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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2471
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2161
Gareth Floweday
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology has been an area of rapidly increasing research interest for the past 15 years and appears poised for commercialisation through the efforts of international research institutions and manufacturers alike. In spite of significant worldwide research efforts on numerous aspects of this technology, the need still exists for accurate and computationally efficient fuel auto-ignition models capable of predicting the heat release dynamics of two-stage auto-ignition, especially for full boiling range fuels, sensitive to the effects of pressure, temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and inert dilution.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2162
Patricia Anselmi, Julian Kashdan, Guillaume Bression, Edouard Ferrero-Lesur, Benoist Thirouard, Bruno Walter
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2167
Derek Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz, Reed Hanson
Heavy-duty engine experiments were conducted to explore reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion through addition of the cetane improver di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) to pump gasoline. Unlike previous diesel/gasoline dual-fuel operation of RCCI combustion, the present study investigates the feasibility of using a single fuel stock (gasoline) as the basis for both high reactivity and low reactivity fuels. The strategy consisted of port fuel injection of gasoline and direct injection of the same gasoline doped with a small volume percent addition of DTBP. With 1.75% DTBP by volume added to only the direct-injected fuel (which accounts for approximately 0.2% of the total fueling) it was found that the additized gasoline behaved similarly to diesel fuel, allowing for efficient RCCI combustion. The single fuel results with DTBP were compared to previous high-thermal efficiency, low-emissions results with port injection of gasoline and direct injections of diesel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2168
Vahid Hosseini, W Neill, Hongsheng Guo, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu, Wallace Chippior, Craig Fairbridge, Ken Mitchell
The effects of cetane number, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature (T90) on HCCI combustion were investigated using a fuel matrix designed by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The fuels were atomized and partially vaporized in the intake manifold. The engine was operated at a relative air/fuel ratio of 1.2, 60% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and 900 rpm. The compression ratio was varied over the range of 9:1 to 15:1 to optimize the combustion phasing for each fuel, keeping other operating parameters constant. The results show that cetane number and T90 distillation temperature significantly affected the combustion phasing. Cetane number was clearly found to have the strongest effect.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2172
James P. Szybist, Eric Nafziger, Adam Weall
A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present during the SA-HCCI operating mode, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum cylinder pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2169
Gareth Floweday
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology has been an area of rapidly increasing research interest for the past 15 years and appears poised for commercialisation through the efforts of international research institutions and manufacturers alike. In spite of significant worldwide research efforts on numerous aspects of this technology, the need still exists for accurate and computationally efficient fuel auto-ignition models capable of predicting the heat release dynamics of two-stage auto-ignition, especially for full boiling range fuels, sensitive to the effects of pressure, temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and inert dilution.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2189
Hassan Babiker, Oliver Mathieu, Amer Amer, Yoann Viollet, Ahmar Ghauri
Detailed combustion studies have historically been conducted in simplified reacting systems, such as shock-tubes and rapid compression machines. The reciprocating internal combustion engine presents many challenges when used to isolate the effects of fuel chemistry from thermodynamics. On the other hand, the conditions in such engines are the most representative in terms of pressure and temperature histories. This paper describes the use of a single-cylinder research engine as an advanced reactor to better determine fuel effects experimentally. In particular, a single-cylinder engine was operated in a manner that allowed the effects of changes in charge composition and temperatures to be isolated from changes in equivalence ratio. An example study is presented where the relative effects of low-temperature and high-temperature chemistry, and their effects on combustion phasing, are isolated and examined.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2188
Andrew Mathes, Jacob Ries, Patrick Caton, Jim Cowart, Dianne Luning Prak, Leonard Hamilton
Future synthetic diesel fuels will likely involve mixtures of straight and branched alkanes, possibly with aromatic additives to improve lubricity and durability. To simulate these future fuels, this study examined the combustion characteristics of binary mixtures of 50%, 70%, and 90% isododecane in hexadecane, and of 50%, 70%, and 80% toluene in hexadecane using a single-cylinder research diesel engine with variable injection timing. These binary blends were also compared to operation with commercial petroleum diesel fuel, military petroleum jet fuel, and five current synthetic Fischer-Tropsch diesel and jet fuels. The synthetic diesel and jet fuels showed reasonable similarity with many of the combustion metrics to mid-range blends of isododecane in hexadecane. Stable diesel combustion was possible even with the 80% toluene and 90% isododecane blends; in fact, operation with 100% isododecane was achieved, although with significantly advanced injection timing.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2191
Paul Lacey, Jean Marc Kientz, Sandro Gail, Nebojsa Milovanovic, Paul Stevenson, Richard Stradling, Richard H. Clark, Ratchatapong Boonwatsakul
An increasing range of conventional and unconventional feed stocks will be used to produce fuel of varying chemical and physical properties for use in compression ignition engines. Fischer-Tropsh (F-T) technology can be used to produce fuels of consistent quality from a wide range of feed stocks. The present study evaluates the performance of F-T fuel in advanced common rail fuel injection systems. Laboratory scale tests are combined with proprietary engine and electrically driven common rail pump hydraulic rig tests to predict long-term performance. The results obtained indicate that the performance of F-T fuel is at least comparable to conventional hydrocarbon fuels and superior in a number of areas. In particular, the lubricity of F-T fuel was improved by addition of lubricity additives or FAME, with minimal wear under a wide range of operating conditions and temperatures.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2193
Peter Hottenbach, Thorsten Brands, Gerd Grünefeld, Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. An investigation program is carried out to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. In this paper, fundamental results of the Diesel engine relevant combustion are presented. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different reference fuels have been investigated. The fundamental effects of different physical and chemical properties on emission formation and engine performance are investigated using a thermodynamic diesel single cylinder research engine and an optically-accessible combustion vessel. Depending on the chain length and molecular structure, fuel compounds vary in cetane number, boiling temperature etc. Therefore, different hydrocarbons including n-heptane, n-dodecane, and l-decanol were investigated.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2113
Benjamin Akih-Kumgeh, Jeff Bergthorson
The quest for sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels leads to a growing diversification of the molecular structures of fuel sources. Since ignition is a vital property in the choice of an engine combustion concept, the ability to tailor the ignition behavior of various fuel sources by means of fuel additives is expected to aid the development of fuel-flexible engines. Ethanol is one of the biofuels with a potential to play an important role in the transportation fuel mix of the future. One of the final processes during ethanol production involves distillation in order to minimize the water content. Using wet ethanol in combustion engines could lead to a reduction in the energy consumption during fuel processing. An understanding of fundamental combustion properties of ethanol in the presence of water vapor such as ignition behavior is expected to aid in the design of efficient engine combustion processes.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2116
Luc Jolly, Koji Kitano, Ichiro Sakata, Wenzel Strojek, Walter Bunting
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2108
Joachim Beeckmann, Liming Cai, Olaf Röhl, Heinz Pitsch, Norbert Peters
A reduced kinetic reaction mechanism for the autoignition of dimethyl ether is presented in this paper. Dimethyl ether has proven to be one of the most attractive alternatives to traditional fossil fuels for compression ignition engines. It can either be produced from biomass or from fossil oil. For dimethyl ether, Fischer et al. (Int. J.Chem. Kinet. 32 ( 12 ) (2000) 713-740) proposed a detailed reaction mechanism consisting of 79 species and 351 elementary reactions. In the present work, this detailed mechanism is systematically reduced to 31 species and 49 reactions. The reduced mechanism is discussed in detail with special emphasis on the high temperature thermal decomposition of dimethyl ether and on the fuel specific depleting reactions, which produce the methoxymethyl radical. In addition, a reaction pathway analysis for low temperature combustion is applied, where hydroperoxy-methylformate is found to be the dominating parameter for the low temperature regime.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2109
Steffen Kuhnert, Uwe Wagner, Ulrich Spicher, Simon-Florian Haas, Klaus Gabel, Immanuel Kutschera
Diesel engines face difficult challenges with respect to engine-out emissions, efficiency and power density as the legal requirements concerning emissions and fuel consumption are constantly increasing. In general, for a diesel engine to achieve low raw emissions a well-mixed fuel-air mixture, burning at low combustion temperatures, is necessary. Highly premixed diesel combustion is a feasible way to reduce the smoke emissions to very low levels compared to conventional diesel combustion. In order to reach both, very low NOX and soot emissions, high rates of cooled EGR are necessary. With high rates of cooled EGR the NOX formation can be suppressed almost completely. This paper investigates to what extent the trade-off between emissions, fuel consumption and power of a diesel engine can be resolved by highly premixed and low temperature diesel combustion using injection nozzles with reduced injection hole diameters and high pressure fuel injection.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2094
John Williams, Nozomi Yokoo, Koichi Nakata, Rana Ali, Walter Bunting, Kenichi Ishiwa
Toyota and BP have performed a collaborative study to understand the impact of fuel composition on the combustion and emissions of a prototype 1.8L lean boosted engine. The fuel matrix was designed to understand better the impact of a range of fuel properties on fundamental combustion characteristics including thermal efficiency, combustion duration, exhaust emissions and extension of lean limit. Most of the fuels in the test matrix were in the RON range of 96 - 102, although ethanol and other high octane components were used in some fuels to increase RON to the range 104 - 108. The oxygen content ranged from 2 - 28%, and constituents included biocomponents, combustion improving additives and novel blend components. Performance and emissions tests were conducted over a range of engine operating conditions. Thermal efficiency was mapped at stoichiometric and lean conditions, and the limit of lean combustion was established for different fuels.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2086
Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder, Gregor Eckhard
This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2087
Adrien Halle, Alexandre Pagot
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2139
Istvan Barabas, Ioan-Adrian Todorut
The Department of Automotive and Agricultural Machinery of the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca has been looking for a long time for the possibilities of using alternative fuels. The target vehicle of our investigation, a flexible-fueled vehicle (FFV) has a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. Biodiesel and bioethanol are a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Our previous researches have pointed out that biodiesel-diesel fuel-ethanol blends can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. The fuel properties of the blend are very close to those of diesel fuels at low concentrations (up to 20%) of biofuels. For example, the viscosities of the blends are the same as the viscosity of the diesel fuel because the higher viscosity of the biodiesel compensates the lower viscosity of the bioethanol. There has been made the same observation in the case of the density and of the surface tension.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2136
Marcis Jansons, Radu Florea, Kan Zha, Eric Gingrich
Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2138
Anand Kumar Pandey, Milankumar Ramakant Nandgaonkar
The depleting fossil fuel resources and stringent emission legislation due to global warming have driven the engine technology towards the search for alternative fuels for diesel engines. In the present study, a military 780 hp CIDI engine was fuelled with diesel, jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) and karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) biodiesel respectively. The performances of fuels were evaluated in terms of power out put, specific fuel consumption and heat release rates. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC), and oxides of nitrogen NOx with the three fuels were also compared. Both karanja and jatropha oil, after transesterification exhibit the properties within acceptable limits of ASTM standard. Performance of both KOME and JOME were slightly lower than diesel. Emissions of CO, and UHC were found lower with both KOME and JOME as compared to diesel fuel, but with slightly higher NOx emission.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2134
Xin Yue, Xiaofeng Bao, Xianjiang Huang, Jiming Hao, Ye Wu, Tingting Yue, Yao Ma, Mingyu Wang
Gasoline detergency is related to deposits at various parts of the engine and therefore has impact on vehicle driveability and emission properties. The widely used engine tests such as CEC F-20 M111 and ASTM D6201 Ford 2.3L tests take tens of hours and thus are very expensive and time consuming to carry out. A new simulation test for gasoline detergency on intake valve cleanliness using lean-oxygen gum method was developed and the correlation of test results with M111 engine test was studied. Gasoline samples with different detergency levels were tested with both the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test. Test results of 24 gasoline samples show satisfactory correlation between the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test (R₂=0.7258).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2135
Gregory Davis, Craig Hoff
Currently, a majority of the ‘gasoline’ sold at the pumps in the United States is a nominal blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol. This mixture is commonly referred to as E10. This paper reports on a study conducted to determine the effects of E10 on the fuel system performance of vintage automobiles. The study focused on the potential degradation in performance of the carburetors and fuel pumps due to exposure to E10. Six fuel systems were selected for study including the 1948 Flathead Ford, 1958 Volkswagen Beetle, 1962 Ford Falcon, 1969 Chevrolet Bel Air and 1970 Chrysler New Yorker. The components tested were either rebuilt original equipment or new aftermarket replacement parts, depending on availability. Although the components tested were not all original equipment parts, they represent a reasonable sample of the types of parts likely to be found in vintage vehicles currently on the road. The fuel system components were tested under both dynamic and static conditions.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2133
Kapila Wadumesthrige, K. Y. Simon Ng, Steven O. Salley
The use of butanol as an alternative biofuel blend component for conventional diesel fuel has been under extensive investigation. However, some fuel properties such as cetane number and lubricity fall below the accepted values as described by the ASTM D 975 diesel specifications. Blending 10% butanol with #2 ULSD decreases the cetane number by 7% (from 41.6 to 39.0). At higher butanol blend levels, i.e., 20% v/v, the cetane number decrease cannot be compensated for; even with the addition of a 2000 ppm level commercial cetane improver. The decreased cetane number, or in other words, increased ignition delay, can be attributed to the increased blend level of low cetane butanol as well as the critical physical properties for better atomization of fuels during auto ignition such as viscosity. The kinematic viscosity dropped sharply with increasing butanol blend level up to 25 % v/v, then increased with further increase of butanol blend level.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2132
Thummarat Thummadetsak, Chonchada Tipdecho, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Pakasit Monnum
To promote utilization of renewable fuels in transportation sector, the Thai government has actively sought to obtain higher-ratio ethanol blends in gasoline as early as 2007, at which time E85 was introduced and fuel specifications were determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate E85 fuel performance in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) with considerations for tailpipe emissions, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde emissions, evaporative emission and vehicle performance. These findings will aid future research in ethanol blends. All tests were conducted utilizing three Volvo S40 FFVs and four specific ethanol blend fuels: E10, E20, E50 and E85 (E-Fuels, collectively). Tailpipe emission tests were conducted in full compliance with Thailand Industrial Standard Institute; TIS 2160 - 2546 (Euro 3 legislation).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2130
Md. Nurun Nabi, Johan Einar Hustad
In this study, experiments were performed on a 4-stroke, 6-cylinder turbocharged, direct injection (DI) diesel engine using two oxygenated fuels blended with European auto diesel fuel (DF) to investigate the engine performance and exhaust emissions with special interest in fine particles. In the investigation, 20 vol% jatropha biodiesel was added to the DF; while 6.31 vol% diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM) was added to the DF to maintain same oxygen percentage (2.26 wt%) in the blended fuels. The fuel is designated as DDGM for the DF-DGM blend and DB20 for the DF-biodiesel blend. The fine particle number was determined with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Carbon monoxide (CO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), smoke, total particulate matter (TPM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were also measured.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2121
Senthil Kumar Masimalai
Methyl esters were prepared from the mixture of unrefined palm oil (URPO) and D-Limonene oil (DLO) and evaluated for their properties to be used as fuel in a diesel engine. DLO was blended with URPO in different proportions (such as 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) before transesterification to reduce viscosity of the URPO. 15% of DLO and 85% of URPO by mass was found as the optimum based on the optimum yield. Reaction influential factors, such as amount of alcohol, temperature for reaction, reaction time and amount of catalyst have been investigated for the methyl ester of 15% of DLO and 85% of URPO mixture (PODLO15). In the second phase of work, tests were conducted on a single cylinder, air cooled diesel to analyze the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the methyl ester of PODLO15. Engine tests results indicated reduced brake thermal efficiency with neat URPO as compared to neat diesel. Methyl ester of PODLO15 showed improvement in brake thermal efficiency.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2120
Kapila Wadumesthrige, Nicholas Johnson, Mark Winston-Galant, Haiying Tang, K. Y. Simon Ng, Steven O. Salley
Biodiesel has been widely accepted as an alternative for fossil-derived diesel fuel for use in compression ignition (CI) engines. Poor oxidative stability and cold flow properties restrict the use of biodiesel beyond current B20 blend levels (20% biodiesel in 80% ULSD) for vehicle applications. Maintaining the properties of B20 as specified by ASTM D7476-08 is important because, once out of spec, B20 may cause injector coke formation, fuel filter plugging, increased exhaust emissions, and overall loss of engine performance. While the properties of fresh B20 may be within the specifications, under engine operating and longer storage conditions B20 could deteriorate. In a diesel engine, the fuel that goes to the injector and does not enter the cylinder is recycled back to the fuel tank. The re-circulated fuel returns to the fuel tank at an elevate temperature, which can cause thermal oxidation.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2236
Randy P. Hessel, Richard Steeper, Russell Fitzgerald, Salvador Aceves, Daniel Flowers
Recently experiments were conducted on an automotive homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) research engine with a negative-valve-overlap (NVO) cam. In the study two sets of experiments were run. One set injected a small quantity of fuel (HPLC-grade iso-octane) during NVO in varying amounts and timings followed by a larger injection during the intake stroke. The other set of experiments was similar, but did not include an NVO injection. By comparing both sets of results researchers were able to investigate the use of NVO fuel injection to control main combustion phasing under light-load conditions. For this paper a subset of these experiments are modeled with the computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code KIVA3V [ 6 ] using a multi-zone combustion model. The computational domain includes the combustion chamber, and intake and exhaust valves, ports, and runners. Multiple cycles are run to minimize the influence of initial conditions on final simulated results.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2249
Matthias Zink, Thorsten Raatz, Thomas Wintrich, Peter Eilts
Environmental and economical reasons have led to an increased interest in the usage of alternative fuels for combustion engines. To clarify the influence of these so-called future fuels on engine performance and emissions it is mandatory to understand their effect on spray formation. Usually this is done by performing various spray experiments with potential future fuels which are available for research purposes today. Due to the multitude of possible future fuels and therefore the uncertainty of their properties and their influence on spray formation a more general approach was chosen in the present study. The possible range of physical properties of future fuels for diesel engines was identified and more than twenty different fluids with representative properties, mostly one-component chemicals, were chosen by means of design of experiment (DoE).
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2273
George Karavalakis, Evaggelos Bakeas, Stamos Stournas
This study investigates the impact of mid-high biodiesel blends on the criteria and PAH emissions from a modern pick-up diesel vehicle. The vehicle was a Euro 4 (category N1, subclass III) compliant common-rail light-duty goods pick-up truck fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer equipped with CVS, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted over the certification New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Aiming to evaluate the fuel impact on emissions, a soy-based biodiesel, a palm-based biodiesel, and an oxidized biodiesel obtained from used frying oils were blended with a typical automotive ultra-low-sulfur diesel at proportions of 30, 50 and 80% by volume. The experimental results revealed that CO₂ emissions and fuel consumption exhibited an increase with biodiesel over all driving conditions.
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