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Viewing 1 to 30 of 7988
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2314
Niall T. Berkery
Abstract Connectivity, software and services are the key elements that will define the next-generation vehicle experience. Drivers are being provided new innovative solutions that seamlessly integrate their online digital lifestyle into their vehicle environment, enabling automakers increased opportunity for brand differentiation, while giving drivers the ability to personalize their vehicles down to an individual level. This will be accomplished through “virtual accessorization” - where drivers will personalize their connected vehicle experience by choosing applications and services that best suit their individual needs. After selecting applications from an online automotive apps exchange, the apps are sent wirelessly to the car or the driver's smartphone for immediate use. The in-vehicle apps can also be configured based on who is driving, so that preferences and personal functionality moves with each driver.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2016
Mohamed Khalil
In this paper the study is directed to a condition-based predictive maintenance concept as an alternative policy to determine a fleet's health, for increasing the fleet availability and to reduce the operating cost. The concept is based on predicting the system degradation by using an expert system. Therefore, the decision-maker can calculate the remaining lifetime for any mechanical system. These calculations help the decision-maker in making a repair or replacement decision in a suitable time. An application is presented herein on the cylinder kit components (piston, piston rings and liner) to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique. The results indicate that knowing the wear between the cylinder kit components in automotive engines is very important to plan the maintenance for making the repair or replacement decision in a suitable time.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2011
Carsten John
Geometric product representations are of gaining importance in product manufacturing industries. Several case studies yield that the utilization of three-dimensional digital product data in the product development chain has given many manufacturing companies a big advantage in business competition. The field of application for 3D technology is versatile and its further implementation still proceeds along product delivery processes. Leveraging 3D graphics in service information creation processes like the creation of manual illustrations or service instruction imagery is currently a big topic at many companies. E. g. the utilization of animated 3D product representations for explanation of service tasks becomes possible due to the recent advances in computer hardware more and more popular.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2015
Saurabh Singh, Narayan Jadhav, Kamaljeet Nandkeolyar, Shirish Pandav, Pankaj Sali
The automotive sector is going through a phase of stiff competition among various Original Equipment Manufacturers for increasing their profitability while ensuring highest levels of customer satisfaction. The biggest challenge for such companies lies in minimizing their overall cost involving investments in Research and Development, manufacturing, after sales service and warranty costs. Higher warranty costs not only affect the net profit but in turn it also affects the brand image of the company to a large extent in the long run. An effort is made here to target such warranty costs due to frequent tail pinion and hub seal leakages on single reduction/hub reduction axles of Heavy Commercial Vehicles in the field. A preliminary study involving the severity analysis of such failures is followed by a step by step investigation of these failures.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2014
Chris Merkle, Lisa Kennedy
Manufacturers have engineered high voltage batteries and highly efficient electric motors that have been combined with an internal combustion engine (ICE) or in some cases, replaced the engine altogether. While this advancement is beneficial in many ways, service technicians are faced with new challenges in servicing high voltage vehicle systems. Although highly trained in many areas, today's automotive and commercial vehicle service technicians traditionally have not been trained to work with high voltage (HV). To ensure proper and safe HV service, information and training is critical. This paper will highlight some typical safety precautions and service procedures directed by manufacturers, such as the use of high voltage insulation gloves, proper tools needed and the practices of performing HV disabling procedures including zero voltage checks.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2013
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Jean-Sebastien Foisy
The experience with the implementation of IV-ITS (In-vehicle Intelligent Transportation Systems, also know as EOBR or electronic onboard recorders) type tools and services in previous projects showed that there is an opportunity to standardize an infrastructure that would increase a project's rate of success. As such, a project that defined, streamlined and standardized a tech transfer approach to IV-ITS products and services was initiated. Therefore, the objective of the project was to develop a standard procedure based on technology transfer best practices and defining the steps and actions required to increase the rate of success and the optimization of the implementation of IV-ITS products and services. A literature review was conducted to identify technology transfer and implementation best practices and to assist in defining a survey for measuring the success of the implementation of participants in IV-ITS implementation projects.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2012
Arnold Taube, Matthew Cappel, Vincent Boens
Light-weight, tessellated surface models are increasingly used in marketing websites and electronic documents as well as in electronic training materials and service information documents. While these models are effective in developing consumer interest and communicating information, without implementing adequate Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) they also provide valuable geometry to miscreants wanting to reverse engineer a product and/or its component parts. Geometry Distortion is an excellent component of a layered IPP Plan for implementation when publishing 3-D models. However, how much distortion is needed to provide adequate IPP? Too much distortion detracts from their appearance while too little does not sufficiently complicate reverse engineering analysis. This paper describes a practical process for determining rational geometry distortion values that provide adequate IPP.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2246
Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya, Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hyun Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2254
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard R. Steeper
An infrared laser absorption technique has been developed to measure in-cylinder concentrations of CO in an optical, automotive HCCI engine. The diagnostic employs a distributed-feedback, tunable diode laser selected to emit light at the R15 line of the first overtone of CO near 2.3 μm. The collimated laser beam makes multiple passes through the cylinder to increase its path length and its sampling volume. High-frequency modulation of the laser output (wavelength modulation spectroscopy) further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and detection limits of CO. The diagnostic has been tested in the motored and fired engine, exhibiting better than 200-ppm sensitivity for 50-cycle ensemble-average values of CO concentration with 1-ms time resolution. Fired results demonstrate the ability of the diagnostic to quantify CO production during negative valve overlap (NVO) for a range of fueling conditions.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2251
Jay B. Jeffries, Jason M. Porter, Sung Hung Pyun, Ronald K. Hanson, Kevin R. Sholes, Kiyotaka Shouji, Tomohiro Chaya
Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and gas temperature were made with two-color mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser absorption in a production spark-ignition engine (Nissan MR20DE, 2.0L, 4 cyl, MPI with premium gasoline). The mid-IR light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug. The absorption line-of-sight was a 5.3 mm optical path located closely adjacent to the ignition spark providing spatially resolved absorption. Two sensor wavelengths were selected in the strong bands associated with the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) stretching vibration near 3.4 μm, which have an absorption ratio that is strongly temperature dependent. Fuel concentration and temperature were determined simultaneously from the absorption at these two wavelengths.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2262
Cinzia Tornatore, Simona Merola, Paolo Sementa
Nowadays an elevated number of two, three and four wheels vehicles circulating in the world-wide urban areas is equipped with Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engines. Their technological level is high, but a further optimization is still possible, especially at low engine speed and high load. To this purpose, the scientific community is now focused on deepening the understanding of thermo fluid dynamic phenomena that takes place in this kind of engine: the final purpose is to find key points for the reduction in engine specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions without a decrease in performance. In this work, the combustion process was investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder PFI SI engine. It was equipped with the head, injection device and exhaust line of a commercial small engine for two-wheel vehicles, it had the same geometrical characteristics in terms of bore, stroke and compression ratio.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0521
Landon Onyebueke, Akindeji Ojetola, Edward Winkler
This paper presents a PC based mathematical and rapid prototyping technique for anthropometric accommodation in a maintenance environment using the principle of simulation based design. The developed technique is capable of analyzing anthropometric data using multivariate (Principal component Analysis) approach to describe the body size variability of any given population. A number of body size representative cases are established which, when used properly within the constraints of the maintenance environments, will ensure the accommodation of a desired percentage of a population. This technique evaluates the percentage accommodation of a given population for the environment using the specific manikin cases as boundary conditions. In the case where any member of a maintenance crew cannot be accommodated, the technique has the capability of informing the designer of the environment why the member(s) is/are not accommodated.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0205
Robert Boys
Consumer and safety requirements are increasing the number of airbags per vehicle that need to be controlled in an intelligent manner. Smart air bag controllers can determine which bags are fired and at what times and which sequences in order to increase occupant survivability and reduce the cost of airbag replacement for repairable vehicles. Some vehicles already have an excess of 10 air bag systems and clearly a need for computer control to implement advanced features exists. The critical need to maintain the current high reliability factors in terms of misfiring and unintentional deployment must be maintained and perfected while adding more features. The Safe-by-Wire consortium has been formed to address these concerns and they have designed a new bus protocol. This article will examine some of the issues regarding air bag systems and the Safe-by-Wire protocol specifically.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0201
Richard T. McLaughlin, Chris Quigley
The Controller Area Network (CAN) has seen enormous success in automotive body and powertrain control systems, as well as industrial automation systems using higher layer protocols such as CANopen and DeviceNet. Now, the CAN standard ISO11898 is being extended to Time Triggered CAN (TTCAN) to address the safety critical needs of first generation drive-by-wire systems. However, their successful development depends upon the availability of silicon and software support, and appropriate development & analysis tools. Warwick Control Technologies and the University of Warwick are tasked with prototyping a TTCAN analyser within the European Union Media+ project Silicon Systems for Automotive Electronics (SSAE) consortium, and with funding from the British Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). This paper briefly outlines the current status of both CAN & TTCAN technology and describes the requirements of a TTCAN analyser over that of a traditional CAN analyser.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0357
S. P.Gladyshev, T. Feldpausch, N. Natarajan, P. S. Gladyshev
The three phase electrical motor contains three armature stator coils shifted in space from each other 120 degrees and one stator coil for excitation. Salient multi poles laminated rotor without coil. Rotor has reduced weight because it does not contain coil excitation and has reduced steel core weight. Each of the armature coils is controlled by the one phase H – transistor bridge circuit. DC shoulder of each bridge is connected to a battery. There is an optical sensor of rotor position which controls transistor bridges. Rotor speed may be controlled by change of the armature voltage or by change of current excitation. Current value in both cases is controlled by a pulse-width voltage modulation. In this type of machine, like in DC machines, it is possible to realize shunt, series and combinational methods of the excitation. It is known that series DC motors can develop very high torque at low speeds and therefore can serve very well in a vehicle applications.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0365
S. P. Gladyshev, Terry Feldpausch, N. Natarajan, I. S. Okrainskaya
The electrical power consumption in automobiles continues to increase thereby demanding higher power capability of the alternator. The standard alternator today is a claw-pole synchronous machine. The claw-pole alternators have brushes which are maintenance issue; it is not possible to increase power output by increasing the stack length; and the rotor inertia is large due to the steel core and rotor excitation coil. Despite these disadvantages, the claw-pole alternator is still used because of its low cost and ease of manufacturing. An alternator with DC stator excitation, has a laminated salient pole rotor with no excitation coil. Therefore the weight and inertia is less than in the claw-pole alternator. The excitation coil is located in the stator and therefore there are no brushes needed. In this type of alternator, the stator has three-phase output coils evenly shifted in space 120 degrees.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0356
James R. Young, James D. Young
A new CVT and the construction of prototypes are to be described. Objectives include: Highest efficiency Ease of ratio change Large engine power capability Rapid response to torque changes Simple shapes for low manufacturing costs A single disc is arranged transversely between two traction gearing planetaries. The high efficiency of bodies in pure rolling (i.e. without spin) is used to effect clamping forces without the need for auxiliary power. Very little power is used to effect ratio changes because the power being transmitted through the transmission is used to effect the ratio changes in response to a slight change in the lateral position of the disc. A trade-off exists between size and efficiency. Large power capability is possible because there are no members being subjected to centrifugal forces as in belt drives, and because contact conditions involve very little spin losses with their attendant heat limitations as encountered in toroidal types of CVTs. Figure 1
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1550
Ian Czaja, Mohammad Hijawi
Stabilizer bar systems are present in almost every automobile sold today. They are used to tune ride, handling, and steering. This paper surveys the design alternatives for stabilizer bars, bushings, and links. It covers their function, performance, and basic design considerations. In addition, the paper provides an overview of stabilizer bar system reliability planning: ideal function, error states, noise factors, control factors, noise factor management, and validation testing are discussed.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1398
Takayuki Ito, Tomofumi Hosaka, Masato Ueda, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1697
Jürgen Barthlott, Volker Schlechter, Norbert Hoffmann, Dieter Kraft, Uwe Kiencke
Abstract Future vehicle electrical systems will differ substantially from current ones due to rising requirements. For example driver-assistance and drive-by-wire systems will lead to novel and demanding electrical load profiles which in turn will pose new requirements on the electrical system. Furthermore safety concepts, reliability, availability and diagnosis are getting increasingly important in such systems and thus also in the vehicle's electrical system. In order to meet the upcoming requirements new concepts for future vehicle electrical systems have to be developed such that the new powernet is able to adapt flexibly to different situations or failures by routing the energy through different channels. For efficiency the corresponding development process should be based on modeling and simulation techniques. Depending on the design or analysis task, the powernet is represented through different modeling descriptions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1696
Takashi Aoki, Shinichi Okamoto, Osamu Ina, Akio Sugiura, Ryoichi Narita
Up to now, while automobile electric packages have demanded the high density for small and light products, electric leaks, which have occurred due to condensation, have been a major problem. To prevent any electric leaks, a conformal coating on the electric parts (ex. ECU: Electronic Control Unit) has been needed, but in general the design rules of the conformal coating (ex. Application area) is vague. Therefore, DENSO demands to clear the design rules of conformal coating electric package for higher reliability. To meet the demand, DENSO has developed a condensation simulation method using CAE that can show the occurrence condition of condensation fast and accurately. In the result, DENSO has been able to get the design rules where to need the conformal coating in the electric package for automobiles.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1695
Joerg Angstenberger, Viktor Tiederle
The requirements of the link between different applications in the automotive area have been increasing rapidly during the last years. Especially the reliability of the electric/optical interface device for MOST® (Media Oriented System Transport) applications, FOT (fiber optical transceiver), is very important and of concern. The compliance of the required specification (for electrical or optical parameters in the entire environment) is proven by an unique and innovative procedure for automotive components. For the FOT this means also a specific and dedicated qualification procedure to evaluate the portion of the optical data transfer. Today's qualification procedures for semiconductor devices consider electrical and assembly (package) related parameters. The special optical part of the FOT (LED and photodiode) and the accompanying circuits represent a new class of parameters that have to be qualified.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1665
Stefan Benz, Elmar Dilger, Werner Dieterle, Klaus D. Müller-Glaser
For the development of future safety-relevant automotive electronic systems a thorough adaptation of the existing design process is necessary to consider safety and reliability in a more systematic way. In this paper an approach for a new design methodology is presented. It is based on the V-Model which is the established process model for the development of electronic and software systems in the automotive domain. For an advanced consideration of safety and reliability the existing process is extended by a second V (with process elements that have a special focus on safety and reliability) to a “Double V”. The new elements are interconnected with the existing ones at several points of time during the development process. By a defined information exchange between the two Vs continuity in the methodology is guaranteed. Basis for the extension are experiences of the aerospace domain that were adopted to automotive conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1717
Crystal Reul-Chen, Ramon Cabrera, Charles Ross, Nancy L. C. Steele, Arthur Winer
Appropriate vehicle maintenance practices are a critical component to the successful long-term application of diesel particulate filters on heavy-duty vehicles. In a survey of 60 randomly-selected solid waste collection fleets in California we determined the quality of fleet maintenance practices, and ascertained whether a difference exists in the quality of maintenance between three types of fleets: publicly-owned, and large and small privately-owned companies. The fleets, in general, were well maintained, with public fleets consistently ranking above large and small private fleets. These findings are attributed to a number of factors, including time and money available for proper training and vehicle maintenance.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1963
B. Tormos, V. Macián, P. Olmeda, L. Montoro
This paper is structured into two different parts: Firstly, it describes a methodology to evaluate wear conditions in internal combustion engines in order to go beyond the classical evaluation based on specified wear concentration limits provided by engine manufacturers or commercial oil laboratories. The proposed methodology uses spectrometric wear debris measurement data and typical maintenance data to obtain a more representative parameter of wear condition, defined as “compensated wear rate”, that takes into account particular engine operating conditions affecting wear concentration measurements. Later, an evaluation of this compensated wear rate is carried out using statistical criteria and considering individual engine characteristics such as engine age, type of service, engine metallurgy, environmental conditions of work etc.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1248
Y. Rong, S. Yao, X. Han, W. Hu
This paper introduces a comprehensive system of production planning for mass customization of non-rotational parts. The combined features are defined based on the concept of part families. The process parameters are associated with the feature parameters so that a rapid production planning can be achieved for product design changes. Setup planning is carried out based on both the best practice knowledge in industry and the analysis based generation of setups. Manufacturing resource, fixture design, and tolerance issues are considered in the system. The cycle time estimation and standard documentation are included in the system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1220
Albert G. Fonda
This paper continues a previous study of the effects of uncertainty of measurement upon accident reconstruction. The task is to identify, given the many inevitable errors of observation, the few of greatest import, so that these errors may be reduced, and to document the accuracy of the associated reconstruction. Until recently, it was not for lack of method that such studies could not be properly performed, but for lack of good data on uncertainty of measurement. The essential data was provided in 2002 in a report by Bartlett and others of juried studies performed by volunteer field investigators, summarized and supplemented in 2003 by Bartlett and Fonda in the form of a single table of all likely errors of measurement (furnished again here). In that paper, Finite Difference Analysis (FDA) was reviewed and with the aid of the new data was applied to automotive accident reconstruction.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1284
Kyung K. Choi, Byeng D. Youn
This paper presents an enriched performance measure approach (PMA+) for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) to substantially improve computational efficiency when applied to large-scale applications. Three aspects of PMA+ are presented: as a way to launch RBDO at a deterministic optimum design, as an efficient probabilistic feasibility check, and as a fast reliability analysis under the condition of design closeness. It is found that deterministic design optimization helps improve numerical efficiency by reducing some RBDO iterations. Unlike deterministic design optimization, a significant computational burden is imposed on the feasibility check of constraints in the RBDO process due to the costs of a reliability analysis.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0595
Thomas Nagel, Jan Kramer, Manuel Presti, Axel Schatz, Juergen Breuer, John A. Scaparo, Andrew J. Montalbano, Ron Salzman
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements for high mileage durability of emission components make it necessary to ensure the mechanical robustness of metallic catalytic converters. In addition, the robustness of design features must be assessed in the early design development phase without resorting to vehicle fleet testing. By following established reliability methods, a new approach for time and cost efficient accelerated durability testing was developed, which can account for the combined effects of critical stressors of a metallic catalytic converter. This paper describes the methodology used to determine the critical stressors and their levels in actual operating conditions which were determined by analyzing a broad range of vehicle test information. This information was used to develop a temperature profile and a high vibration load profile for the new life test method.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0590
James F. Unruh, Paul D. Till, Robert J. Locker, Constance B. Sawyer
The characterization of the thermal and vibration environment of the exhaust systems of three modern day diesel engines, with displacements ranging from 1.9 liter to 12.7 liter, was carried out to support the development of exhaust after treatment components. Tri-axial accelerometer and in pipe thermocouple measurements were recorded at several locations along the exhaust systems during vehicle acceleration and steady driving conditions up to 70 mph. The vehicles were loaded to various gross weight configurations to provide a wide range of engine load conditions. Narrow band and octave band vibration power spectral densities are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the spectral content of the exhaust vibration environment and its distribution along the exhaust system. Temperature time histories during vehicle acceleration runs are likewise presented to indicate expected peak exhaust temperatures.
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