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2010-01-01
Book
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable, but under utilized, tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers a wide range of topics including sample preparation, illumination and contrast techniques, methods and reagents, and applications. Studies are presented that provide insight into processing effects, toughening approaches, damage mechanisms, and environmental effects on the microstructure of composite materials. In addition, the power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with more than 180 full color images.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
2018-01-09
WIP Standard
J461_201801
Factors influencing the uses of wrought copper and copper alloys concern electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, machinability, formability, fatigue characteristics, strength, corrosion resistance, the ease with which alloys can be joined, and the fact that these materials are nonmagnetic. Copper and its alloy also have a wide range of rich, pleasing colors. The only other metal with such distinctive coloring is gold. These materials are all easily finished by buffing, scratch brushing, plating or chemically coloring, or clear protective coating systems. When it is desired to improve one or more of the important properties of copper, alloying often solves the problem. A wide range of alloys, therefore, has been developed and commercially employed, such as the high copper alloys, brasses, leaded brasses, tin bronzes, heat treatable alloys, copper-nickel alloys, nickel silvers, and special bronzes. nickel silvers, and special bronzes.
2018-01-10
WIP Standard
J463_201801
This standard describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries. Wrought forms covered by this standard include sheet, strip, bar, plate, rod, wire, tube, and shapes; however, form required must be specified by purchaser.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900464
Ken Nakagawa, Tatsuhiro Ootsubo
It is becoming more and more complex and time consuming to have a newly developed vehicle meet the safety requirement these days. On the other hand, with the aid of computers and software technology, detailed crash simulation are possible. ISUZU MOTORS LTD. has applied these to the passenger car from the early stages of development in order to optimize the car's behavior in the 35MPH frontal barrier test. Crash simulations were performed by using the detailed full vehicle FEM model and the crash simulation program PAM-CRASH. This simulation focussed on the collapsing mode of the front structure, especially on the front of the side rails and the attached parts. Section forces, accelerations, and deformed shapes were investigated and optimized to improve energy absorption. The effect was confirmed by the experimental barrier test. This procedure contributed greatly to reducing the time required for development as well as the number of prototype vehicles needed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900465
Hiroyuki Matsumoto, Masafumi Sakakida, Koji Kurimoto
This paper describes the behavior of a driver side occupant restrained by airbag system on a passenger vehicle at a frontal barrier crash. In order to secure effective occupant protection at collisions, it is necessary to conduct close examination into the movement of steering system due to the rearward movement of dashboard as well as vehicle deformation characteristics, generally for vehicles whose crash space at engine compartment is small. The authors examine the influence of these two parameters on occupant injury indices using MADYMO 2D computer simulation program. As a result, it is found important to model the axial collapse and the rotation of steering system in the vertical plane caused by dashboard deformation, in order to achieve good correlations between experiment and simulation. It is demonstrated.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900466
J. C. Liaw, A. C. Walton, J. C. Brown
Use is made of the KRASH program to simulate a simplified car-into-barrier impact. A step-by-step modelling technique is illustrated whose application at an early stage in the design process, allows an understanding of the contribution of individual components to the overall crash-performance of a vehicle.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900461
Kichiro Abe Hidekazu Nishigaki, Shin-ichi Ishivama, Michitaka Ohta, Michito Takagi, Fujio Matsukawa, Masanori Mizuno
This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900460
Yoshiaki Ohkami, Kenji Takada, Kazuyoshi Motomura, Munemasa Shimamura, Hitohiro Tomizawa, Matsuo Usuda
This paper describes the collapse characteristics of thin-walled curved beams with closed-hat section under axial compression load. Static and dynamic collapsing tests have been carried out on beams different in section size, curved angle, thickness and yield point. We clarify the influences of the initial bending curvature of beam axis, size of section and gauge of metal sheets on the gloval deformation mode, local buckling mode and load-deformation curve from the test results. These results of collapsing tests provide the necessary feedback for the structural components design and aid in the verification of analytical predictive techniques.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900463
Tomohiko Ariyoshi
To analyze the rear end crash of a motor vehicle using a beam-element model, it is important how to model the upper body panel members such as rear doors or rear quarters. This paper describes the method of modeling each panel member into a beam element considering the “effective areas” in each member section. The panel member is cut into several sections along its longitudinal axis. Applying the thin-shell buckling theory and experimental analysis to each section, “effective areas”, which withstand up to the yield stress when the panel member is subjected to longitudinal compression, can be selected. With the section characteristics of the “effective areas”, a beam element for the panel member is defined. The results of the calculation by this method showed a good correlation to the experimental results of three kinds motor vehicles with the body deformation mode or crash length etc.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900462
Tomasz Wierzbicki, Wlodek Abramowicz
CRASH-CAD is a commercially available computer aided design package that specifically addresses design problems of components and sub-assemblies of automotive bodies subjected to crash loading. The program is fully interactive and leads an engineer in several steps towards an improved crashworthy design. The objective of the present paper is to give a theoretical foundation of this new computer program and demonstrate its various capabilities. CRASH-CAD enjoys unparalleled modelling simplicity. It requires only basic cross-sectional dimensions of a given member and a discretization into Superfolding Elements is done automatically. The current version of CRASH-CAD is applicable to prismatic members subjected to predominantly axial compressive loads.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900476
J. C. Haylock, Antonio Addeo, A. J. Hogan
Recent technological advances have made thermoplastic olefins a viable material for automotive soft interior trim. Targeted at replacing PVC skins, polyurethane foams, and substrates made from traditional styrenics, these new polypropylenes can be used in such applications as instrument panels, door panels, consoles, and seating. They offer many advantages over current materials in these stringent applications. This paper describes the olefinic materials that are suitable for soft interior skins, polyolefin extruded foam sheets that can be used in a laminate with the skin, rigid olefin compounds that are used for substrates, and the process to use these materials in manufacturing soft interior trim components.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900425
Bruce D. Schrott, James W. Berg
Improved reaction injection molded (RIM) polyurea polymers for fascia have been developed which provide significantly longer mold fill times while maintaining the fast cure times sought by molders. These polymers have been formulated for use with or without fillers. In either case (filled or unfilled), surface quality comparable to painted steel can be achieved. Material performance data such as heat sag, low temperature impact, coefficient of linear thermal expansion and moisture absorption are compared for RIM polyurea and a commercial thermoplastic copolyester. The data illustrate that RIM polyurea fascia can be processed on existing equipment. These polymers provide superior performance over polyurethane/urea and equal performance with an economic advantage over injection molded engineering thermoplastic.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900423
Duane M. Naeger, F. Michael Plaver, David E. Henton
Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends are being developed by The Dow Chemical Company to meet the high performance requirements for flexible bumper fascia. Features of these blends include paintability without priming, excellent low temperature impact after painting, good heat resistance, and lower specific gravity than other high performance thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends also have excellent flow properties, which will allow large, complex parts with thin walls to be molded easily.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900421
Terry D. Seagrave
As the material of choice for automotive fascias switches from polyurethanes to polyureas, the capability of making large parts on existing equipment is sacrificed. Thus, a molder is forced to modify his equipment to an increased injection rate. With recent developments in polyurea technology, however, the capability to make large parts on existing equipment is returned. This paper surveys the development of polyurea technology leading up to this most recent development. Processing, physical properties, and filler effects are included. Polyurea RIM fascia materials offer stiffer parts at demold, improved surface appearance, and improved dimensional and thermal stability. With the development described in this paper, injection times similar to polyurethane materials can be added to these benefits.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900436
John J. Truhan, R. Douglas Hudgens
Cast aluminum alloys 356 and 319 and wrought alloy 3003 were corrosion tested in a commercial (Fleetguard DCA-4) supplemental coolant additive (SCA) package modified by varying the potassium nitrate level. Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the stability of the passive film as a function of nitrate concentration. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic galvanostaircase polarization were the principle techniques used and compared. In the presence of the other inhibitors, the passive film stability did not change as the nitrate concentration varied. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was more dependent on the alloy chemistry with 3003 being the most resistant and 319 being the least. The two electrochemical techniques provided results consistent with each other.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900435
R. Douglas Hudgens, W. G. Bugelski
Coolant containing the proper amount of glycol and additives is critical to the reliability and durability of heavy duty diesel engines. Occasional coolant analysis is required in the field to insure that the proper coolant composition is maintained, otherwise severe engine damage can occur. There are several types of coolant test kits currently available in the field as well as commercial coolant analysis services. Some of the test methods used provide information that does not predict or correlate with a coolant's capability to prevent system corrosion and deposit formation. This paper examines the more widely available field coolant analysis methods and documents their strengths and weaknesses. Further, recommendations are made as to acceptable laboratory methods for the analysis of engine coolants.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900434
Richard D. Hercamp, R. Douglas Hudgens, Glenn E. Coughenour
Cavitation corrosion of cylinder liners in heavy duty engines can be one of the significant limits in engine operating time between overhauls. In both laboratory and engine dynamometer studies, engine coolants based on propylene glycol (PG) have performed better than similar formulations based on ethylene glycol with regard to cast iron cavitation corrosion. The performance of PG base coolant in all other aspects of coolant use was equivalent or superior to both industry standards and existing ethylene glycol (EG) products designed for use in heavy duty engines. Additionally, propylene glycol is cost competitive, readily available, and less toxic compared to ethylene glycol. A propylene glycol base engine coolant is described which assists the heavy duty user in solving many current problems related to cooling system servicing and engine life.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900433
Satoshi Ohkawa, Titose Kawasaki, Kenji Kumagae
A new antifreeze coolant has been developed for the heavy-duty diesel engine. This anti-freeze coolant has better anticorrosion performance than Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCAs) and has longer life than commercial permanent-type coolants. The new antifreeze coolant is composed of ethylene glycol and corrosion inhibitors. In glass ware tests, the new antifreeze coolant showed the best anticorrosion performance in cast iron, aluminum and other metals. The anticavitation pitting property and anti-oxidation property were also tested. In order to evaluate the new antifreeze coolant, a bench engine test procedure has been established. Since the new antifreeze coolant caused light cylinder liner pitting on bench test, antifoaminq property of the coolant was improved. The improved coolant showed excellent performance against cavitation-pitting and aluminum corrosion on engine bench and in the field.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900432
Greg P. Reny, Guy L. Titley
: An anhydrous coolant based on propylene glycol has been developed by DOW CHEMICAL CANADA INC. Formulated specifically for automotive cooling needs, its development involved standard ASTM corrosion testing as well as actual fleet testing. This anhydrous coolant, though not commercially available, presently meets or exceeds the current corrosion performance characteristics of present ethylene glycol based automotive coolants. Performance data accumulation from existing fleet service is ongoing and indicates satisfactory results. The latter service testing will be brought to a conclusion at a later date.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900453
G. Boehm, J. Harrer
Abstract: Gasoline engines achieve maximum efficiency when operated at the knock limit. Knock control ignition systems enable an engine to operate in either continuous or intermittent light knock. Laboratory research has indicated it is harmless to run an engine within this range. Experience with knock control engines in passenger cars has shown erosion damage on pistons. Typical examples of knock erosion damage and ways of influencing severity of damage are discussed. Nickel coating has been developed as an effective and reliable technique to protect pistons from combustion knock erosion. Additional benefits of nickel coated pistons include: Reduced piston deposits Increased wear resistance in the top ring groove. Reduced cylinder head temperatures Engine text results and an analysis of engine efficiency increase due to nickel piston coatings is also presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900454
Hideaki Kuratomi, Minoru Uchino, Yutaka Kurebayashi, Kunio Namiki, Saburo Sugiura
Application of microalloyed steel to automobile parts is becoming increasingly common in Japan. However, fatigue properties of actual automotive forged parts with slight notches on their surface have not been fully clarified. In this work, the fatigue properties of microalloyed steel were studied using test specimens and also actual automotive parts. The results indicated that microalloyed steel with an optimal microstructure showed higher notch fatigue resistance than quenched-tempered steel. The improvement of material technology and the application of microalloyed steel have not only served to bring product costs down, but have paved the way for part weight reductions. Lightweight connecting rods for the newly developed Nissan engines have been produced, contributing to improved engine performance.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900450
Syuichi Ezaki, Michihiko Masuda, Hiroya Fujita, Souichi Hayashi, Yukio Terashima, Katsuhiko Motosugi
An investigation was made into the effects of valve lifter material on fuel consumption and engine noise. It was found that the use of aluminum not only improves fuel economy but also reduces valve-train chatter because it is lighter in weight and less hard than steel. The stresses to which the valve lifters are subjected and their surface temperatures were measured in bench tests, and durability tests were conducted to ascertain the problems which might be expected. Based on the results of these tests, the shape was modified, a new aluminum alloy was developed and a coating was applied to the surface. The aluminum valve lifters thus developed were found to be as durable as conventional steel lifters and have been used in the new Toyota V8 engine (IUZ type).
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900384
Kenneth H. Moyer, James B. Ryan
Abstract Often the question has been posed as to where are markets for P/M stainless steels. This question has been difficult to answer. Stainless steels are more expensive than alloy steels, because they contain chromium to provide corrosion resistance. Chromium poses a problem for P/M parts fabricators. Many sinter parts at 2050°F (1120°C). Furthermore, most insist on including at least 25% nitrogen in the sintering atmosphere. If 2050°F (1120°C) is selected for sintering, surface oxides are often only partially reduced. In addition, if nitrogen dilutes the sintering atmosphere, nitriding occurs, limiting corrosion resistance. Therefore a limited market exists for P/M stainless steels because corrosion resistance is limited. However, there is a substantial market for stainless steel bar stock. One such market, totally undeveloped, is for parts for soft magnetic applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900393
Yasuyuki Hagino, Hitoshi Azuma, Hitoshi Mizutani, Shinji Nishiwaki
Whinning gear noise(final gear noise), one of the causes for automobile interior noise is due to the exciting force of final gear kit and as a general countermeasure for this problem, a reduction of resonance level in transfer system and better meshing of gears have been utilized. However,vibration characteristics of final gear unit have not been considered much in this case. Authors have executed impacting test on final gear unit and confirmed its vibration characteristics. Based on this fact,vibration model consisting of bearings and gears spring system was constructed to evaluate vibration characteristics of final gear unit along with the results obtained from final gear unit of front engine,rear drive passenger car.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900400
Floyd A. Wyczalek, Hideo Kawamura, Chung M. Suh
This is a descriptive review of the ceramics structural applications developed by Isuzu, Mazda, Nissan, Toyota and General Motors in spark ignition, Diesel and gas turbine automotive engines; new analytical procedures needed for the design of structural ceramics; new silicon nitride ceramics with strength of material properties approaching steel; new ceramics processing techniques which have been reduced to commercial practice in Japan on a mass production scale; and tests of vital structural components fabricated of these ceramics.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900401
Arup Gangopadhyay, H. S. Cheng, S. T. Harman, J. M. Corwin
Abstract Tribological properties of three different ceramic materials i.e., reacted silicon nitride, pressureless sintered silicon nitride and alumina-titanium carbide composites were investigated as cam roller followers using a motorized valve train apparatus. One pair of each ceramic rollers and one pair of 52100 steel rollers were tested against a nodular cast iron camshaft. The contact areas were lubricated by a jet of mineral oil at 88°C. The tests were conducted at camshaft speeds of 250 and 3000 r.p.m which approximate idling and rated operating speeds of an engine. The experiments were conducted for a period of 900 hours. At the end of each 100 hours of testing, the wear on the cam lobes and the ceramic rollers were measured. Also replicas were taken from the worn surfaces of ceramic rollers, steel rollers and cam lobes and examined under scanning electron microscope to record the progression of surface damage and the wear mechanisms were identified.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900402
Yhuda Tzabari, Marcel Gutman, Arthur Stotter, David Brandon
In this work, the design and testing of a silicon-nitride (Si3N4) piston-cup for a Petter AV1 laboratory diesel engine is presented. A preliminary design was first prepared and tested for thermal shock. The tests showed that non uniform displacements occurred between the ceramic plate and the piston. An improved design was then prepared, which allowed control of the characteristics of the gasket mounted between the ceramic plate and the piston. This second design was evaluated by thermal shock and exposure to cyclic pressure variation, followed by engine tests. A short description is given of the experimental set-up used for investigating the ceramic materials which are candidates for the moving parts exposed to thermal and dynamic shock in internal combustion engines. Finally two pistons with ceramic top plates were introduced in the engine with thermocouples mounted at different points of the liner and exhaust valve.
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