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Viewing 1 to 30 of 13524
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0041
Jih Houh Lee, Horizon Gitano, Hock Seng Eu, Ahmad Syazli Mohd Khalil
Existing drive cycles do not correlate well with actual drive cycles in developing countries due to differences in vehicle mixes, and traffic flow patterns. Several distinct drive cycles were identified in Malaysia namely the urban, suburban, rural, highway and delivery drive cycles. Several methods were used in generating drive cycles including direct observation, motorcyclist surveys, vehicle shadowing with on-board wheel speed measurement and data logging. These drive cycles were compared to existing European, United States, world harmonized motorcycle drive cycles and evaluated for fuel consumption. Results indicate that the Malaysian drive cycles are capable predicting actual vehicle fuel mileage within +/− 10% for a wide range of vehicles, while the European drive cycle results in a 20%deviation from the actual vehicle fuel mileage.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0048
Jih Houh Lee, Chew Liang Chong, Horizon Gitano
It is difficult to obtain accurate fuel consumption data for privately owned in-use vehicles. This study aims to directly measure fuel consumption and the various parameters which affect fuel consumption from in-use vehicles via various methods. Motorcycle power demands were determined from measured frontal area, vehicle mass, rider and payload mass, tire pressure. Both worst case and best case scenarios of load, tire pressure and frontal area were measured for aerodynamic and rolling resistance via the roll-down technique. Measured data points for typical motorcycles fall within the established best- and worst-case scenarios, and an “average case” is selected for vehicle testing. Several common motorcycles models are tested for their fuel consumption at the established “average load” case. Additionally, this typical load case is coupled with the ECER40 drive cycle pattern for estimates of field fuel consumption from chassis dynamometer testing.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2311
Eric A. Fedewa, Charles Chesbrough
There is a profound sense of urgency among leading industrialized nations: governments recognize that massive reductions in carbon emissions are required if we are to limit climate change in an era of ever-increasing global population growth and increasing affluence. They may also believe that the auto industry can deliver more carbon reduction faster at a lower absolute and political cost than other industries. Continued investment on the part of governments and the auto industry to create a viable model for sustainable mobility and vehicle electrification in the 2010 – 2020 timeframe should help drive transport-related carbon emissions down to the 60-90 grams/kilometer level, from 130-155 grams today, and contribute to an overall 20-30 percent reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2328
Jinming Yang, Jason Bauman, Al Beydoun
An effective methodology for design verification and product validation is always a key to high quality products. As many body control applications are currently implemented across multiple ECUs distributed on one or more vehicle networks, verification and validation of vehicle-level user functions will require availability of both the vehicle networks and multiple ECUs involved in the implementation of the user functions. While the ECUs are usually developed by different suppliers and vehicle networks' infrastructure and communication protocols are normally maintained and developed by the OEM, each supplier will be faced with a similar challenge - the ECU being developed cannot be fully verified and tested until all other ECUs and their communication networks are available in the final development stage.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2132
Thummarat Thummadetsak, Chonchada Tipdecho, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Pakasit Monnum
To promote utilization of renewable fuels in transportation sector, the Thai government has actively sought to obtain higher-ratio ethanol blends in gasoline as early as 2007, at which time E85 was introduced and fuel specifications were determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate E85 fuel performance in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) with considerations for tailpipe emissions, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde emissions, evaporative emission and vehicle performance. These findings will aid future research in ethanol blends. All tests were conducted utilizing three Volvo S40 FFVs and four specific ethanol blend fuels: E10, E20, E50 and E85 (E-Fuels, collectively). Tailpipe emission tests were conducted in full compliance with Thailand Industrial Standard Institute; TIS 2160 - 2546 (Euro 3 legislation).
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2016
Mohamed Khalil
In this paper the study is directed to a condition-based predictive maintenance concept as an alternative policy to determine a fleet's health, for increasing the fleet availability and to reduce the operating cost. The concept is based on predicting the system degradation by using an expert system. Therefore, the decision-maker can calculate the remaining lifetime for any mechanical system. These calculations help the decision-maker in making a repair or replacement decision in a suitable time. An application is presented herein on the cylinder kit components (piston, piston rings and liner) to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique. The results indicate that knowing the wear between the cylinder kit components in automotive engines is very important to plan the maintenance for making the repair or replacement decision in a suitable time.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2021
Zhixin Liu, Hong Chen, Yongwan Shi, Xiaolong Zhang
Although the chance that occupant's upper limbs were injured is decreased significantly in frontal crash with the popularization of safety belt and airbag, the injury problem of occupant's chest is still most frequent and fatal in traffic accidents. 37 groups of data of C-NCAP crash tests including full frontal crash and offset frontal crash tests were investigated in this paper. The chest injury distributing characteristic of drivers and passengers in these two kinds of crash configurations were obtained, and the effect rules of characteristic parameters on chest injury were summarized.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0408
Qiang Zhang, Henry Hu
In the past decade, magnesium (aluminum) alloy use in the automotive industry has increased in order to reduce vehicle weight and fuel consumption. However, their applications are usually limited to temperatures of up to 120°C. Improvements in the high-temperature mechanical properties of magnesium alloys would greatly expand their industrial applications. As compared to the unreinforced monolithic metal, metal matrix composites have been recognized to possess superior mechanical properties, such as high elastic modulus and strengths as well as enhanced wear resistance. In this study, a novel approach of making hybrid preforms with two or more types reinforcements, i.e., different size particles and fibers, for magnesium-based composites was developed. An advanced and affordable technique of fabricating hybrid magnesium-based composites called the preform-squeeze casting was employed successfully.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0407
Jafar Albinmousa, Adrian Pascu, Hamid Jahed, M.F. Horstemeyer, Alan Luo, D. Chen, Steve Lambert, J. Jordon, S. Begum, Xuming Su, Q.Q. Duan, Richard Osborne, Z. Zhang, Lin Zhang, T. Luo, Yuansheng Yang
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0410
Alan A. Luo, Joy Forsmark, Xichen Sun, Scott Shook
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0409
John Jekl, Richard D. Berkmortel, Paula Armstrong
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how flow and solidification simulation were used in the development of a new gating system design for three different magnesium alloys; and to determine the relative castability of each alloy based on casting trials. Prototype tooling for an existing 3-slide rear wheel drive automatic transmission case designed for aluminum A380 was provided by General Motors. Flow and solidification simulation were performed using Magmasoft on the existing runner system design using A380 (baseline), AE44, MRI153M and MRI230D. Based on the filling results, new designs were developed at Meridian for the magnesium alloys. Subsequent modeling was performed to verify the new design and the changes were incorporated into the prototype tool. Casting trials were conducted with the three magnesium alloys and the relative castability was evaluated.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0412
Jonathan Robert Burns, Henry Hu, Xueyuan Nie, Lihong Han
Powertrain applications of alloy AJ62 arose from its comparative resistance to high temperature deformation among magnesium alloys. In this research, AJ62 permanent-mould cast in different section thicknesses was subjected to immersion corrosion in commercially-available engine coolant. The objective was to determine corrosion behaviour variation among casting thicknesses. Corrosion product accumulation suggests passive film formation, and unlike in other media, the film exhibits certain stability. Extreme thicknesses were used to generate polarization curves for their respective microstructures in engine coolant. Variation with casting section thickness was observed in the curves. These preliminary results indicate coarsened microstructures reduce corrosion resistance of the permanent mold cast AJ62 alloy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0411
Behzad Behravesh, Lei Liu, Hamid Jahed, Stephen Lambert, Grzegorz Glinka, Norman Zhou
Interest in magnesium, as the lightest engineering metal, has increased in the automotive industry as a result of requirements for lighter and cleaner vehicles. Resistance spot welding (RSW) is already the predominant mode of fabrication in this industry, and the fatigue of spot welded magnesium sheet must be studied. In this study, the tensile and fatigue strength of resistance spot welded AZ31 Mg alloy was studied. Three sets of tensile shear spot welded specimens were prepared with different welding parameters to achieve different nugget sizes. Metallographic examination revealed grain size changes from the base material (BM) to heat affected zone (HAZ) to the fusion zone (FZ). Monotonic tensile and fatigue tests were conducted and the effect of nugget size on tensile shear and fatigue strength was discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0397
Victor Calagias
Companies are often faced with periods of fluctuating product demand that can make it difficult to maximize the usage of their capacity and resources. This makes it challenging to realize potential profit and can even have detrimental effects on the bottom line. Developing flexibility strategies to react to fluctuations in demand allows a manufacturer to dynamically adjust capacity and resources to keep costs under control. This project was pursued at a diesel engine manufacturer for two older product lines experiencing consistently declining volumes. The volumes were declining due to this company releasing newer products in the market, and the current economic downturn. There was also an expectation to eventually phase out these two engines after approximately five years. A project team was formed to address these challenges starting with defining the project scope, setting up the team and a cross-functional project structure, and developing work packages with a master timeline.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0398
Ravi Anand
OEE or Overall Equipment Effectiveness is the metric that ties machine availability, performance and part quality together. OEE is calculated using the formula, OEE = Machine Availability x Machine Performance x Quality of parts produced by the machine. The ideal value for plant OEE is 100% which means all machines have zero downtime, full availability and are not making any non conforming parts. Studies show that average OEE in the manufacturing industry is about 60% whereas world class OEE is 85%. Most manufacturers have room for improving their OEE. In order to improve OEE, this metric needs to be monitored for all machines or equipment in the plant. And there is nothing simpler than a dashboard to monitor OEE for plant equipment.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0399
Sachin Jain
Organizations spend millions of dollars on analytical and simulation inventory models to optimize inventory across the supply chain. However, these methods are expensive, difficult to implement and fail to capture all the requirements for defining inventory levels across supply chain. The effect of planned and unplanned equipment downtime, a key factor, is not properly utilized in these models. Many methods use standard statistical distributions, which do not fully capture downtime characteristics of an operation. This may lead to inaccurate computation of inventory sizes. The purpose of this paper is to communicate a new analytical approach of defining inventory levels which is robust enough to consider non-normal distributions associated with equipment downtime. The proposed method is easy to use, less time consuming and can be adapted quickly with changing operational dynamics. The method is based on utilizing equipment performance data to scientifically compute inventory levels.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0400
Mohamed El-Sayed
Implementing the lean principles and tools in manufacturing has been successful in many companies. This success has led to different implementations, of these principles, in other organizational activities such as design and management. While these implementations can produce some improvements, the segmentation of the product development processes in most company limits the potential for achieving the desired goals and in some cases the success of the implementation process itself. In other words, full success of lean principles implementation cannot be achieved when applied to isolated segments of the product development process. This paper addresses lean design, in the context of a fully integrated product realization process. The paper discusses the integrated nature of any product realization process and its flow from concept to production.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0401
Ashok Patidar
In a very competitive environment, product development in automobile industry needs to be fast paced with best in quality to stay ahead in the race. Therefore a clear understanding of customer requirements is essential in successful design and development of systems. Failure in any system development step can result in costly design and tooling changes, schedule delays and ultimately, customer dissatisfaction. A team was formed to design and develop an automotive system by applying Design for Six Sigma Green Belt methods and tools. The hypothesis of this study was that a substantial opportunity exists to increase project efficiency while providing what customer wants, by following a standardized statistical work practice for managing requirements throughout the life of product development using the methodology of Design for Six Sigma DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify). In this paper an automotive HVAC system is designed following DFSS methodology.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0403
Kumar Sadayappan, Michael Vassos
Thixomolding® is a semi-solid metal-molding process used to produce magnesium alloy components. The component quality is claimed to be high due to the low speed non-turbulent filling experienced in the thixomolding process. Parts of AM60 alloy were produced in a USAMP/DOE funded and directed project to demonstrate economic production of quality large thin wall, structural magnesium component using thixomolding. The selected application was the Ford F-150 shotgun; the structural connection between the A-pillar and the radiator support structure, and produced by G-Mag International. Test pieces were assessed through radiography and mechanical testing. The properties of the shot-gun casting were compared to those of experimental plate castings. Properties of the large casting were found to have a higher level of scatter compared to plate castings which can be attributed to the gas entrapment and oxide inclusions. The results are presented and discussed in this publication.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0404
Okechukwu Anopuo, Yuanding Huang, Norbert Hort, Hajo Dieringa, Karl Ulrich Kainer
Understanding the creep and bolt load retention (BLR) behavior of promising Mg-Al alloys are crucial to developing elevated temperature resistance alloys. This is especially true for elevated temperature automotive applications with a prevalence of bolted joints. In this study, creep and fastener clamp load response of Mg-Al alloy AS41 was investigated and compared to that of Mg4Al and AS41 micro-alloyed with 0.15 % Ca. A compliance-creep approach was used to model the response of these Mg-Al alloys at bolted joints. The equation prediction of the BLR response and experimental results are in good agreement. AS41+0.15 Ca shows improved creep and BLR properties up to 175°C. A correlation between the microstructures, creep and BLR results reveal that the formation of a ternary CaMgSi phase is responsible for the improved elevated temperature behavior.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0461
Steven J. Szwabowski, Perry MacNeille, Ilya V. Kolmanovsky, Dimitar Filev
Increasing electronics content, growing computing power, and proliferation of opportunities for information connectivity (through improved sensors, GPS, road and traffic information systems, wireless internet access, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, etc.) are technology trends which can significantly transform and impact future automotive vehicle's control and diagnostic strategies. One aspect of the increasing vehicle connectivity is access to ambient and road condition information, such as ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, % cloudiness, visibility, cloud ceiling, precipitation, rain droplet size, wind speed, and wind direction based on wireless internet access. The paper discusses the potential opportunities made available through wireless communication between the vehicle and the internet.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0482
Rogelio González Oropeza, Stephen Samuel, Ahmed El-geushey Hassaneen, Francisco González-González, Fernando García-Puertos
The present work attempted to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using conventional diesel fuel with mixtures of animal and vegetable derived bio-diesel that are available in Mexico and ultra low sulphur diesel with varying proportions. This work aimed at studying the performance of the engine at representative ambient conditions of Mexico City which is at an altitude of 2240m above sea level. The work identified that the levels of CO in the exhaust has a strong correlation with the proportion of bio-diesel in the conventional diesel fuel used. However, the performance of the engine, torque and power, are not affected significantly by varying the proportion of animal and bio-derived fuels in diesel fuel. In addition it also identified the correlation between the proportions of bio-diesel in diesel with the engine out particulate matter and the performance of diesel oxidation catalyst.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0260
Rachel Strauss, Megan Bland, Adam Biddle, Matthew P. Reed
As passenger car use becomes more common in developing countries, the number of child passengers killed and injuries also increases. Rates of child restraint use appear to be much lower in developing countries than in the U.S. or Europe. One barrier to increased restraint use is the relatively high cost of child restraints in low- and middle-income countries, where the cost of child restraints can be similar to the U.S. but incomes and typical vehicle prices are much lower. As part of a broader effort to improve child passenger safety worldwide, a team at the University of Michigan has begun development of a child restraint that is intended to be fabricated using low-cost technology in developing countries with minimal capital investment. Providing a design that has been tested successfully to regulatory standards may reduce barriers to entry and allow the restraints to be marketed at low prices.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0519
Tayseer Aldaghlas, Christine Burke, Michael J. Sheridan, Greg W. Stadter, Dan Hanfling, Margaret Griffen, Anne Rizzo
Background: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of death for ages 2-34 years. Rollover (RO) is defined as any vehicle rotation of ≥90° about any longitudinal or lateral axis occurring. The purpose of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of RO mechanism as the sole triage criteria. Methods: Detailed patient injury, demographics, costs and crash information were obtained on patients ≻16 years and seen at an ACS COT-verified level I trauma center from 2007-2008. Analysis was performed using SPSS v 17. Results: 257 RO crash occupants were treated at this study center. The frequency of AIS ≤2 in these RO occupants was 74%. 62% (133/214) of patients triaged as partial TTA (PTTA) were discharged from the emergency department (ED), whereas all full TTA (FTTA) patients were admitted. 60% of all RO patients were reported to have utilized seat belts. Seat belt use decreased the risk of injury by four-fold (95% CI, 2.14-8.01).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0678
Patrick Garcia, Jan-Friedrich Brand, John Drogosz
The Rybnik Eng Center was reactivated at the beginning of 2008. One of the objectives of this new center is to develop the lean spirit and to directly apply it to the new center. Two years have now passed and these 2 papers give the opportunity to review the current status and to reflect on the lessons learned so far on our lean journey. The 2 papers are structured around people, processes and tools. The first paper focuses on the people, the second one on the processes and the tools. Some great progress has been made in the different areas of application including: - Processes: Some key engineering processes in Testing, CAD, CAE and prototype shop were thoroughly investigated and improved. Especially the quality of the outputs and significant reductions in lead times have been achieved. - Tools and Technologies: Tenneco worked on both aspects, the soft and hard tools. Soft tools are covering visual management which allows a better alignment.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0679
Patrick Garcia, Jan-Friedrich Brand, John Drogosz
The Rybnik Engineering Center was reinforced at the beginning of 2008. One aim of this new center has been to develop the lean spirit and to directly apply it to the new center. Two years have now passed and these 2 papers give the opportunity to review the current status and to reflect on the lessons learned so far on our lean journey. The 2 papers are structured around people, processes and tools. The first paper focuses on people which arguably represents the most challenging aspect of the development of an R& D center abroad. One the key objectives of 2008-09 was to develop the engineering skills required to take over full customer projects. This target was especially challenging given the operating conditions, operation and capital expedites have been drastically reduced to the very severe downturn of the automotive industry in 2008. The first paper concentrates on the processes how to identify, hire, train and retain people.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0675
Joseph Heinzman
Labor shortages will occur as the Boomer generation exits the workforce. Generational differences will complicate the staffing and retention of younger employees as the vacancies are filled. The study concludes that management prescriptive strategies must be developed and implemented to create a stable workplace and to improve organizational retention and performance.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0668
Joachim Loechner, Vivek Jaikamal, William Fleming
The process of developing new functions and software for powertrain embedded control units (ECUs) is undergoing a sea change. One of the reasons is the pressure to meet regulatory requirements (e.g. emissions, fuel economy) in addition to managing the normal growth in software complexity. Traditionally, the vehicle manufacturer (OEM) would write new specifications and hand them over to the software supplier (Tier1). This process required a substantial review and testing process at the OEM to ensure that the requirements were interpreted and implemented as indented. Today, a number of parties are involved in creating specifications (including the software supplier and 3rd party engineering companies), thus making the verification task even more complex.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0681
Gene Dixon
This paper describes research into the relationship of emotional intelligence, emotion regulation, and follower behaviors. The research is part of an ongoing initiative to recognize and understand followers in the transportation and service industries. Behavioral complexities such as emotions are paramount in the intricacies of management and leadership and are widely studied. Emotional intelligence has become a standard concept in business settings while its predictive powers relative to personnel performance forecasting abilities are still being researched. An ability to interact with a diverse employee population, a complex environment, and multifaceted decision requirements would seemingly require leaders and followers to have a fully developed emotional presence. This presence is necessary for workers at all levels to be able to accommodate unpredictability, demonstrate adaptability, and perform flexibly within the workplace.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0655
Greg Wallace, Andrew P. Jackson, Stephen P. Midson
A turbocharger essentially consists of a turbine and an impeller wheel connected on a common shaft. The turbocharger converts waste energy from the exhaust into compressed air, which is pushed into an engine to produce more power and torque, as well as improving the overall efficiency of the combustion process. The compression ratio for modern diesel engines can be up to 5:1, which can be only achieved using a complex impeller design and very high rotation speeds (up to 150,000 rpm for small impellers). The complex geometry and very high running speeds of impellers creates high stresses at locations such as blade roots and around the bore, and so impellers normally fail from fatigue. Therefore, it is vital to minimize defects while fabricating turbocharger impellers. Current methods for producing aluminum turbocharger impellers are plaster casting or by forging + machining. However, both of these current methods have serious drawbacks.
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