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Viewing 1 to 30 of 6307
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0461
Steven J. Szwabowski, Perry MacNeille, Ilya V. Kolmanovsky, Dimitar Filev
Increasing electronics content, growing computing power, and proliferation of opportunities for information connectivity (through improved sensors, GPS, road and traffic information systems, wireless internet access, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, etc.) are technology trends which can significantly transform and impact future automotive vehicle's control and diagnostic strategies. One aspect of the increasing vehicle connectivity is access to ambient and road condition information, such as ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, % cloudiness, visibility, cloud ceiling, precipitation, rain droplet size, wind speed, and wind direction based on wireless internet access. The paper discusses the potential opportunities made available through wireless communication between the vehicle and the internet.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0651
Przemyslaw Siminski
One of the priority for military force is modern land platform development. Similar goal is in European Defense Agency, there plan to future fighting vehicles develop. The paper present simulation research of future wheeled Armored Fighting Vehicles. The paper included original simulation model for AFV taking in consideration EBS and ABS systems and simulation test result for typical road test also present experimental verification. Experimental research studies of vehicles are of high cognitive importance. However, they are expensive, time-consuming and sometimes dangerous, especially when they refer to edge safety parameters of a vehicle motion. Their scope can be limited if researchers conducting the studies have at their disposal a mathematical model of the vehicle motion and dynamics and a simulation program allowing for carrying out research in “virtual space.” A start-up of the simulation process requires gathering a relevant and require amount of data.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0689
Joseph J. LaRussa, Michael Gabel
With regard to the use of portable consumer electronic devices in an automobile, Bluetooth has become a widely accepted method for short range wireless communication between a vehicle and a portable device. One Bluetooth connectivity protocol for this use case is Audio/Visual Remote Control Profile (AVRCP). Currently, AVRCP specifies mandatory commands for both target devices (cellular phones and audio players), as well as for control devices like an audio head unit. However, there is no requirement that control devices and target devices implement the same commands, nor is there a requirement that supported commands utilize information that would be useful in improving the driver's experience (i.e. metadata). This paper will describe the impact of this reality from the perspective of the automotive consumer, and propose an “automotive grade” AVRCP that could provide a more consistent consumer experience in the automotive market.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0095
Gurkan Erdogan, Sanghyun Hong, Francesco Borrelli, Karl Hedrick
Intelligent tires are envisioned to be an important part of the future vehicle control systems and the three dimensional wireless MEMS accelerometers embedded inside the tire stand out as a promising candidate for the development of intelligent tires. The first part of the paper focuses on accelerometer based tire sensors for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We use a simple tire finite element model to generate lateral, tangential and radial tire accelerations for a fixed load and slip angle. The profiles are validated by using experimental data. The simulated acceleration profiles are used for the estimation of slip angle and tire/road friction coefficient. We present the estimation algorithms, promising simulative results and output sensitivities studies focused on the effects of changes in normal load, tire pressure and vehicle velocity.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0584
Hariharan Krishnan, Andre Weimerskirch
In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0580
Joseph Kelly, Peter Broen, Jordan Silberling, Nenad Bozin, John Zellner
As Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACATs) such as Forward Collision Warning (FCW), Crash Imminent Braking Systems and other advanced technologies continue to be developed, the need for full-scale test methodologies which can minimize hazards to test personnel and damage to equipment has rapidly increased. The challenge of evaluating such ACAT systems is twofold. First, the evaluation system must be able to deliver a potential Collision Partner (CP) reliably and precisely along a trajectory which would ultimately result in a crash in a variety of configurations, such as rear-ends, head-ons, crossing paths, and sideswipes. Second, and more importantly, the collision partner must not pose a substantial physical risk to the test driver, other test personnel, equipment, or to test vehicles in the event that the collision is not avoided.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0577
Christopher Edwards, Jon Hankey, Raymond Kiefer, Donald Grimm, Nina Leask
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication systems can enable a number of wireless-based vehicle features that can improve traffic safety, driver convenience, roadway efficiency, and facilitate many types of in-vehicle services. These systems have an extended communication range that can provide drivers with information about the position and movements of nearby V2Vequipped vehicles. Using this technology, these vehicles are able to communicate roadway events that are beyond the driver's view and provide advisory information that will aid drivers in avoiding collisions or congestion ahead. Given a typical communication range of 300 meters, drivers can potentially receive information well in advance of their arrival to a particular location. The timing and nature of presenting V2V information to the driver will vary depending on the nature and criticality of the scenario.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0586
Farid Ahmed-Zaid, Hariharan Krishnan, Michael Maile, Lorenzo Caminiti, Sue Bai, Joseph Stinnett, Steve VanSickle, Drew Cunningham
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0745
Roger King
A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) facilitates the embedding of computational intelligence, communication, control, and new mechanisms for sensing and actuation into physical systems, such as the transportation infrastructure. They are a combination of computation and physical processes each affecting the outcome of the other. The wireless networked CPS sensors are envisaged to provide rapid response capabilities such as real time analysis, distributed coordination, classify events, condition based maintenance etc, to make critical decisions in networked transportation systems. To achieve the above it is required to fuse data from multiple heterogeneous sensors data. However, such ability is currently impeded by a lack of expressive and standardized syntactic and semantic models for the sensors data for proper exchange of information with the cyber and physical applications.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0747
Craig Robinson, Luca Delgrossi
This paper describes in detail a prototype safety system presented at the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) World Congress held in New York, NY in 2008. This system relies on real-time information broadcast from the intersection and received by the vehicle over a dedicated wireless channel to detect potential red light violations. Audible and visual warnings in the vehicle are used to alert the driver. If these warnings are ignored and a red light violation is imminent, the vehicle brakes automatically and comes to a safe stop before entering the intersection. Furthermore, this system is integrated with existing in-vehicle safety features with pre-crash and brake assist functionality. Pre-crash safety features are activated as an additional precaution, to reduce impact energy and protect the vehicle occupants in case of an unavoidable collision.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0837
Richard A. Scholer, Arindam Maitra, Efrain Ornelas, Michael Bourton, Jose Salazar
This paper is the first in a series of documents designed to record the progress of the SAE J2293 Task Force as it continues to develop and refine the communication requirements between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Utility Grid. In February, 2008 the SAE Task Force was formed and it started by reviewing the existing SAE J2293 standard, which was originally developed by the Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Controls Task Force in the 1990s. This legacy standard identified the communication requirements between the Electric Vehicle (EV) and the EV Supply Equipment (EVSE), including off-board charging systems necessary to transfer DC energy to the vehicle. It was apparent at the first Task Force meeting that the communications requirements between the PEV and utility grid being proposed by industry stakeholders were vastly different in the type of communications and messaging documented in the original standard.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1183
Pedro Neves, Bernardo Ribeiro, Andre Dias
Connectivity and systems integration together with weight and production cost reduction are among the main objectives of the automotive industry in electric vehicles development in particular, when concerns with smart grids integration and interoperability increases. At the same time vehicle systems reliability plays an important role as a decisive factor for market acceptance. Conventional automotive electrical systems comprehend a central ECU, with radial wiring harness architecture with power and signal cables. A different architecture is proposed with the aim of vehicle cable mass and cost reduction, simplification and increased reliability of the whole electrical control system. With this architecture there's also the aim to provide computing and communications capability to each electric component in a distributed way, in order to enable its integration with external systems like smart phones, networking services and smart grids.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9093
Rodrigo Mayer de Ávila, Milton Borsato
Facing a competitive and globalized market and with increasingly demanding customers, companies must constantly seek the development of practices in the development of new products. One of the current practices is the adoption of modularity. In that sense, the objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis of this practice in a Brazilian company, which manufactures agricultural machinery. The applicability of modular design in current products is focused. Therefore, a case study approach has been chosen. First, a review of the scientific literature was conducted, followed by field research, for collecting data based on interviews with product engineers and technical documentation. The case study shows the applicability of the modular design concept in a combine header, by increasing the number of repeated components. The modular header approach facilitates the implementation of engineering changes and allows greater standardization of components.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2398
Mahendra Muli, Jace Allen
The Model-Based Development (MBD) process has been the key enabler of technical advancement. MBD helps manage complexity, while making product development faster by bringing clarity and transparency to the entire product development process, specifically software components. Developing software using MBD has required extensive, sophisticated toolchains, like the ones provided by dSPACE, that allow for efficient rapid controls prototyping, automatic code generation, and advanced validation and verification techniques with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems. MBD is an efficient iterative process that allows engineers to improve quality and deliver on demanding needs of product variants in the current competitive environment. However, the MBD process described commonly using the ‘V-Cycle’ diagram leads to the generation of large volumes of data artifacts and work products. The iterative process, variants and versions of these artifacts lead to even larger amounts of data.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0204
Syed Masud Mahmud, Shobhit Shanker, Srinivas Reddy Mosra
The study done by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) shows that developing automotive collision warning and avoidance systems will be very effective for reducing fatalities, injuries and associated costs. In order to develop an automotive collision warning and avoidance system, it will be necessary that the vehicles should be able to exchange (in real time) their dynamic information such as speed, acceleration, direction, relative position, etc. The only way to exchange the vehicles' dynamic information will be through wireless communications. The communication links among vehicles must be secured. Otherwise, hackers may inject some misleading data into the inter-vehicle messages to make the vehicle systems malfunction. In this paper, we have presented a technique for exchanging vehicles' dynamic information in a secure mode. We also investigated the feasibility of implementing secure inter-vehicle communication links using today's technology.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0068
Vladimir Rasin, Dave McNamara, Craig Simonds, Frank Perry, Gary Streelman
Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0001
Richard C. Lind, Huan W. Yen, Douglas L. Welk
The evolution of car radio in the past seven decades is a perfect illustration of the convergence of diverse technical fields: RF electronics, mobile wireless communications, the Internet, personal computers, consumer electronics, and automotive human machine interfaces. The early part of the radio evolution was driven by the need to improve the received audio signal quality while in the past two decades the driver has been to increase the channel capacity and to enhance the degree of personalization. Besides traditional AM/FM programming, today's radios also play a variety of media such as cassette tape, CD, MP3, DVD-A etc. as well as over 100 channels of satellite digital audio programs. Going forward, we believe that the radio will continue to be the entertainment center of the vehicle, and that the consumers are expecting to have access to personalized information anywhere and anytime.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0004
Kumar Ramaswamy, Jeff Cooper
This paper addresses technical and business issues relating to delivering multimedia content to automobiles using Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Content delivery in the home and hot -spots are discussed. Two key delivery mechanisms - downloading and streaming are addressed and solutions proposed to reliably deliver content over the WLAN infrastructure. A key factor is the use of efficient video compression. Recent advances in video compression will be introduced and issues relating to encoding and decoding complexity will be discussed. Solutions to security and content protection are also addressed. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible business models.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0005
Robert Struble, Joseph D'Angelo, Jeffrey McGannon, David Salemi
AM and FM Radio has long been the primary source of mobile entertainment and information. Radio's conversion to digital broadcasting through deployment of the FCC approved HD Radio technology with drive new and innovative telematics services. In the digital world, the radio will be transformed to a centralized source of expanded entertainment and information services along with enhanced in-vehicle systems. At a fraction of the cost of other wireless services, HD Radio technology will provide platform-specific customer retention information, real-time traffic for navigation system overlay, PVR-like functionality, on-demand audio, mobile commerce and much more, dramatically upgrading automobile manufacturers' ability to reach and profit from radio's 200 million listeners per day.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3460
Emanuel Luiz dos Santos, Josemar Pires dos Santos
SUMMARY The Integrated System for Electronic Treatment of Data (TED) seeks to create a tool of decision to allow the information/action in real time on the main monitoring levels for the main product and process controls in a factory of automobiles. It can be applied to any control, since the equipment presents digital exit RS232. TED represents a digital control chart that allows to take decisions with statistical base without the manual operational mistakes. It is a portable and light equipment, which include the all computer resources adapted for the end that is requested. It is includes by a Module Collector (hand held computer) that is connected to a control device to capture the measured value, in order to accomplish the analysis of the results, and to guide the operator to the actions as a expert system.
2004-06-15
Technical Paper
2004-01-2155
C. Ferreira, I. Fragoso, F. Vieira, C. Barrigas, C. Oliveira, L. Silva
The human databases play a vital role regarding different areas. In the last 20 years Kinanthropometry has grown as a scientific discipline in the Faculty of Human Kinetics. As a result of this growth, a huge amount of data of youngsters between 3 and 18 years has been stored. A group of different model applications was created to help the storage, the search of each variable and the treatment of information. Firstly a Database was developed to allow a fast research of information and some small treatments. To allow more specific and complex treatments some applications were developed.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9035
Yen-Chun Lai
On electric vehicle monitoring, there is no application layer standard to support the wireless communication. As a developing target, there are more varieties on the signal combination as the modules or unit carried by an electric vehicle change. Protocols between the transmission unit and the reception server are made to change frequently, so are the programs on both the transmission unit and the reception server, and results in the difficulty to the development and maintenance of the whole system. Since electric motorcycle and electric bicycle are also developing with hybrid type, same problems would occur to them. It would be favorable to find a protocol with endurance to such variability. ASN.1 is introduced as a valuable candidate. An effort is made to apply ASN.1 to wireless communication of electric vehicle, to see how well it is to adjust to the variability of signals.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0064
Paulo Bosquiero Zanetti
Data analysis is an important way to validate and optimize engineering's designs. With the development of wireless transmission systems, race cars use telemetry as a solution to measure the car's behavior by the analysis of acquired data. Wireless communication systems provide the possibility to analyze data in real-time situations, allowing tactical decision making based on the vehicle's embedded signals interpretation. This paper intends to describe the design process of a wireless data transmission system applied to a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on the prototyping microcontroller Arduino™ and the radio-transmission module Xbee®, the wireless transmission system here described is capable of transmitting 16 analog and 54 digital embedded signals and can be easily adapted for the user's requirements, through the system's open-source characteristics.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0108
Carlos Bustamante, Eduard Mateu, Jesús Hernández, Álvaro Arrúe
By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and with the roadside elements (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, V2I) by means of mobile and wireless communication. In this context, the INTELVIA project was implemented, with the clear objective of developing ITS technologies and Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) to obtain the advantages of using information and communication technologies in the field of road transport and traffic management.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0892
Teresa Donateo, Damiano Pacella, Domenico Laforgia
An adaptative energy management strategy for series hybrid electric vehicles based on optimized maps and the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) predictor is presented here. The first step of the investigation is the off line optimization of the control strategy parameters (already developed by the authors) over a series of reference mini driving cycles (duration of 60s) obtained from standard driving cycles (UDDS, EUDC, etc) and realistic driving cycles acquired on the ITAN500 HEV. The optimal variables related to each mini driving cycle are stored in maps that are then implemented on the ITAN500 vehicles. When the vehicle moves, a wireless card is used to exchange information with surrounding vehicle and infrastructure. These information are used by a local instance of the SUMO traffic prediction tool (run on board) to predict the driving conditions of the HEV in the future period of time T=60s.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1045
Arkadeb Ghosal, Fan Bai, Rami Debouk, Haibo Zeng
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications are gaining increasing importance in automotive research and engineering domains. The novel communication scheme is targeted to improve driver safety (e.g., forward collision warnings) and comfort (e.g., routing to avoid congestion, automatic toll collection etc.). Features exploiting these communication schemes are still in the early stages of research and development. However, growing attention to system wide infrastructure - in terms of OEM collaboration on interface standardization, protocol standardization, and government supported road/wireless infrastructure - will lead to popularity of such features in the future. This paper focuses on evaluating reliability and safety/integrity of data communicated over the wireless channels for early design verification. Analysis of a design can be done based on formal models, simulation, emulation, and testing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1366
Jacqueline Denise Adams, Christopher Alan Schlaupitz, Christopher J. Lucarelli
As advanced battery systems become a standard choice for mainstream production vehicle portfolios, comprehensive battery system validation plans are essential to ensure that the battery performance, reliability, and durability targets are met prior to vehicle integration. (Note: Safety and Abuse testing are outside of the scope of this paper.) The validation plan for the Chevrolet Volt Rechargeable_Energy Storage System (RESS), the first lithium-ion battery pack designed and manufactured by General Motors (GM), was developed using a functional silo approach based on the battery design requirements documentation. While the Chevrolet Volt was the lead program at General Motors to use this validation plan development approach, other GM programs with different battery system mounting locations and cooling techniques are now using this method.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0040
André Weimerskirch
Data security was introduced to vehicles in the 1980's with the electronic theft protection system. Since then data security was also implemented in further electronic systems of vehicles, including theft protection for electronic control units, protection of mileage counter integrity, protection against software manipulation (secure flashing), and secure wireless on-board diagnoses (e.g. via Bluetooth). Vehicles include more and more electronic systems and open communication channels based on public standards, making them vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Security mitigation mechanisms are implemented in software and might be supported by a controller with basic security features. Recently, research was started to centralize security features in a single dedicated security controller. This security controller implements cryptographic methods and provides tamper resistance.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0046
Fan Bai, Donald Grimm, Tim Talty, Cem Saraydar
The future deployment of safety-oriented Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) technology may be hindered due to the so-called “Market Penetration” problem: as a wireless network built from scratch, there is lack of value to consumers who are early adopters. In this paper, we explore potential applications that can be supported during the initial phase of vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) deployment, i.e., sparsely populated VANETs. We show that delay-insensitive information sharing applications are promising since they only require opportunistic network connections (in contrast to safety applications that require “always on” connectivity). This is done via “gossip spread” information distribution protocols by which DSRC vehicles cache and then exchange the information while in range of other DSRC vehicles or road side units. This approach is especially attractive since the number of communicating vehicles will be very small during early deployment years.
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