Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 39419
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0073
Ryo Yamauchi, Satoshi Ishizuka, Nobuaki Suzuki
The exhaust gas is getting to higher temperature in order to adapt higher power and lower fuel consumption of the engines, and the exhaust manifolds tends to use in more severe conditions. The exhaust manifolds of 660cc engines of the turbo specification had been made of the high-Si spheroidal graphite cast iron containing a small amount of Mo so far, but now it cannot help using Ni-resist for higher heat resistance. However, Ni-resist is extremely expensive because it contains much 35wt% nickel of the rare metal. Therefore, the development of the new cast iron having the performance and the cost between the conventional cast iron and Ni-resist is demanded. With such a background, the new spheroidal graphite cast-iron “Vanadium cast iron” for the low-cost exhaust manifolds that greatly improved the heat resistance than the conventional cast iron was developed.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0075
Naohisa Takahashi, Isao Murakoshi, Shitomi Sasada
The exhaust pipes of the motorcycle were always exposed to high temperature exhaust gas. There was a problem of the tarnish or the rust during use, and it might be sometimes complained from a user. Therefore we developed new surface treatment and could prevent these problems. New surface treatment is “Nano-film Coating” by the DC reactivity magnetron sputtering method (PVD method). We developed SiOxNy ceramic Nano-film of the thickness of 20-150 nm on the metal substrates. This Nano-film was evaluated heat resistance, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and optical characteristics. It is able to get these performance satisfied enough. And the metal coloration is possible by controlling a refractive index and a film thickness of the Nano-film. The film was deposited in a three-dimensional shape by controlling the reactive gas composition, the gas ratio and sputtering power. The exhaust parts are colored by three patterns that is “transparent and colorless”, “gold” and “blue”.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0077
Andrew Suman, Dmitry A. Shamis
Abradable Powder Coatings improve the efficiency of blowers, compressors, engines, pumps, etc., by reducing operating clearances and friction. Characteristics of lubricious, abradable clearance control coatings are discussed and related to performance and durability improvements in pumps, engines, and other devices. The coatings can be applied very thick and sometimes provide an interference fit when a device is assembled. During initial operation, the coating breaks in to form a perfect fit between mating parts. Controlled abrasion even accounts for thermal and stress related distortions in components as the coating wears in. Once the optimum fit is achieved, stresses on the coating are reduced and the break-in process stops. The coatings support and maintain hydrodynamic oil film regime. Provided data indicate that durability, low friction, anti-scuff properties of the coating maintain tighter operating clearances and higher efficiency for the life of the device.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0072
Andreas Gebeshuber, Thomas Mueller, Robert Noebauer, Volker Strobl
The demands of the engine, transmission and power train industries concerning wear and corrosion resistance have increased in recent years. Conventional processes like carburizing and gas nitriding are facing their limits to some extent. Pulsed plasma nitriding is arousing more and more interest in these industries. The lifetime of components can be increased dramatically by the use of this surface treatment process due to the special layer composition it imparts. Pulsed plasma nitriding may also present economic benefits, as in many cases the final, very cost-intensive hard machining can be omitted. Furthermore, pulsed plasma nitriding has considerable environmental advantages compared to other heat treatment processes. It can be easily integrated into mechanical manufacturing, as there is no open flame and nearly no waste gas.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0071
Thomas Eder
The cold metal transfer process (CMT) was introduced into industry more than 4 years ago. This process was developed to reduce heat transfer to the substrate during the welding of metals. The CMT process has distinct advantages over the conventional gas metal arc welding process (GMAW), in which the heat input is much greater. CMT was developed specifically for the dip transfer method, which until now has been notoriously difficult to work with. An example of a process which has been made easier through the use of CMT is the butt welding of thin sheet aluminium (0.3mm) using 1.2mm filler material. Unlike conventional processes, this can be achieved without the use of backing protection or heat sinks. Another example is the welding of mild steel using CO₂ as a shielding gas. With CMT, this can be done with a significant reduction in spatter.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2091
Michael J. Lance, C. Scott Sluder, Samuel Lewis, John Storey
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions standards. In order to better understand fouling mechanisms, eleven field-aged EGR coolers provided by seven different engine manufacturers were characterized using a suite of techniques. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy following mounting the samples in epoxy and polishing. Optical microscopy was able to discern the location of hydrocarbons in the polished cross-sections. Chemical compositions were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Mass per unit area along the length of the coolers was also measured.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2090
Michael Marr, James S. Wallace, Silvio Memme, Sanjeev Chandra, Larry Pershin, Javad Mostaghimi
Surface temperature and heat flux were measured in a single cylinder SI engine piston when uncoated and with two different surface coatings: a metal TBC and YSZ. Average heat flux into the piston substrate was 33 % higher with the metal TBC and unchanged with the YSZ relative to the uncoated surface. The increase with the metal TBC was attributed to its surface roughness. However, the metal TBC and YSZ reduced peak heat flux into the substrate surface by 69 % and 77 %, respectively.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2134
Xin Yue, Xiaofeng Bao, Xianjiang Huang, Jiming Hao, Ye Wu, Tingting Yue, Yao Ma, Mingyu Wang
Gasoline detergency is related to deposits at various parts of the engine and therefore has impact on vehicle driveability and emission properties. The widely used engine tests such as CEC F-20 M111 and ASTM D6201 Ford 2.3L tests take tens of hours and thus are very expensive and time consuming to carry out. A new simulation test for gasoline detergency on intake valve cleanliness using lean-oxygen gum method was developed and the correlation of test results with M111 engine test was studied. Gasoline samples with different detergency levels were tested with both the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test. Test results of 24 gasoline samples show satisfactory correlation between the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test (R₂=0.7258).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2130
Md. Nurun Nabi, Johan Einar Hustad
In this study, experiments were performed on a 4-stroke, 6-cylinder turbocharged, direct injection (DI) diesel engine using two oxygenated fuels blended with European auto diesel fuel (DF) to investigate the engine performance and exhaust emissions with special interest in fine particles. In the investigation, 20 vol% jatropha biodiesel was added to the DF; while 6.31 vol% diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM) was added to the DF to maintain same oxygen percentage (2.26 wt%) in the blended fuels. The fuel is designated as DDGM for the DF-DGM blend and DB20 for the DF-biodiesel blend. The fine particle number was determined with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Carbon monoxide (CO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), smoke, total particulate matter (TPM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were also measured.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2027
Satya Panigrahi
A new direction in biocomposite manufacturing is to integrate natural fibers and recycled polymers for manufacturing of some innovative products for various industrial uses including automotive under hood parts. The performance of these new materials are comparable to existing ones even with the replacement of synthetic fiber with biodegradable natural fiber from agricultural residue and with the shift from pure polymer to recycled polymer. Thermoplastic are reinforced with flax fiber mostly used to develop biocomppsite. Most of the research reviewed indicated that very limited work had been done on using flax fiber with recycled post consumer thermoplastic to make biocomposite. The goal of this research is to develop recycled biocomposite material by using flax fiber as a reinforcement and recycled post consumer thermoplastic as matrix and streamline the manufacturing process with optimal processing condition and fiber percentage.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0598
Walter F. Piock, Peter Weyand, Edgard Wolf, Volker Heise
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0377
Jianfeng Ma, Joshua David Summers, Paul Joseph, Avinash Kolla
In this paper, in support of developing an advanced non-pneumatic lunar tire, a dynamic interaction model between non-pneumatic tire and sand is presented using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This non-pneumatic tire is composed of three major components: a critical shear beam, two inextensible circumferential membranes, and deformable spokes. The non-pneumatic tire made of segmented cylinders is described in detail. The tire is treated as an elastic deformable body with the inertia effect is included. Lebanon sand found in New Hampshire is modeled as because of the availability of a complete set of material properties in the literature. The Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is employed to model the sand. Numerical results show contact pressure distribution, distributions of various stresses and strains, deformation of non-pneumatic tire, and deformation of sand.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0378
Xiaobo Yang
In this study, a full vehicle with advanced LMS comfort and durability tire (CDT) model was established with ADAMS software to predict the spindle loads of the vehicle under a severe proving ground rough road event. From a series of simulations with various design changes, the spindle loads sensitivities to those design changes were identified. The simulated results were also compared with the measured data and a good correlation was achieved.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0379
Guofei Chen, Todd Link, Ming Shi, Tau Tyan, Ruth Gao, Paul McKune
To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0380
Shun Yi Jin, William J. Altenhof
Quasi-static axial cutting of AA6061-T6 and T4 round extrusions were completed using a specially designed cutter with multiple blades. The round specimens had a length of 200 mm, a nominal outer diameter of 50.8 mm, and a wall thickness of 3.175 mm or 1.587 mm. Four different cutters, constructed from heat-treated 4140 steel, having 3, 4, 5 and 6 blades on each cutter with a nominal tip width of 1.0 mm were used to penetrate through the round extrusions. A clean cutting mode was observed for the AA6061-T6 and T4 extrusions with wall thickness of 3.175 mm with an almost constant steady state cutting force. A braided cutting mode was observed for extrusions with both tempers with wall thickness of 1.587 mm, which resulted in a slightly oscillating steady state cutting force. For all extrusions with a wall thickness of 3.175 mm, the steady state cutting force increased with an increase in the number of cutter blades.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0383
Garrett W Wood, Matthew B Panzer, Cameron R Bass, Barry S Myers
The biofidelity of the Hybrid III headform in impact is largely dependent on local head geometry and viscoelastic mechanical properties of its polymer skin. Accordingly, for accurate simulation of the ATD headform in computational models, a quantitative understanding of the mechanical properties of skin material is required at a variety of strain rates and strain amplitudes. The objective of this study was to characterize the head skin material of the Hybrid III test dummy for finite deformations and at moderate strain rates for blunt impact simulation using finite element models Head skin material from a single ATD was tested using uniaxial compression. A viscoelastic constitutive model with separable temporal and elastic responses was used to characterize the nonlinear and viscoelastic material behavior.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0384
Aref M. A. Soliman
This paper deals with an investigation of the road roughness on the vehicle ride comfort using semi-active suspension system. A mathematical model of quarter vehicle for semi active suspension system is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort. The rolling resistance and power losses are also investigated. The power consumed in rolling resistance and power dissipation in suspension for passive and semi-active suspensions are evaluated. The obtained results showed that ride comfort increases as the road roughness is decreased. Comparisons between passive and semi-active suspensions systems in terms of ride performance and power dissipation are also discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0385
Xiaobin Ning, Bin Meng, Jian Ruan
It is known that for automotive semi-active suspension the damping of shock absorber shall be continuously adjustable. One approach for damping adjustment is via adjusting flow area of throttle valve of shock absorber using stepping motor. Throttle valve can be realized using electro-magnetic valve or any other type of driving valve. In order to be applied on semi-active suspension, the throttle valve is required to have high control precision, fast response speed, strong anti-pollution capability and etc.. In this paper a new type of digital valve is presented to control the flow area of shock absorber. The configuration is developed by the utilization of the two-motions-degree of freedom of a single spool. To solve the contradiction between the response speed and the quantitative accuracy which characterizes the previous valve of the same sort, a specially designed tracking program is adopted to the stepping motor control to smooth displacement output.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0386
Jared Gragg, Jingzhou (James) Yang, James David Long
Digital human modeling and simulation allows a designer to test a product early in the design process. Accounting for variability in the human population which the product is intended for is difficult without developing physical prototypes and conducting population testing. Digital human modeling allows a designer to test a product without a physical prototype in a simulated environment using digital humans. Using digital humans, or manikins, of various sizes, a designer can test for variability in the human population before any physical prototype is needed. This paper proposes an optimization-based approach to determine the seat adjustment range in the interior cab design of a vehicle. Previous methods of cab design include population sampling and stochastic posture prediction. This paper places boundary anthropometric digital human models, a 95% male and a 5% female, in a 3D test environment.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0405
David A. Wagner, Stephen Logan, Kangping Wang, Timothy Skszek
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0408
Qiang Zhang, Henry Hu
In the past decade, magnesium (aluminum) alloy use in the automotive industry has increased in order to reduce vehicle weight and fuel consumption. However, their applications are usually limited to temperatures of up to 120°C. Improvements in the high-temperature mechanical properties of magnesium alloys would greatly expand their industrial applications. As compared to the unreinforced monolithic metal, metal matrix composites have been recognized to possess superior mechanical properties, such as high elastic modulus and strengths as well as enhanced wear resistance. In this study, a novel approach of making hybrid preforms with two or more types reinforcements, i.e., different size particles and fibers, for magnesium-based composites was developed. An advanced and affordable technique of fabricating hybrid magnesium-based composites called the preform-squeeze casting was employed successfully.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0407
Jafar Albinmousa, Adrian Pascu, Hamid Jahed, M.F. Horstemeyer, Alan Luo, D. Chen, Steve Lambert, J. Jordon, S. Begum, Xuming Su, Q.Q. Duan, Richard Osborne, Z. Zhang, Lin Zhang, T. Luo, Yuansheng Yang
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0410
Alan A. Luo, Joy Forsmark, Xichen Sun, Scott Shook
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0373
Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein, Hitoshi Haga
The full vehicle simulation on durability proving grounds is a well established technique in the pre-development process of passenger car manufacturers. The respective road surfaces are designed to generate representative spindle loads and typically include events that will result in large tire deformations. Depending on manufacturer and the combination of vehicle size and wheel properties, these deformations can be so large that the tire belt and/or sidewall have contact with the rim crown (protected by the tire sidewall). The current tendency to low-aspect ratio tires reduces the available deformation capability of the tire while simultaneously introducing larger nonlinearities in the sidewall behavior (see [ 2 ]). This paper is based on a co-development project between Fraunhofer LBF and Honda R&D and is dealing with the development of a tire model, which can accurately handle very large deformations of the tire up to misuse-like applications.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0409
John Jekl, Richard D. Berkmortel, Paula Armstrong
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how flow and solidification simulation were used in the development of a new gating system design for three different magnesium alloys; and to determine the relative castability of each alloy based on casting trials. Prototype tooling for an existing 3-slide rear wheel drive automatic transmission case designed for aluminum A380 was provided by General Motors. Flow and solidification simulation were performed using Magmasoft on the existing runner system design using A380 (baseline), AE44, MRI153M and MRI230D. Based on the filling results, new designs were developed at Meridian for the magnesium alloys. Subsequent modeling was performed to verify the new design and the changes were incorporated into the prototype tool. Casting trials were conducted with the three magnesium alloys and the relative castability was evaluated.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0374
Barry A. Coutermarsh, Sally A. Shoop
The relationship between tire lateral force and slip angle is of interest to vehicle simulation developers and vehicle design engineers. Lateral force data on a variety of surfaces can not be obtained with the traditional laboratory test technique of an instrumented tire on a moving belt surface. This paper describes how the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory's (CRREL) Instrumented Vehicle (CIV) was used in a unique configuration to measure tire lateral force versus tire slip angle values on ice, snow and soil surfaces. The data collected show that peak lateral force and the shape of the lateral force versus slip angle curve are related to snow properties, depth and soil type. This paper continues from our previous work of lateral force versus slip angle for winter surfaces. This paper adds wet gravel and pea stone soil surfaces.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0412
Jonathan Robert Burns, Henry Hu, Xueyuan Nie, Lihong Han
Powertrain applications of alloy AJ62 arose from its comparative resistance to high temperature deformation among magnesium alloys. In this research, AJ62 permanent-mould cast in different section thicknesses was subjected to immersion corrosion in commercially-available engine coolant. The objective was to determine corrosion behaviour variation among casting thicknesses. Corrosion product accumulation suggests passive film formation, and unlike in other media, the film exhibits certain stability. Extreme thicknesses were used to generate polarization curves for their respective microstructures in engine coolant. Variation with casting section thickness was observed in the curves. These preliminary results indicate coarsened microstructures reduce corrosion resistance of the permanent mold cast AJ62 alloy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0375
Timothy Reeves, Sherrill Biggers, Paul Joseph, Joshua David Summers, Jianfeng Ma
This research examines a Discrete Element Method (DEM) for modeling the behavior of sand under various loading conditions as a critical first step in developing computational tools to aid in designing new sand-tire interaction systems for improved traction and mobility. Sand as a material is challenging to model computationally due to its unusual behavior: sometimes resembling a fluid and sometimes behaving more like a solid, yet never exactly replicating either. This behavior arises from the particulate nature of sand which, in contrast to the systems typically modeled in continuum mechanics, is not readily represented by continuum models. In sand, elements (i.e. particles) do not have permanent associations with neighboring elements as they do in most continua, but rather are free to migrate anywhere in the domain according to their interactions with other elements.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0411
Behzad Behravesh, Lei Liu, Hamid Jahed, Stephen Lambert, Grzegorz Glinka, Norman Zhou
Interest in magnesium, as the lightest engineering metal, has increased in the automotive industry as a result of requirements for lighter and cleaner vehicles. Resistance spot welding (RSW) is already the predominant mode of fabrication in this industry, and the fatigue of spot welded magnesium sheet must be studied. In this study, the tensile and fatigue strength of resistance spot welded AZ31 Mg alloy was studied. Three sets of tensile shear spot welded specimens were prepared with different welding parameters to achieve different nugget sizes. Metallographic examination revealed grain size changes from the base material (BM) to heat affected zone (HAZ) to the fusion zone (FZ). Monotonic tensile and fatigue tests were conducted and the effect of nugget size on tensile shear and fatigue strength was discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0376
Jianfeng Ma, Jaehyung Ju, Joshua David Summers, Paul Joseph, Balajee Ananthasayanam
To facilitate the design of a non-pneumatic tire for NASA's new Moon mission, the authors used the Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate the interaction between soil and non-pneumatic tire made of different cellular shear bands. Cellular shear bands, made of an aluminum alloy (AL7075-T6), are designed to have the same effective shear modulus of 6.5E+6 Pa, which is the shear modulus of an elastomer. The Lebanon sand of New Hampshire is used in the model. This sand has a complete set of material properties in the literature and Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is employed to model the sand. The tires are treated as deformable bodies, and the authors used the penalty contact algorithm to model the tangential behavior of the contact. The friction between tire and sand is considered by using Coulomb's law. Numerical results show deformation of sand and tire.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 39419

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: