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2010-01-01
Book
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable, but under utilized, tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers a wide range of topics including sample preparation, illumination and contrast techniques, methods and reagents, and applications. Studies are presented that provide insight into processing effects, toughening approaches, damage mechanisms, and environmental effects on the microstructure of composite materials. In addition, the power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with more than 180 full color images.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
2018-01-09
WIP Standard
J461_201801
Factors influencing the uses of wrought copper and copper alloys concern electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, machinability, formability, fatigue characteristics, strength, corrosion resistance, the ease with which alloys can be joined, and the fact that these materials are nonmagnetic. Copper and its alloy also have a wide range of rich, pleasing colors. The only other metal with such distinctive coloring is gold. These materials are all easily finished by buffing, scratch brushing, plating or chemically coloring, or clear protective coating systems. When it is desired to improve one or more of the important properties of copper, alloying often solves the problem. A wide range of alloys, therefore, has been developed and commercially employed, such as the high copper alloys, brasses, leaded brasses, tin bronzes, heat treatable alloys, copper-nickel alloys, nickel silvers, and special bronzes. nickel silvers, and special bronzes.
2018-01-10
WIP Standard
J463_201801
This standard describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries. Wrought forms covered by this standard include sheet, strip, bar, plate, rod, wire, tube, and shapes; however, form required must be specified by purchaser.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900253
D. H. Gibson, W. A. Mahaffey, T. Mukerjee
This paper details the development of a mathematical model to simulate the incylinder processes in the Caterpillar 1.7L Diesel engine and the results obtained during compression stroke and early part of the combustion stroke. The model includes accurate representation of the geometry of the 1.7L combustion chamber via Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) which conform to the shape of the piston-dish and cylinder. Also included are the combustion model and evaporation model. This 3-D model predicts average cylinder pressure and temperature variations with degree crank angle which are in good agreement with Caterpillar measurements for this engine.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900475
Hiro Hiroyasu, Masataka Arai
The objective of this paper is to summarize experimental results which were previously reported by the authors and to derive many useful empirical equations concerning the diesel fuel sprays. The empirical equations for break-up length, spray angle, spray tip penetration and drop size distribution of the diesel sprays are introduced to discuss the internal structure of the spray. According to the effect of injection pressure and ambient pressure on the break-up length and drop size of the diesel spray, the spray structure can be divided into two categories; incomplete and complete sprays. The equations which express the break-up length and mean diameter of the incomplete and complete sprays were obtained using different techniques according for the dominance of one or more break-up mechanisms.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900476
J. C. Haylock, Antonio Addeo, A. J. Hogan
Recent technological advances have made thermoplastic olefins a viable material for automotive soft interior trim. Targeted at replacing PVC skins, polyurethane foams, and substrates made from traditional styrenics, these new polypropylenes can be used in such applications as instrument panels, door panels, consoles, and seating. They offer many advantages over current materials in these stringent applications. This paper describes the olefinic materials that are suitable for soft interior skins, polyolefin extruded foam sheets that can be used in a laminate with the skin, rigid olefin compounds that are used for substrates, and the process to use these materials in manufacturing soft interior trim components.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900487
Georg F. Mauer, Robert J. Watts
- Many internal combustion engines are equipped with a vibration damper attached to the front. Excessive thermal loads on the viscous damping element occasionally lead to damper failure, which in turn causes excessive torsional oscillation amplitudes in the crankshaft, and subsequent damage to the engine if the damper failure is not recognized immediately. Two non-contacting magnetic sensors at the engine front and flywheel detect the speed at both locations, and the torsional crankshaft strain. A digital circuit, which includes a microprocessor, samples and processes the raw engine speed speed data. The transducer concept provides for stable operation independent of motor speed and varying ambient temperatures. Experimental data were recorded on an eight-cylinder Diesel engine with and without damper. The measurements, made under steady state operating conditions, show that the speed oscillation amplitudes at the engine front more than double when the damper fails.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900425
Bruce D. Schrott, James W. Berg
Improved reaction injection molded (RIM) polyurea polymers for fascia have been developed which provide significantly longer mold fill times while maintaining the fast cure times sought by molders. These polymers have been formulated for use with or without fillers. In either case (filled or unfilled), surface quality comparable to painted steel can be achieved. Material performance data such as heat sag, low temperature impact, coefficient of linear thermal expansion and moisture absorption are compared for RIM polyurea and a commercial thermoplastic copolyester. The data illustrate that RIM polyurea fascia can be processed on existing equipment. These polymers provide superior performance over polyurethane/urea and equal performance with an economic advantage over injection molded engineering thermoplastic.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900423
Duane M. Naeger, F. Michael Plaver, David E. Henton
Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends are being developed by The Dow Chemical Company to meet the high performance requirements for flexible bumper fascia. Features of these blends include paintability without priming, excellent low temperature impact after painting, good heat resistance, and lower specific gravity than other high performance thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends also have excellent flow properties, which will allow large, complex parts with thin walls to be molded easily.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900421
Terry D. Seagrave
As the material of choice for automotive fascias switches from polyurethanes to polyureas, the capability of making large parts on existing equipment is sacrificed. Thus, a molder is forced to modify his equipment to an increased injection rate. With recent developments in polyurea technology, however, the capability to make large parts on existing equipment is returned. This paper surveys the development of polyurea technology leading up to this most recent development. Processing, physical properties, and filler effects are included. Polyurea RIM fascia materials offer stiffer parts at demold, improved surface appearance, and improved dimensional and thermal stability. With the development described in this paper, injection times similar to polyurethane materials can be added to these benefits.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900443
Wolfgang F. Wachter
A heavy duty diesel engine was developed to meet US-EPA 1991 emission standards, and heavy duty diesel transient cycles (HDDTC) were run with different engine versions. Actual engine data such as speed, torque, air mass flow, gaseous emissions, temperatures and the carbon- and HC-fraction of particulate matter were transiently recorded. For each limited pollutant the phases of the HDDTC were identified, where a major contribution to the total cycle emission occurs. Comparing different engine versions, strategies for further reduction of emissions were elaborated. Emphasis was placed on particulate matter.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900437
Yu-Kang Zhou, F. G. Hammitt
With the advent of high-speed, high-ouput diesel engines, cavitation erosion of wet-cylinder liners is one of the most prevalent types of failure and a major problem confronting designers. It has been attributed to many mechanisms by various researchers in different countries. The present paper summarizes the authors' work, reviews published information on this problem, and discusses various contradictory findings. It has been found from vibratory cavitation tests that it is possible to produce conditions leading to erosion of the water-side of diesel engine cylinder liners. Photomicrographs from laboratory vibratory cavitation specimens and eroded liners from diesel engines in the field are compared. It is further confirmed that diesel engine liner erosion is usually due to cavitation erosion, caused, in most cases, by vibration of the liner wall. Liner damage is only a special case of general cavitation damage.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900436
John J. Truhan, R. Douglas Hudgens
Cast aluminum alloys 356 and 319 and wrought alloy 3003 were corrosion tested in a commercial (Fleetguard DCA-4) supplemental coolant additive (SCA) package modified by varying the potassium nitrate level. Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the stability of the passive film as a function of nitrate concentration. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic galvanostaircase polarization were the principle techniques used and compared. In the presence of the other inhibitors, the passive film stability did not change as the nitrate concentration varied. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was more dependent on the alloy chemistry with 3003 being the most resistant and 319 being the least. The two electrochemical techniques provided results consistent with each other.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900435
R. Douglas Hudgens, W. G. Bugelski
Coolant containing the proper amount of glycol and additives is critical to the reliability and durability of heavy duty diesel engines. Occasional coolant analysis is required in the field to insure that the proper coolant composition is maintained, otherwise severe engine damage can occur. There are several types of coolant test kits currently available in the field as well as commercial coolant analysis services. Some of the test methods used provide information that does not predict or correlate with a coolant's capability to prevent system corrosion and deposit formation. This paper examines the more widely available field coolant analysis methods and documents their strengths and weaknesses. Further, recommendations are made as to acceptable laboratory methods for the analysis of engine coolants.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900434
Richard D. Hercamp, R. Douglas Hudgens, Glenn E. Coughenour
Cavitation corrosion of cylinder liners in heavy duty engines can be one of the significant limits in engine operating time between overhauls. In both laboratory and engine dynamometer studies, engine coolants based on propylene glycol (PG) have performed better than similar formulations based on ethylene glycol with regard to cast iron cavitation corrosion. The performance of PG base coolant in all other aspects of coolant use was equivalent or superior to both industry standards and existing ethylene glycol (EG) products designed for use in heavy duty engines. Additionally, propylene glycol is cost competitive, readily available, and less toxic compared to ethylene glycol. A propylene glycol base engine coolant is described which assists the heavy duty user in solving many current problems related to cooling system servicing and engine life.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900433
Satoshi Ohkawa, Titose Kawasaki, Kenji Kumagae
A new antifreeze coolant has been developed for the heavy-duty diesel engine. This anti-freeze coolant has better anticorrosion performance than Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCAs) and has longer life than commercial permanent-type coolants. The new antifreeze coolant is composed of ethylene glycol and corrosion inhibitors. In glass ware tests, the new antifreeze coolant showed the best anticorrosion performance in cast iron, aluminum and other metals. The anticavitation pitting property and anti-oxidation property were also tested. In order to evaluate the new antifreeze coolant, a bench engine test procedure has been established. Since the new antifreeze coolant caused light cylinder liner pitting on bench test, antifoaminq property of the coolant was improved. The improved coolant showed excellent performance against cavitation-pitting and aluminum corrosion on engine bench and in the field.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900432
Greg P. Reny, Guy L. Titley
: An anhydrous coolant based on propylene glycol has been developed by DOW CHEMICAL CANADA INC. Formulated specifically for automotive cooling needs, its development involved standard ASTM corrosion testing as well as actual fleet testing. This anhydrous coolant, though not commercially available, presently meets or exceeds the current corrosion performance characteristics of present ethylene glycol based automotive coolants. Performance data accumulation from existing fleet service is ongoing and indicates satisfactory results. The latter service testing will be brought to a conclusion at a later date.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900448
J. Reinicke-Murmann, P. Kreuter
To drive the camshafts in modern 4-stroke-engines, roller chains or toothed belts are normally used. These components are highly loaded during engine operation, especially due to torque fluctuations at the camshafts and torsional vibrations of the crankshaft. The stresses can be increased due to vibration excitation in the drive. The goal of this paper is to describe a simulation model for the dynamic behavior of camshaft drive systems. First, the boundary conditions in a camshaft drive of an IC-engine are analysed and evaluated. Then, possible methods of mathematical simulation are discussed. Finally, to show the accuracy of the model, some calculation results are shown in comparison to corresponding measurements.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900442
Hu Guodong
For the purpose of exploration on an ideal ICE combustion model, this paper has developed a hot premix conical spray and film type combustion system instead of diffusing combustion of Diesel and cold premix of gasoline engine. For the realization of the hot premix system, the author has created three measures which are a film formation process, a conical spray combustion and an air flow guide ring under the nozzle.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900444
Kazuyuki Narusawa, Matsuo Odaka, Noriyuki Koike, Yujiro Tsukamoto, Koichi Yoshida
Experiments and analyses were carried out to determine the effects of EGR on NOx and other pollutants for heavy-duty direct injection diesel engines under steady state conditions. Then based on them, optimum EGR control method was examined for effective NOx reduction without causing substantial increases of other pollutants under transient conditions. A simple EGR control system was developed for trial to achieve almost the same effects of the said method. Results of experiments with this system indicated that the EGR control method was capable of substantial reduction of NOx mass emission during transient engine operations equivalent to actual driving conditions, with different pay-loads and average vehicle speeds. REDUCTION of the NOx mass emission from heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles during actual driving operations, is one of the most important demands in automobile technologies.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900440
Makoto Ikegami, Masanori Fukuda, Yoshinobu Yoshihara, Jiro Kaneko
This paper deals with the effect of combustion chamber shape and the role of pressurized injection in high-speed direct-injection diesel engines. First, the previously reported good performance and emission characteristics of the reentrant chamber were confirmed in a single-cylinder engine test. To obtain a better insight into this excellence, a high-speed gas-sampling method was applied to determine the local fuel-air equivalence ratios and mass fractions of substances having higher boiling points during combustion. The results showed that even at a retarded injection the reentrant chamber suppressed the outflow of gas into the clearance space from containing a lot of higher-boiling-point substances, like raw fuel and carbonaceous matter, thereby assuring a less heterogeneous state than the ordinary deep-bowl chamber. This is attributed partly to the suppressed outflow of unburnt gas from the cavity and partly to the enhanced mixing near the entrance.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900455
Roberto Cipollone
The theoretical evaluation of the thermal fields in a cylinder liner of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (I.C.E.) requires some attention due the characteristics of the real boundary conditions. For small engines, in fact, these conditions may strongly differ from an axisymmetrical state due to the influence of the thermofluodynamic disuniformities at the gas and, more importantly, at the cooling fluid side. The paper brings together an experimental research on the temperatures at the boundaries with a theoretical analysis on the three-dimensional thermal fields occurring on the liner of a small one cylinder spark ignition research engine operating up to 5000 RPM. The differences found in calculating the heat exchanged using an axisymmetric analysis with respect to the real situation demonstrate the importance of considering the disuniformitites that really occur under working conditions.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900457
W. F. Resh
Accurate powerplant inertia information is important for noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) simulation and analysis of vehicle dynamics, both for engine mount systems in isolation and as part of vehicle system models. Because of the amount of effort involved in experimentally testing for the inertia properties of an automotive powerplant, typical practice is to test a single build variation of that powerplant. This inertia property information is then used to approximate the powerplant inertia properties of the other build conditions. This paper evaluates the effect of powerplant build options on powerplant inertia properties. An analytical approach is used, where powerplants are assembled analytically from a database of component inertia information, and the powerplant inertia properties determined. Powerplant inertia property results for a set of four cylinder, in-line powerplants, with different build options, are presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900453
G. Boehm, J. Harrer
Abstract: Gasoline engines achieve maximum efficiency when operated at the knock limit. Knock control ignition systems enable an engine to operate in either continuous or intermittent light knock. Laboratory research has indicated it is harmless to run an engine within this range. Experience with knock control engines in passenger cars has shown erosion damage on pistons. Typical examples of knock erosion damage and ways of influencing severity of damage are discussed. Nickel coating has been developed as an effective and reliable technique to protect pistons from combustion knock erosion. Additional benefits of nickel coated pistons include: Reduced piston deposits Increased wear resistance in the top ring groove. Reduced cylinder head temperatures Engine text results and an analysis of engine efficiency increase due to nickel piston coatings is also presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900454
Hideaki Kuratomi, Minoru Uchino, Yutaka Kurebayashi, Kunio Namiki, Saburo Sugiura
Application of microalloyed steel to automobile parts is becoming increasingly common in Japan. However, fatigue properties of actual automotive forged parts with slight notches on their surface have not been fully clarified. In this work, the fatigue properties of microalloyed steel were studied using test specimens and also actual automotive parts. The results indicated that microalloyed steel with an optimal microstructure showed higher notch fatigue resistance than quenched-tempered steel. The improvement of material technology and the application of microalloyed steel have not only served to bring product costs down, but have paved the way for part weight reductions. Lightweight connecting rods for the newly developed Nissan engines have been produced, contributing to improved engine performance.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900452
R. Southam, J. Reinicke-Murmann, P. Kreuter, G. Rogers
Potential improvements in spark ignited engine performance gained through the application of ceramic valve train components were predicted using state-of-the-art valve train simulation and gas exchange computer programs. The use of ceramic valves, ceramic pushrods, and ceramic hydraulic tappet housings, in combination with modified valve spring and valve lift parameters, were analyzed for a 2.8L overhead valve V-6 engine. The results show that significant improvements in dynamic valve train behavior and engine performance are possible with the largest gains coming from the use of ceramic valves. Potential improvements in valve train dynamics include: a 20% increase in maximum engine speed; a 30% reduction in the maximum valve train forces; and a 30% reduction in valve train friction. These benefits can then be used to either improve fuel economy, high speed engine power or low speed torque by up to 5%.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900456
S. J. Lee, B. J. Gilmore, J. E. Beard
It is well known that inappropriate dimensional tolerances can lead to diminished performance of an engine. This paper presents a method to determine the probabilistic dynamic errors of a single cylinder engine. The uncertainties considered in the analysis are tolerance on the link length, radial clearance and random pin center location. Such uncertainties create mechanical errors in the position, velocity and acceleration of the piston and crank and thus, influence the engine's performance. This research statistically determines the effect of tolerances on the global dynamic behavior of an engine. This study uses the effective link length model and adopts the Monte Carlo simulation method to determine mechanical errors in terms of standard deviations.
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