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2010-01-01
Book
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable, but under utilized, tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers a wide range of topics including sample preparation, illumination and contrast techniques, methods and reagents, and applications. Studies are presented that provide insight into processing effects, toughening approaches, damage mechanisms, and environmental effects on the microstructure of composite materials. In addition, the power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with more than 180 full color images.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
2018-01-09
WIP Standard
J461_201801
Factors influencing the uses of wrought copper and copper alloys concern electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, machinability, formability, fatigue characteristics, strength, corrosion resistance, the ease with which alloys can be joined, and the fact that these materials are nonmagnetic. Copper and its alloy also have a wide range of rich, pleasing colors. The only other metal with such distinctive coloring is gold. These materials are all easily finished by buffing, scratch brushing, plating or chemically coloring, or clear protective coating systems. When it is desired to improve one or more of the important properties of copper, alloying often solves the problem. A wide range of alloys, therefore, has been developed and commercially employed, such as the high copper alloys, brasses, leaded brasses, tin bronzes, heat treatable alloys, copper-nickel alloys, nickel silvers, and special bronzes. nickel silvers, and special bronzes.
2018-01-10
WIP Standard
J463_201801
This standard describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries. Wrought forms covered by this standard include sheet, strip, bar, plate, rod, wire, tube, and shapes; however, form required must be specified by purchaser.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900476
J. C. Haylock, Antonio Addeo, A. J. Hogan
Recent technological advances have made thermoplastic olefins a viable material for automotive soft interior trim. Targeted at replacing PVC skins, polyurethane foams, and substrates made from traditional styrenics, these new polypropylenes can be used in such applications as instrument panels, door panels, consoles, and seating. They offer many advantages over current materials in these stringent applications. This paper describes the olefinic materials that are suitable for soft interior skins, polyolefin extruded foam sheets that can be used in a laminate with the skin, rigid olefin compounds that are used for substrates, and the process to use these materials in manufacturing soft interior trim components.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900425
Bruce D. Schrott, James W. Berg
Improved reaction injection molded (RIM) polyurea polymers for fascia have been developed which provide significantly longer mold fill times while maintaining the fast cure times sought by molders. These polymers have been formulated for use with or without fillers. In either case (filled or unfilled), surface quality comparable to painted steel can be achieved. Material performance data such as heat sag, low temperature impact, coefficient of linear thermal expansion and moisture absorption are compared for RIM polyurea and a commercial thermoplastic copolyester. The data illustrate that RIM polyurea fascia can be processed on existing equipment. These polymers provide superior performance over polyurethane/urea and equal performance with an economic advantage over injection molded engineering thermoplastic.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900423
Duane M. Naeger, F. Michael Plaver, David E. Henton
Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends are being developed by The Dow Chemical Company to meet the high performance requirements for flexible bumper fascia. Features of these blends include paintability without priming, excellent low temperature impact after painting, good heat resistance, and lower specific gravity than other high performance thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends also have excellent flow properties, which will allow large, complex parts with thin walls to be molded easily.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900421
Terry D. Seagrave
As the material of choice for automotive fascias switches from polyurethanes to polyureas, the capability of making large parts on existing equipment is sacrificed. Thus, a molder is forced to modify his equipment to an increased injection rate. With recent developments in polyurea technology, however, the capability to make large parts on existing equipment is returned. This paper surveys the development of polyurea technology leading up to this most recent development. Processing, physical properties, and filler effects are included. Polyurea RIM fascia materials offer stiffer parts at demold, improved surface appearance, and improved dimensional and thermal stability. With the development described in this paper, injection times similar to polyurethane materials can be added to these benefits.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900443
Wolfgang F. Wachter
A heavy duty diesel engine was developed to meet US-EPA 1991 emission standards, and heavy duty diesel transient cycles (HDDTC) were run with different engine versions. Actual engine data such as speed, torque, air mass flow, gaseous emissions, temperatures and the carbon- and HC-fraction of particulate matter were transiently recorded. For each limited pollutant the phases of the HDDTC were identified, where a major contribution to the total cycle emission occurs. Comparing different engine versions, strategies for further reduction of emissions were elaborated. Emphasis was placed on particulate matter.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900436
John J. Truhan, R. Douglas Hudgens
Cast aluminum alloys 356 and 319 and wrought alloy 3003 were corrosion tested in a commercial (Fleetguard DCA-4) supplemental coolant additive (SCA) package modified by varying the potassium nitrate level. Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the stability of the passive film as a function of nitrate concentration. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic galvanostaircase polarization were the principle techniques used and compared. In the presence of the other inhibitors, the passive film stability did not change as the nitrate concentration varied. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was more dependent on the alloy chemistry with 3003 being the most resistant and 319 being the least. The two electrochemical techniques provided results consistent with each other.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900435
R. Douglas Hudgens, W. G. Bugelski
Coolant containing the proper amount of glycol and additives is critical to the reliability and durability of heavy duty diesel engines. Occasional coolant analysis is required in the field to insure that the proper coolant composition is maintained, otherwise severe engine damage can occur. There are several types of coolant test kits currently available in the field as well as commercial coolant analysis services. Some of the test methods used provide information that does not predict or correlate with a coolant's capability to prevent system corrosion and deposit formation. This paper examines the more widely available field coolant analysis methods and documents their strengths and weaknesses. Further, recommendations are made as to acceptable laboratory methods for the analysis of engine coolants.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900434
Richard D. Hercamp, R. Douglas Hudgens, Glenn E. Coughenour
Cavitation corrosion of cylinder liners in heavy duty engines can be one of the significant limits in engine operating time between overhauls. In both laboratory and engine dynamometer studies, engine coolants based on propylene glycol (PG) have performed better than similar formulations based on ethylene glycol with regard to cast iron cavitation corrosion. The performance of PG base coolant in all other aspects of coolant use was equivalent or superior to both industry standards and existing ethylene glycol (EG) products designed for use in heavy duty engines. Additionally, propylene glycol is cost competitive, readily available, and less toxic compared to ethylene glycol. A propylene glycol base engine coolant is described which assists the heavy duty user in solving many current problems related to cooling system servicing and engine life.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900433
Satoshi Ohkawa, Titose Kawasaki, Kenji Kumagae
A new antifreeze coolant has been developed for the heavy-duty diesel engine. This anti-freeze coolant has better anticorrosion performance than Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCAs) and has longer life than commercial permanent-type coolants. The new antifreeze coolant is composed of ethylene glycol and corrosion inhibitors. In glass ware tests, the new antifreeze coolant showed the best anticorrosion performance in cast iron, aluminum and other metals. The anticavitation pitting property and anti-oxidation property were also tested. In order to evaluate the new antifreeze coolant, a bench engine test procedure has been established. Since the new antifreeze coolant caused light cylinder liner pitting on bench test, antifoaminq property of the coolant was improved. The improved coolant showed excellent performance against cavitation-pitting and aluminum corrosion on engine bench and in the field.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900432
Greg P. Reny, Guy L. Titley
: An anhydrous coolant based on propylene glycol has been developed by DOW CHEMICAL CANADA INC. Formulated specifically for automotive cooling needs, its development involved standard ASTM corrosion testing as well as actual fleet testing. This anhydrous coolant, though not commercially available, presently meets or exceeds the current corrosion performance characteristics of present ethylene glycol based automotive coolants. Performance data accumulation from existing fleet service is ongoing and indicates satisfactory results. The latter service testing will be brought to a conclusion at a later date.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900440
Makoto Ikegami, Masanori Fukuda, Yoshinobu Yoshihara, Jiro Kaneko
This paper deals with the effect of combustion chamber shape and the role of pressurized injection in high-speed direct-injection diesel engines. First, the previously reported good performance and emission characteristics of the reentrant chamber were confirmed in a single-cylinder engine test. To obtain a better insight into this excellence, a high-speed gas-sampling method was applied to determine the local fuel-air equivalence ratios and mass fractions of substances having higher boiling points during combustion. The results showed that even at a retarded injection the reentrant chamber suppressed the outflow of gas into the clearance space from containing a lot of higher-boiling-point substances, like raw fuel and carbonaceous matter, thereby assuring a less heterogeneous state than the ordinary deep-bowl chamber. This is attributed partly to the suppressed outflow of unburnt gas from the cavity and partly to the enhanced mixing near the entrance.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900453
G. Boehm, J. Harrer
Abstract: Gasoline engines achieve maximum efficiency when operated at the knock limit. Knock control ignition systems enable an engine to operate in either continuous or intermittent light knock. Laboratory research has indicated it is harmless to run an engine within this range. Experience with knock control engines in passenger cars has shown erosion damage on pistons. Typical examples of knock erosion damage and ways of influencing severity of damage are discussed. Nickel coating has been developed as an effective and reliable technique to protect pistons from combustion knock erosion. Additional benefits of nickel coated pistons include: Reduced piston deposits Increased wear resistance in the top ring groove. Reduced cylinder head temperatures Engine text results and an analysis of engine efficiency increase due to nickel piston coatings is also presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900454
Hideaki Kuratomi, Minoru Uchino, Yutaka Kurebayashi, Kunio Namiki, Saburo Sugiura
Application of microalloyed steel to automobile parts is becoming increasingly common in Japan. However, fatigue properties of actual automotive forged parts with slight notches on their surface have not been fully clarified. In this work, the fatigue properties of microalloyed steel were studied using test specimens and also actual automotive parts. The results indicated that microalloyed steel with an optimal microstructure showed higher notch fatigue resistance than quenched-tempered steel. The improvement of material technology and the application of microalloyed steel have not only served to bring product costs down, but have paved the way for part weight reductions. Lightweight connecting rods for the newly developed Nissan engines have been produced, contributing to improved engine performance.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900450
Syuichi Ezaki, Michihiko Masuda, Hiroya Fujita, Souichi Hayashi, Yukio Terashima, Katsuhiko Motosugi
An investigation was made into the effects of valve lifter material on fuel consumption and engine noise. It was found that the use of aluminum not only improves fuel economy but also reduces valve-train chatter because it is lighter in weight and less hard than steel. The stresses to which the valve lifters are subjected and their surface temperatures were measured in bench tests, and durability tests were conducted to ascertain the problems which might be expected. Based on the results of these tests, the shape was modified, a new aluminum alloy was developed and a coating was applied to the surface. The aluminum valve lifters thus developed were found to be as durable as conventional steel lifters and have been used in the new Toyota V8 engine (IUZ type).
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900384
Kenneth H. Moyer, James B. Ryan
Abstract Often the question has been posed as to where are markets for P/M stainless steels. This question has been difficult to answer. Stainless steels are more expensive than alloy steels, because they contain chromium to provide corrosion resistance. Chromium poses a problem for P/M parts fabricators. Many sinter parts at 2050°F (1120°C). Furthermore, most insist on including at least 25% nitrogen in the sintering atmosphere. If 2050°F (1120°C) is selected for sintering, surface oxides are often only partially reduced. In addition, if nitrogen dilutes the sintering atmosphere, nitriding occurs, limiting corrosion resistance. Therefore a limited market exists for P/M stainless steels because corrosion resistance is limited. However, there is a substantial market for stainless steel bar stock. One such market, totally undeveloped, is for parts for soft magnetic applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900386
Qiqing Jiang, Pradheepram Ottikkutti, Jon VanGerpen, Delmar VanMeter
The effects of ethanol fumigation on the performance and emissions of a four-cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine have been investigated. The effects of speed, load, alcohol proof, and the fraction of the engine's power supplied by the alcohol are presented. Comparisons are made with methanol and water injection. Analysis of the results shows that methanol and ethanol have almost identical effects when compared on an equal energy basis that includes the enthalpy of vaporization of the alcohol and water. The indicated thermal efficiencies of the alcohol and diesel fuel are separated, showing that the alcohol utilization is not affected by proof or fraction of power contributed by alcohol. A dramatic reduction in NOx emission suggests that fumigation may have potential as an emission control technique in diesel engines. A stoichiometric, adiabatic flame temperature is calculated and used to determine the contribution of lower combustion temperature to the decrease in NOx emission.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900394
A. K. Oppenheim, N. J. Beck, K. Hom, J. A. Maxson, H. E. Stewart
The methodology put forth in this paper stems from the premise that the primary reason for the generation of major pollutants by diesel engines, particulates and nitric oxides, is associated with over-reliance upon diffusion flames to carry out the process of combustion. Specific means are, therefore, proposed to inhibit their formation. This consists of refinements involving the use of either hollow cone spray injectors or air blast atomizers. Concomitantly, the process of combustion is staged by either regulating the rate of injection or employing a number of consecutively activated injectors per cylinder under a microprocessor command, while regions of high temperature peaks are distributed throughout the charge and kept at a relatively low level by exploiting the large scale vortex structure of turbulent pulsed jets combined with residual gas recirculation.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900400
Floyd A. Wyczalek, Hideo Kawamura, Chung M. Suh
This is a descriptive review of the ceramics structural applications developed by Isuzu, Mazda, Nissan, Toyota and General Motors in spark ignition, Diesel and gas turbine automotive engines; new analytical procedures needed for the design of structural ceramics; new silicon nitride ceramics with strength of material properties approaching steel; new ceramics processing techniques which have been reduced to commercial practice in Japan on a mass production scale; and tests of vital structural components fabricated of these ceramics.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900396
M. L Arold, C. Espey, T. A. Litzinger, D. A. Santavicca, R. J. Santoro
A research DI Diesel engine has been constructed for the optical investigation of in-cylinder flow fields, spray, combustion and emissions phenomena. This ported engine, built on a CFR crankcase, permits complete optical access to the combustion chamber which is located in the head of the engine. In the present study, combustion chambers with square and round cross-sections were used, and non-swirling and swirling flows were investigated. The flow fields for the various configurations were measured in the motored engine using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) to establish the conditions that existed prior to fuel injection. High speed movies were used to observe the spray and combustion processes with and without swirl in the two combustion chambers. Distinctly different patterns of the spray plumes and visible light emission are observed for the two flow conditions, but no major differences were observed with changes in bowl geometry under similar flow conditions.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900398
Joseph Shakal, Jay K. Martin
- Pilot injection and two other forms of auxiliary fuel introduction have been studied for their effects on diesel engine combustion and emissions. A two-stroke diesel has been equipped with an electronic solenoid-controlled unit injector such that the injector can operate with pilot injection. In addition, the engine has been fitted with experimental air-blast atomizing injectors in the inlet port and intake manifold. In-cylinder pressure, Bosch smoke, exhaust hydrocarbons, NO and NOx emissions measurements have been made for a range of engine conditions. In addition, two fuels have been tested to observe the effects of fuel blend on the auxiliary fuel behavior. In general, the effect of auxiliary fuel introduction is to reduce ignition delay and rate-of-pressure rise. This tends to result in a decrease in NO emissions. Unburned hydrocarbons and smoke tend to increase, although not in every case.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900401
Arup Gangopadhyay, H. S. Cheng, S. T. Harman, J. M. Corwin
Abstract Tribological properties of three different ceramic materials i.e., reacted silicon nitride, pressureless sintered silicon nitride and alumina-titanium carbide composites were investigated as cam roller followers using a motorized valve train apparatus. One pair of each ceramic rollers and one pair of 52100 steel rollers were tested against a nodular cast iron camshaft. The contact areas were lubricated by a jet of mineral oil at 88°C. The tests were conducted at camshaft speeds of 250 and 3000 r.p.m which approximate idling and rated operating speeds of an engine. The experiments were conducted for a period of 900 hours. At the end of each 100 hours of testing, the wear on the cam lobes and the ceramic rollers were measured. Also replicas were taken from the worn surfaces of ceramic rollers, steel rollers and cam lobes and examined under scanning electron microscope to record the progression of surface damage and the wear mechanisms were identified.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900399
M. R. Ahmadi, D. B. Kittelson, D. D. Brehob
A modified CFR Cetane engine was used to analyze combustion characteristics and emissions of minimally processed coal liquids (MPCLs). To aid in combustion of the coal liquids, the ability to heat the fuel and inlet air was added. The MPCLs are derived from atmospheric distillation of coal liquids. The coal liquids are byproducts of coal gasification of Elkhorn bituminous and North Dakota lignite using the atmospheric, air blown Wellman-Galusha and pressurized, oxygen blown Lurgi gasifiers, respectively. The MPCLs were compared with three reference fuels: diesel No. 2, U12 (21 cetane number) and #-methyl napthalene (0 cetane number). The inlet air was heated from 340 to 535 K and the compression ratio was varied from 13 to 31 to provide sufficient range in temperature and pressure necessary for the combustion of low cetane number fuels. At each operating condition, fuel consumption, cylinder pressure, ignition delay, and emisions were measured.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900402
Yhuda Tzabari, Marcel Gutman, Arthur Stotter, David Brandon
In this work, the design and testing of a silicon-nitride (Si3N4) piston-cup for a Petter AV1 laboratory diesel engine is presented. A preliminary design was first prepared and tested for thermal shock. The tests showed that non uniform displacements occurred between the ceramic plate and the piston. An improved design was then prepared, which allowed control of the characteristics of the gasket mounted between the ceramic plate and the piston. This second design was evaluated by thermal shock and exposure to cyclic pressure variation, followed by engine tests. A short description is given of the experimental set-up used for investigating the ceramic materials which are candidates for the moving parts exposed to thermal and dynamic shock in internal combustion engines. Finally two pistons with ceramic top plates were introduced in the engine with thermocouples mounted at different points of the liner and exhaust valve.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900403
Toshiharu Matsui, Motokazu Kobayashi, Hiroshi Okamura, Kiminari Kato, Yoshiaki Hori
The authors developed, for use in diesel engines, ceramic tappets cast in aluminum alloy that drastically improved wear resistance and valve train dynamics. The ceramic tappets consist of two parts: a ceramic head, which contacts the cam and push rod, and a tappet body made of aluminum alloy. Concerning the ceramic, silicon nitride was the best material of the three ceramics evaluated in the tests and the sliding surface, in contact with the cam and push rod, was left unground. As for the aluminum alloy, hyper-eutectic aluminum-silicon alloy with a controlled pro-eutectic silicon size was selected. A reliability analysis using the finite-element method (FEM) was also made on the structure of the ceramic tappet for enhanced durability and reliability. The combination of this tappet and a cam made of hardened ductile cast iron, hardened steel, or chilled cast iron, respectively exhibits excellent wear resistance.
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