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2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1537
In industrial automotive transmissions, several noises can't be avoided such as gear rattle and gear whine noises. Indeed they result from the choice of gear technology. They just can be reduced by an appropriate design. It is widely acknowledged that gear whine noise is mainly due to transmission error, which depends on many parameters such as driveshaft deflection, gear stiffness and operating torque. All these parameters are not necessarily well-known, which may sometimes result in the choice of a gear geometry that doesn't minimize transmission error. That can lead to customer claims once the vehicle is manufactured. To cope with whine noise customer claims, we investigated a statistical gear optimization method. The principle is to use whine measurement data base on benches to find the best geometry against whine noise after a statistical treatment. The main advantage is that it is not necessary to know precisely all the parameters involved in whine noise.
2010-01-01
Book
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable, but under utilized, tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers a wide range of topics including sample preparation, illumination and contrast techniques, methods and reagents, and applications. Studies are presented that provide insight into processing effects, toughening approaches, damage mechanisms, and environmental effects on the microstructure of composite materials. In addition, the power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with more than 180 full color images.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
2018-01-09
WIP Standard
J461_201801
Factors influencing the uses of wrought copper and copper alloys concern electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, machinability, formability, fatigue characteristics, strength, corrosion resistance, the ease with which alloys can be joined, and the fact that these materials are nonmagnetic. Copper and its alloy also have a wide range of rich, pleasing colors. The only other metal with such distinctive coloring is gold. These materials are all easily finished by buffing, scratch brushing, plating or chemically coloring, or clear protective coating systems. When it is desired to improve one or more of the important properties of copper, alloying often solves the problem. A wide range of alloys, therefore, has been developed and commercially employed, such as the high copper alloys, brasses, leaded brasses, tin bronzes, heat treatable alloys, copper-nickel alloys, nickel silvers, and special bronzes. nickel silvers, and special bronzes.
2018-01-10
WIP Standard
J463_201801
This standard describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries. Wrought forms covered by this standard include sheet, strip, bar, plate, rod, wire, tube, and shapes; however, form required must be specified by purchaser.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900255
Shigeki Sugiura, Toshio Yamada, Tokuta Inoue, Koji Morinishi, Nobuyuki Satofuka
Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900251
MarK J. Jennings, Thomas Morel
An important aspect of calculation of engine combustion chamber heat transfer with a multi-dimensional flow code is the modeling of the near wall flow. Conventional treatments of the wall layer flow employ the use of wall functions which impose the wall boundary conditions on the solution grid points adjacent to solid boundaries. However, the use of wall functions for calculating complex flows such as those which exist in engines has numerous weaknesses, including dependence on grid resolution. An alternative wall modeling approach has been developed which overcomes the limitations of the wall functions and is applicable to the calculation of in-cylinder engine flows. In this approach the wall layer flow is solved dynamically on a grid spanning a very thin boundary layer region adjacent to solid boundaries which is separate from the global grid used to solve the outer flow.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900253
D. H. Gibson, W. A. Mahaffey, T. Mukerjee
This paper details the development of a mathematical model to simulate the incylinder processes in the Caterpillar 1.7L Diesel engine and the results obtained during compression stroke and early part of the combustion stroke. The model includes accurate representation of the geometry of the 1.7L combustion chamber via Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) which conform to the shape of the piston-dish and cylinder. Also included are the combustion model and evaporation model. This 3-D model predicts average cylinder pressure and temperature variations with degree crank angle which are in good agreement with Caterpillar measurements for this engine.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900252
Kang Y. Huh, I-Ping Chang, Jay. K. Martin
- Three different models, the law-of-the-wall, a modified law-of-the-wall, and an approximate one-dimensional solution to the energy equation are compared for the spatially-resolved prediction of engine heat tranfer. The multidimensional hydrodynamic code KIVA is used for the fluid mechanic simulation. Two different engine geometries are studied; one being a pancake-shaped chamber, and the other a bowl-in-piston geometry. The comparisons are done for a range of initial conditions of gas flow. Rates-of-pressure-rise were also varied to represent rates typical of those encountered in motored engines, and those found in fired engines. Comparisons with experimental results show that the heat transfer predictions using the law-of-the-wall may be in error when source terms such as the transient, work and chemical energy terms have a significant effect in determining the temperature profile in the boundary layer.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900242
Munehiro Karasudani, Shinji Miyata, Kazuyuki Doi, Naotoshi Higashiyama
1 ABSTRACT Currently, digital audio source such as a compact disk (CD) and a digital audio tape (DAT) has come to be mounted in cars to complement the sophisticated audio system . To mount these new functions in the limit set space, however, the conventional source such as the FM/AM tuner must be built more compact and lightweight. On the other hand, to view the FM/AM tuner perspective from the standpoints of set design and manufacture, there are various problems such as given below. Set variations are flung from those for the U.S.A. and Europe to those for Japan. It is difficult, if not impossible, to design the set designer for each of these set variations because of the limited designer availability. Also, amid the tendency for world production base to be spread and increasingly numerous, high quality level is of the utmost importance for audio sets no matter where are manufactured. This paper describes an effective solution to these problems.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900464
Ken Nakagawa, Tatsuhiro Ootsubo
It is becoming more and more complex and time consuming to have a newly developed vehicle meet the safety requirement these days. On the other hand, with the aid of computers and software technology, detailed crash simulation are possible. ISUZU MOTORS LTD. has applied these to the passenger car from the early stages of development in order to optimize the car's behavior in the 35MPH frontal barrier test. Crash simulations were performed by using the detailed full vehicle FEM model and the crash simulation program PAM-CRASH. This simulation focussed on the collapsing mode of the front structure, especially on the front of the side rails and the attached parts. Section forces, accelerations, and deformed shapes were investigated and optimized to improve energy absorption. The effect was confirmed by the experimental barrier test. This procedure contributed greatly to reducing the time required for development as well as the number of prototype vehicles needed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900470
Paul Green, John Boreczky, Seung-Yun (Sylvia) Kim
To develop easy-to-use control panels, it is essential to measure driver performance, compare it with behavioral specifications, modify the design based on driver feedback, and then retest. Rapid prototypers help engineers do this quickly. This paper identifies the I/O capabilities, ease of use, ability to record user behavior, and real-time performance for several prototypers. Two example HyperCard prototypes are described here. The first, a car clock, shows how HyperCard can vary button size and location, labeling, auditory feedback, and the mapping of switches to system functions. The second, a car radio, shows that continuous controls and digitized sound can be handled.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900466
J. C. Liaw, A. C. Walton, J. C. Brown
Use is made of the KRASH program to simulate a simplified car-into-barrier impact. A step-by-step modelling technique is illustrated whose application at an early stage in the design process, allows an understanding of the contribution of individual components to the overall crash-performance of a vehicle.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900463
Tomohiko Ariyoshi
To analyze the rear end crash of a motor vehicle using a beam-element model, it is important how to model the upper body panel members such as rear doors or rear quarters. This paper describes the method of modeling each panel member into a beam element considering the “effective areas” in each member section. The panel member is cut into several sections along its longitudinal axis. Applying the thin-shell buckling theory and experimental analysis to each section, “effective areas”, which withstand up to the yield stress when the panel member is subjected to longitudinal compression, can be selected. With the section characteristics of the “effective areas”, a beam element for the panel member is defined. The results of the calculation by this method showed a good correlation to the experimental results of three kinds motor vehicles with the body deformation mode or crash length etc.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900462
Tomasz Wierzbicki, Wlodek Abramowicz
CRASH-CAD is a commercially available computer aided design package that specifically addresses design problems of components and sub-assemblies of automotive bodies subjected to crash loading. The program is fully interactive and leads an engineer in several steps towards an improved crashworthy design. The objective of the present paper is to give a theoretical foundation of this new computer program and demonstrate its various capabilities. CRASH-CAD enjoys unparalleled modelling simplicity. It requires only basic cross-sectional dimensions of a given member and a discretization into Superfolding Elements is done automatically. The current version of CRASH-CAD is applicable to prismatic members subjected to predominantly axial compressive loads.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900469
Richard C. Berry
Application-independence is the key to reusability and universal interfacing of dot matrix display subsystem designs. Special design rules can be applied during the development of these systems that promote the removal or localization of all application-specific components, resulting in display products that can be applied without modification to many varied applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900471
Jiro Tanaka, Kazuo Hirano, Hiroaki Nobuta, Toshiyoki Itoh, Sellchi Tsunoda
This paper describes a navigation System for private automobiles. This system shows the accurate position of the vehicle on a CRT map display and also displays useful Information such as the locations of hotels, golf clubs, etc. A sophisticated map matching method is employed to find the vehicle's position. In this method, a set of correlation coefficients between the locus and the mapped roads is used to determine the vehicle's location statistically. A unique automatic calibration function is also added to the magnetic field sensor to compensate for malfunctioning and detection errors caused by distortion due to the earth's magnetism and to magnetization of the vehicle at points of high field density such as railroad crossings. In this system, we can see the current position of the vehicle indicated by a pointer on the smooth scrolling map display.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900479
Norimasa Iida, Kou Hirawo, G. Takeshi Sato
The process of forming mixtures of injected fuels and ambient air has significant effects on the ignition and combustion process in the direct injection engine. In these engines fuel is injected intermittently and fuel jet impinges on a combustion chamber wall. This study deals with a fundamental experiment on the mixing process of the transient gas jet together with the instantaneous concentration measurement and statistical analysis of the transient turbulent mixing process in the jet. Helium or carbon dioxide is injected at constant pressure into quiescent atmosphere through the single shot device. This paper presents a laboratory automation system for measuring the characteristics of transient gas jet and processing the data. A discussion on the process of mixture formation of transient gas jets impinging on a wall is carried out with time- and space- resolved concentration distribution.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900476
J. C. Haylock, Antonio Addeo, A. J. Hogan
Recent technological advances have made thermoplastic olefins a viable material for automotive soft interior trim. Targeted at replacing PVC skins, polyurethane foams, and substrates made from traditional styrenics, these new polypropylenes can be used in such applications as instrument panels, door panels, consoles, and seating. They offer many advantages over current materials in these stringent applications. This paper describes the olefinic materials that are suitable for soft interior skins, polyolefin extruded foam sheets that can be used in a laminate with the skin, rigid olefin compounds that are used for substrates, and the process to use these materials in manufacturing soft interior trim components.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900425
Bruce D. Schrott, James W. Berg
Improved reaction injection molded (RIM) polyurea polymers for fascia have been developed which provide significantly longer mold fill times while maintaining the fast cure times sought by molders. These polymers have been formulated for use with or without fillers. In either case (filled or unfilled), surface quality comparable to painted steel can be achieved. Material performance data such as heat sag, low temperature impact, coefficient of linear thermal expansion and moisture absorption are compared for RIM polyurea and a commercial thermoplastic copolyester. The data illustrate that RIM polyurea fascia can be processed on existing equipment. These polymers provide superior performance over polyurethane/urea and equal performance with an economic advantage over injection molded engineering thermoplastic.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900423
Duane M. Naeger, F. Michael Plaver, David E. Henton
Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends are being developed by The Dow Chemical Company to meet the high performance requirements for flexible bumper fascia. Features of these blends include paintability without priming, excellent low temperature impact after painting, good heat resistance, and lower specific gravity than other high performance thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends also have excellent flow properties, which will allow large, complex parts with thin walls to be molded easily.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900421
Terry D. Seagrave
As the material of choice for automotive fascias switches from polyurethanes to polyureas, the capability of making large parts on existing equipment is sacrificed. Thus, a molder is forced to modify his equipment to an increased injection rate. With recent developments in polyurea technology, however, the capability to make large parts on existing equipment is returned. This paper surveys the development of polyurea technology leading up to this most recent development. Processing, physical properties, and filler effects are included. Polyurea RIM fascia materials offer stiffer parts at demold, improved surface appearance, and improved dimensional and thermal stability. With the development described in this paper, injection times similar to polyurethane materials can be added to these benefits.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900436
John J. Truhan, R. Douglas Hudgens
Cast aluminum alloys 356 and 319 and wrought alloy 3003 were corrosion tested in a commercial (Fleetguard DCA-4) supplemental coolant additive (SCA) package modified by varying the potassium nitrate level. Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the stability of the passive film as a function of nitrate concentration. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic galvanostaircase polarization were the principle techniques used and compared. In the presence of the other inhibitors, the passive film stability did not change as the nitrate concentration varied. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was more dependent on the alloy chemistry with 3003 being the most resistant and 319 being the least. The two electrochemical techniques provided results consistent with each other.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900435
R. Douglas Hudgens, W. G. Bugelski
Coolant containing the proper amount of glycol and additives is critical to the reliability and durability of heavy duty diesel engines. Occasional coolant analysis is required in the field to insure that the proper coolant composition is maintained, otherwise severe engine damage can occur. There are several types of coolant test kits currently available in the field as well as commercial coolant analysis services. Some of the test methods used provide information that does not predict or correlate with a coolant's capability to prevent system corrosion and deposit formation. This paper examines the more widely available field coolant analysis methods and documents their strengths and weaknesses. Further, recommendations are made as to acceptable laboratory methods for the analysis of engine coolants.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900434
Richard D. Hercamp, R. Douglas Hudgens, Glenn E. Coughenour
Cavitation corrosion of cylinder liners in heavy duty engines can be one of the significant limits in engine operating time between overhauls. In both laboratory and engine dynamometer studies, engine coolants based on propylene glycol (PG) have performed better than similar formulations based on ethylene glycol with regard to cast iron cavitation corrosion. The performance of PG base coolant in all other aspects of coolant use was equivalent or superior to both industry standards and existing ethylene glycol (EG) products designed for use in heavy duty engines. Additionally, propylene glycol is cost competitive, readily available, and less toxic compared to ethylene glycol. A propylene glycol base engine coolant is described which assists the heavy duty user in solving many current problems related to cooling system servicing and engine life.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900433
Satoshi Ohkawa, Titose Kawasaki, Kenji Kumagae
A new antifreeze coolant has been developed for the heavy-duty diesel engine. This anti-freeze coolant has better anticorrosion performance than Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCAs) and has longer life than commercial permanent-type coolants. The new antifreeze coolant is composed of ethylene glycol and corrosion inhibitors. In glass ware tests, the new antifreeze coolant showed the best anticorrosion performance in cast iron, aluminum and other metals. The anticavitation pitting property and anti-oxidation property were also tested. In order to evaluate the new antifreeze coolant, a bench engine test procedure has been established. Since the new antifreeze coolant caused light cylinder liner pitting on bench test, antifoaminq property of the coolant was improved. The improved coolant showed excellent performance against cavitation-pitting and aluminum corrosion on engine bench and in the field.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900432
Greg P. Reny, Guy L. Titley
: An anhydrous coolant based on propylene glycol has been developed by DOW CHEMICAL CANADA INC. Formulated specifically for automotive cooling needs, its development involved standard ASTM corrosion testing as well as actual fleet testing. This anhydrous coolant, though not commercially available, presently meets or exceeds the current corrosion performance characteristics of present ethylene glycol based automotive coolants. Performance data accumulation from existing fleet service is ongoing and indicates satisfactory results. The latter service testing will be brought to a conclusion at a later date.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900445
Barbara M. Grimm, R. T. Johnson
Three simplified thermodynamic methods for calculating combustive heat release are presented. The first method requires two pressure transducers for the data collection and is generally used for a divided chamber engine. The second method is a simple thermodynamic method for single chamber engines, and the third method calculates the pressure change due to combustion, and from this pressure calculates the combustive rate of heat release. The latter two methods require data from one pressure transducer. In this study all three methods have been applied to divided chamber and single chamber diesel engines. All three methods give information about the length and type of combustion. The dual transducer method gives a slightly longer period of combustion than the other two methods but the third method, the combustion pressure method, gives the same information about the beginning of combustion as the dual transducer method.
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