements.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0021
Mattia Bissoli, Alberto Cuoci, Alessio Frassoldati, Tiziano Faravelli, Eliseo Ranzi, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Francesco Contino
A new multi-zone model for the simulation of HCCI engine is here presented. The model includes laminar and turbulent diffusion and conduction exchange between the zones and the last improvements on the numerical aspects. Furthermore, a new strategy for the zone discretization is presented, which allows a better description of the near-wall zones. The aim of the work is to provide a fast and reliable model for carrying out chemical analysis with detailed kinetic schemes. A preliminary sensitivity analysis allows to verify that 10 zones are a convenient number for a good compromise between the computational effort and the description accuracy. The multi-zone predictions are then compared with the CFD ones to find the effective turbulence parameters, with the aim to describe the near-wall phenomena, both in a reactive and non-reactive cases.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0020
Enrico Mattarelli, Stefano Fontanesi, Carlo Rinaldini, Gerardo Valentino, Stefano Iannuzzi, Elena Severi, Valeri Golovitchev
Enhanced calibration strategies and innovative engine combustion technologies are required to meet the new limits on exhaust gas emissions enforced in the field of marine propulsion and on-board energy production. The goal of the paper is to optimize the control parameters of a 4.2 dm3 unit displacement marine DI Diesel engine, in order to enhance the efficiency of the combustion system and reduce engine out emissions. The investigation is carried out by means of experimental tests and CFD simulations. For a better control of the testing conditions, the experimental activity is performed on a single cylinder prototype, while the engine test bench is specifically designed to simulate different levels of boosting. The numerical investigations are carried out using a set of different CFD tools: GT-Power for the engine cycle analysis, STAR-CD for the study of the in-cylinder flow, and a customized version of the KIVA-3V code for combustion.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0112
E. Mattarelli, M. Borghi, D. Balestrazzi, S. Fontanesi
Standard design practice usually adopts steady flow tests for addressing optimisation of the intake valve-port assembly. Recently, with more user-friendly CFD tools and with increased computing power, intake stroke simulations, handling both piston and valves motion, have become practical. The purpose of this paper is to compare the design guidelines provided by the standard steady flow tests (both experimental and numerical) and the information coming from a CFD-3D intake stroke analysis. Reference is made to a four valve HSDI Diesel engine. Three swirl control strategies are investigated. It is supposed that one intake valve is kept closed, while the other one operates normally (first strategy). The second strategy consists in a 50% reduction of the lift of both valves. Finally, the third possibility is the blockage of one intake port by means of a simple butterfly valve.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0111
S. Fontanesi
Engine permeability, which is commonly known to exert a strong influence on engine performances, is usually experimentally addressed by means of the definition of a global parameter, the steady discharge coefficient. Nevertheless, the use of such a parameter to describe valve-port assembly behaviour appears sometimes to be insufficient to determine port fluidynamic behaviour, due to the simultaneous concurrency of complex mechanisms, such as mean flow distortions and boundary layer detachments. CFD simulation appears therefore to be a fundamental tool to fully understand port fluidynamic behaviour. In the present paper, two engine intake port assemblies are investigated by using the STAR-CD CFD code, showing a strongly different behaviour from the point of view of secondary detached flows generation across the valve.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2399

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