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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16127
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2166
Seung Yang, Kyeong Lee, Hwansoo Chong
At the current stage of engine technology, diesel engines typically require diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems to meet recent particulate emissions standards. To assure the performance and reliability of DPF systems, profound understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms is required. Among extensive efforts for developing advanced DPF systems, the development of effective thermal management strategies, which control the thermal runaway taking place in oxidation of an excess amount of soot deposit in DPF, is quite challenging. This difficulty stems mainly from lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding about DPF regeneration mechanisms, which need detailed information about oxidation of diesel particulate matter (PM). Therefore, this work carried out a series of oxidation experiments of diesel particulates collected from a DPF on a diesel engine, and evaluated the oxidation rates of the samples using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2171
Shuji Fujii, Tsuyoshi Asako
Ash accumulation is a considerable factor for long-term Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) performance. Ash accumulation reduces the open frontal area (OFA) and plugs the surface pores. As a result, DPF back pressures with no soot (hereinafter “initial DPF back pressure”) rise. At the same time, DPF back pressures with soot (hereinafter “sooted DPF back pressure”) fall [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. Then sooted DPF back pressures rise after the reductions of the certain ranges [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. It is known that DPF back pressure behaviors change variously by ash loading like this. The understanding of DPF back pressure behaviors with ash accumulation is indispensable for proper after-treatment system management. Ash accumulation progresses slowly and gradually in DPF while using of vehicles. Because of the slowness, the field surveys require a few years at least.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2197
Ian Whelan, Stephen Samuel, David Timoney, Ahmed Hassaneen
This study aims to identify the factors that control particulate matter (PM) formation and size distribution in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. The test engine used for this research was a 1.6 litre, wall-guided DISI, turbocharged, intercooled, in-line 4 cylinder, Euro IV engine. The exhaust sampling point was before the catalytic converter, i.e. engine-out emissions were measured. The first part of this paper investigates the characteristics of PM number and size distribution of DISI and throttle body injected (TBI) engines. The second part investigates the effect of combustion characteristics of DISI engines on the number of 5nm and 10nm (nucleation) and 200nm (accumulation) PM. A statistical analysis of the coefficient of variance (COV) of the maximum rate of pressure rise (RPmax) over 100 cycles was performed against the COV of 5nm, 10nm and 200nm total particle number.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2207
Kenichi Akiyama, Akemi Nakayama
Aldehydes and ketones are known as one of the hazardous air pollutants. Usually, acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are used for automotive exhaust carbonyls collection. Then, aldehydes and ketones combined with DNPH are analyzed by HPLC/UV (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Ultra Violet Detection). DNPH cartridge is used widely for a good point of the handling although handling of DNPH solution is not so convienient. However, the analytical result of acrolein using DNPH cartridge was known as the low reliability. Acrolein-DNPH is changed to acrolein-DNPH-DNPH in the cartridge with acid atmosphere before extraction. And then, acrorein-DNPH-DNPH is changed to acrorein-DNPH-DNPH-DNPH with an acid atmosphere. As a result of such chemical reaction before extraction, the acrolein-DNPH is detected to low concentration. We found that at the low temperature condition, acrolein-DNPH concentration decrease speed is held down.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2224
Efthimios Zervas, Eleni Panousi
Methane is a simplest hydrocarbon and is a gas with a strong greenhouse effect. Methane is emitted from the exhaust gas of passenger cars, among other hydrocarbons. This work examines the emission of methane from several European passenger cars. The impact of fuel (gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas), of the emission technology/driving cycle (Euro1, Euro2, Euro3, Tax Incentives Euro4, Euro4 and some non European regulations) and of mileage on the methane emissions is studied in this work. For all the above parameters, the emission of methane, but also its percentage in the other hydrocarbons is analyzed. The results show a significant impact of all the above parameters on methane emissions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2226
Efthimios Zervas
Passenger cars emit exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NOx in the case of gasoline engines and also particulate matter (PM) in the case of diesel engines); however, they also emit several other pollutants which are not regulated (non-regulated pollutants, NRP). These pollutants are emitted in much lower concentrations than the regulated ones; however, they are sometimes much more dangerous for the environment and the human health. This work shows the emissions of several non-regulated pollutants of gasoline and diesel European passenger cars tested on the New European Driving Cycle. The pollutants studied in this work are individual HC and HC families, N₂O and NH₃, carbonyl compounds, PAH and nitro-PAH. The impact of emission technology from Euro1 to Tax Incentives Euro4, which are related with the emission level of regulated pollutants, and of mileage are presented and discussed.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0046
P. Shanmugam, T. Kathiresan, N. Senthilnathan, AS. Anbukarasu, R. Vinoth Balaram, K. Prabu, MG. Naveenkumar
Pollutants are harmful to human and other living beings on the earth. Thus emission reduction plays a very important role in the survival of living beings. Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the emission constituents which results in smog, respiratory problems in human beings, acid rain respectively. Hence, Indian government has taken necessary steps to reduce these emissions and imposed various level of norms like BSI, BSII and BSIII on 2/3 wheeler industries in the year 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively. Presently in India, BSII is in force and from October 2010 BSIII will be introduced. BSIII 3 wheeler norm, the CO emission level is reduced by 44.4% and HC+NOx is reduced by 37.5%. The main objective of this work is to reduce the emissions like HC, which is due to unburnt fuels, NOx, which is due to high engine pressures and temperatures and CO, which is a byproduct of incomplete combustion.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0047
Tim Hands, Alexander John Finch, Jonathan Symonds, Chris Nickolaus
This paper describes various aspects of the particle emissions from a 2-stroke motorbike. It gives an indication of issues which may face emissions engineers if (or when) such vehicles become subject to particulate legislation similar to that for light duty vehicles. A DMS500 fast particulate spectrometer was used to examine transient particle emissions from the CVS tunnel for two 2-stroke motorbikes over the European ECE R47 and urban New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) drive cycles. One was direct injected and the other was carburretted. Transient size spectra and number data from the output of a two stage, Particulate Measurement Program (PMP) compliant heated dilution system are presented for the carburretted 2-stroke motorbike running the urban phase of the NEDC. Estimates of the particle number emissions relative to the Euro 5b light-duty diesel vehicle legislation are presented.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0042
Scott A. Miers, Christopher A. Green, Jay S. Meldrum, Christine Lundberg, William Silvis, Harry Pankratz
Recent increases in emissions regulations within the snowmobile industry have led to significant advancements in fuel, exhaust, and control systems on snowmobiles. However, particulate matter is currently an unregulated exhaust component of snowmobile engines. The measurement of dry soot as well as particulate matter from snowmobiles is the focus of this paper. Two industry-representative snowmobiles were chosen for this research which included a 2006 Yamaha Nytro carbureted four-stroke and a 2009 Ski-Doo MX-Z direct-injected two-stroke. Measurements for each snowmobile included gaseous emissions (CO₂, CO, NOx, O₂, and THC), particulate matter collected on quartz filters, and dry soot measured using an AVL Micro Soot Sensor. Each snowmobile was tested over the industry-standard five-mode emissions certification test cycle to determine the emissions, dry soot, and particulate matter levels from idle to wide open throttle (full-load).
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0044
Katsumasa Kiuchi, Ryo Suzuki, Hiroaki Yano, Shintaro Yagi, Akihiko Tomoda
We investigated the catalytic performance of a porous-structured paper coated with precious metals such as palladium (Pd) and others. A honeycomb-shaped paper catalyst was successfully produced by paper making techniques, which are often used in the friction material manufacturing process for clutch system and the following newly developed molding process. As a new catalyst on the paper, Pd supported on Mn-substituted lanthanum hexa-aluminate (LaMnAl₁₁O₁₉, magnetoplumbite, MPB) crystallites with appropriate surface area was prepared and the catalytic performance, such as exhaust purification ability, was assessed using a model gas containing HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and NO (nitrogen oxide) gas. The results showed that Pd/MPB did not deteriorate even after 180 h aging at 1000°C. We concluded that the MPB has good potential as a catalyst component material for internal combustion engines because of the high thermal stability.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0040
Jing Qin, Manqun Lin, Liang Zhao, Bin Jia, Peng Liu
Gasoline-fueled small engines have been developed predominantly for power by using fuel-rich combustion, and unburned HC is usually a consequence of inadequate mixing and combustion of the charge. In principle, a straightforward way to reduce HC emissions is to run at an almost stoichiometric air-fuel ratio while NOx emission become problematic, namely a tradeoff exists between the amount of HC and NOx emission, especially at high engine loads. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a common way to control in-cylinder NOx production when burning stoichiometric or even leaner mixture. In this paper, experimental investigations were conducted on a small off-road gasoline engine to study the effect of EGR system on the engine-out emission especially the unburned HC and NOx.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0038
Jordan Szafranski, Mike Galligan
Exhaust catalyst deactivation in small, handheld, 2-stroke engines is an issue that is faced quite frequently in efforts to improve or maintain catalyst performance but reduce cost. Fresh catalyst performance is rarely an issue, however, sustaining this performance for the specified useful life period of 50, 125, or 300 hours is where challenges start to arise. Our program goal was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable catalyst which is capable of meeting regulatory and internal requirements with a deterioration factor (DF) near or below 1.0 over a 300 hour useful life period. A secondary objective was to utilize decreased quantities of platinum group metals (PGM) to reduce the cost relative to our reference catalyst. To achieve this, our focus was to reduce poisoning caused by exhaust byproducts and exhaust borne contaminants through a collaboration of catalyst advances and exhaust system design.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0039
Manqun Lin
Some motorcycles, such as 3 wheels and scooters, have dual high exhaust characteristics on CO and NOx. A mechanical exhaust gas recirculation (EGR in brief) system has been developed for motorcycles and attempt to reduce NOx exhaust emission as a valuable method. Mechanical control valve are driven by intake vacuum of the engine. Appropriate amount of exhaust gas are return to engine intake system during acceleration process and high speed condition. This system also can shut down EGR at deceleration and idling speed condition. Then, NOx and fuel consumption reduction performance was confirmed by means of experimental methods.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0048
Jih Houh Lee, Chew Liang Chong, Horizon Gitano
It is difficult to obtain accurate fuel consumption data for privately owned in-use vehicles. This study aims to directly measure fuel consumption and the various parameters which affect fuel consumption from in-use vehicles via various methods. Motorcycle power demands were determined from measured frontal area, vehicle mass, rider and payload mass, tire pressure. Both worst case and best case scenarios of load, tire pressure and frontal area were measured for aerodynamic and rolling resistance via the roll-down technique. Measured data points for typical motorcycles fall within the established best- and worst-case scenarios, and an “average case” is selected for vehicle testing. Several common motorcycles models are tested for their fuel consumption at the established “average load” case. Additionally, this typical load case is coupled with the ECER40 drive cycle pattern for estimates of field fuel consumption from chassis dynamometer testing.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2098
Petter Tornehed, Ulf Olofsson
The drive to reduce particle emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines has reached the stage where the contribution from the lubricant can have a major impact on the total amount of particulate matter (PM). This paper proposes a model to predict the survival rate (unburnt oil divided by oil consumption) of the hydrocarbons from the lubricant consumed in the cylinder. The input data are oil consumption and cylinder temperature versus crank angle. The proposed model was tuned to correlate well with data from a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine that meets the Euro 5 legislation without exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measured (and modelled) oil survival shows a strong correlation with engine power. The maximum oil survival rate measured (19%) was at motoring conditions at high speed. For this engine, loads above 100 kW yielded an oil survival rate of nearly zero.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2092
Maya R. Desai, Monica Tutuianu, Mehrdad Ahmadinejad, Timothy C. Watling, Andrew P.E. York, Joseph W. Stevenson
The aftertreatment challenge in the non-road market is making the same system work and fit not just in one machine, but in hundreds of different machines, some of which can be used for many different purposes. This huge diversity of applications and the relatively small unit numbers for each application, coupled with the rapid introduction of new standards and the very high performance needed from the engines and machines, requires a sophisticated approach to product development. Furthermore, as emissions requirements become ever more stringent, designing a system to meet the legislation subject to packaging and cost constraints becomes progressively more difficult. This is further exacerbated by increasing system complexity, where more than one technology may be required to control all the legislated pollutants and/or an active control strategy is involved. Also a very high degree of component integration is required.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2093
Byan Wahyu Riyandwita, Myung-Whan Bae
A three-dimensional model with the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous gas at a steady-state is developed to simulate a urea-SCR system by the SIMPLE algorithm. A porous medium coated by a metal-oxide-based catalyst is considered in this study. The flow field and chemical reactions inside the reactor are calculated simultaneously by a porous medium approach. In a urea-SCR modeling, the gas transport properties exist as parameters in each of the conservation equations. The evaluations of density, diffusion coefficients, viscosities, thermal conductivities and specific heats are required to select the most suitable gas transport properties in a numerical modeling of a multi-component gaseous mixture and chemically reacting flow.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2089
M. P. Sturgess, S. F. Benjamin, C. A. Roberts
Modeling of SCR in diesel exhaust systems with injection of urea spray is complex and challenging but many models use only the conversion observed at the brick exit as a test of the model. In this study, the case modeled is simplified by injecting ammonia gas in nitrogen in place of urea, but the spatial conversion profiles along the SCR brick length at steady state are investigated. This is a more rigorous way of assessing the ability of the model to simulate observations made on a test exhaust system. The data have been collected by repeated engine tests on eight different brick lengths, all which were shorter than a standard-sized SCR. The tests have been carried out for supplied NH₃ /NOx ratios of a 1.5, excess ammonia, a 1.0, balanced ammonia, and a 0.5, deficient ammonia. Levels of NO, NO₂ and NH₃ have been measured both upstream and downstream of the SCR using a gas analyzer fitted with ammonia scrubbers to give reliable NOx measurements.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2127
Andrea Strzelec, Todd Toops, Charles Daw, David E. Foster, Christopher Rutland
Diesel particulate samples were collected from a light duty engine operated at a single speed-load point with a range of biodiesel and conventional fuel blends. The oxidation reactivity of the samples was characterized in a laboratory reactor, and BET surface area measurements were made at several points during oxidation of the fixed carbon component of both types of particulate. The fixed carbon component of biodiesel particulate has a significantly higher surface area for the initial stages of oxidation, but the surface areas for the two particulates become similar as fixed carbon oxidation proceeds beyond 40%. When fixed carbon oxidation rates are normalized to total surface area, it is possible to describe the oxidation rates of the fixed carbon portion of both types of particulates with a single set of Arrhenius parameters. The measured surface area evolution during particle oxidation was found to be inconsistent with shrinking sphere oxidation.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2126
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, James E. Parks, Vitaly Prikhodko
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2122
Stephen Samuel, Ahmed Hassaneen, Denise Morrey
This work aimed to study nano-scale particulate matter originating from gasoline direct injection engine during cold start and warm up operating conditions and to identify the role of the three-way catalytic converter on nano-scale particulate during cold-start and warm-up operating conditions. This work used a 4-stroke, 1.6 litre, wall guided gasoline direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled SI engine equipped with a three-way catalytic converter for this investigation. It used a fast particle spectrometer for the measurement of exhaust nano-scale particles upto 1000 nm diameter.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2272
Ki-Hyun Baek
Use of biodiesel fuel (or its blends with petroleum diesel) has become of worldwide interest and seriously investigated for its merits and demerits. This study focused on the effects of using BD30 (a blend of 30% soybean methylester biodiesel and 70% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) in the aspects of exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics in a modern SUV, equipped with 3.0 liter CRDI engine. In general, it has been reported that the use of biodiesel could be beneficial for the emissions of HC, CO and PM at a certain degree of the deteriorations in NOx level and fuel economy. However, our current tests with BD30 by driving on the European emission cycle resulted in an increased HC and CO emission level, compared to the standard diesel fuel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2158
Panu Karjalainen, Juha Heikkila, Topi Ronkko, Jorma Keskinen, Kati Lehtoranta, Pekka Matilainen, Toni Kinnunen
Under on-road driving conditions, the engine load and speed and the cooling effect of ambient air may affect the functioning of exhaust aftertreatment devices. In this paper, we studied the effects of these parameters on the functioning of the combination of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Particle Oxidation Catalyst (DOC+POC). In the engine tests, the engine load and speed were observed to affect the nonvolatile particle reduction efficiency curve of the DOC+POC; while the nonvolatile core particle (Dp ≺ 15 nm) reduction was high (97-99%) in all the engine test modes, the reduction of soot varied from 57% at low load to 70% at high load. Because the change in engine load and speed affected both the exhaust temperature and flow velocity, the effects of these parameters were measured separately in an aerosol laboratory.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2160
Steven J. Schmieg
Unique silver/alumina (Ag-Al₂O₃) catalysts developed using high-throughput discovery techniques in collaboration with BASF Corporation were investigated at General Motors Corporation under simulated lean-burn engine exhaust feed conditions for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons (HC-SCR). Hydrocarbon mixtures were used as the reductant to model the multi-component nature of diesel fuel and gasoline. Previous work has shown promising HC-SCR results in both laboratory reactor and engine dynamometer testing. This report investigates several aspects of HC-SCR catalyst durability, including thermal durability, sulfur tolerance, and hydrocarbon deactivation.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0557
Gregory Austin, Jeffrey Naber, John H. Johnson, Chris Hutton
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0559
Keld Johansen, Gurli Mogensen, Damien Mey, David Pinturaud
Silicon carbide diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now recognized as the most effective and robust way to reduce not only the mass but also the number of emitted particles on diesel passenger cars. Widespread use of expensive catalytic platinum-containing coatings has contributed to increased harmful NO₂ emissions. A novel low-cost palladium-base metal coating, BMC-211, was developed which assists soot regeneration by oxygen transport and which actively removes NO₂ still having comparable passive and active soot regeneration properties. The novel coating was tested against a traditional commercial platinum coating on a modern series-produced car, on chassis dynamometer and on engine test bench.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0560
Ted N. Tadrous, Kevin Brown, Paul Towgood, Campbell McConnell
Active regeneration of diesel particulate filters is becoming essential for performance longevity given the diversity of duty cycles and engines' operating behaviors for existing and newer engines. The Syngas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from diesel fuel and air produced by the non-catalytic Syngas Generator is potential candidate to actively enhance the regeneration efficiency of diesel particulate filters. The Syngas is utilized to create an exothermic condition over a pre-catalyst to the DPF to bring exhaust gas temperature from as low as 200°C to 650°C to enable a sustained DPF regeneration process. The Syngas is introduced to an inlet assembly which is divided into 4 quadrants so the full Syngas is mixing with a quarter of the exhaust flow and regenerating one DPF quadrant at a time. The Syngas DPF system is designed to operate seamlessly and is transparent to the vehicle operator.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0562
Kun chul Park, Soonho Song, Kwang min Chun
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems are being used to reduce the particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles. The DPF should be regenerated after certain driving hours or distance to eliminate soot in the filter. The most widely used method is active regeneration with oxygen at 550~650°C. Fuel penalty occurs when the exhaust gas temperature is increased. The low temperature oxidation technique is needed to reduce fuel consumption. In this study, we found that hydrogen could be used to decrease the PM oxidation temperature significantly on a catalyzed DPF (CDPF). The oxidation characteristics of PM with hydrogen supplied to CDPF were studied using a partial flow system. The partial flow system was used to control temperature and a flow rate independently. The CDPF was coated with Pt/Al₂O₃ 25g/ft₃, and a multi-channel CDPF (MC CDPF) with a square cross section of 1.65 cm width and length of 10 cm was used.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0563
Svetlana Iretskaya, Steve Golden, Ted Tadrous, Shun Hong Long
Non-PGM catalyst containing base metal mixed oxide (BMMO) supported on rare earth mixed oxide (REMO) had been evaluated by various methods for soot-oxidation activity. Thermo-gravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA) experiments and synthetic gas bench activity tests showed that the catalyst was able to oxidize soot at temperatures significantly lower than soot combustion temperature leading to a conclusion that soot was oxidized via direct reaction with active species of the catalyst surface. It had been shown that low-temperature soot oxidation occurred with and without NO present in the reaction gas. Evaluation on engine benches of the BMMO catalyst coated on diesel particulate filters (DPF) confirmed low-temperature soot oxidation in exhaust gas with low NO₂ concentration and a possibility of cost-efficient diesel exhaust aftertreatment system without increasing tailpipe NO₂ content.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0569
Hanlong Yang, Christian Chimner
Future government emission regulations have lead to the development and implementation of advanced aftertreatment systems to meet stringent emission standards for both on-road and off-road vehicles. These aftertreatment systems require sophisticated control and diagnostic strategies to ensure proper system functionality while minimizing tailpipe NOx and PM emissions across all engine operating conditions. In this paper, an integrated algorithm design approach with controls and diagnostics for an aftertreatment system consisting of a fuel doser, fuel reformer, LNT, DPF, and SCR is discussed.
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