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Viewing 1 to 30 of 48174
2012-06-13
Technical Paper
2012-01-1537
In industrial automotive transmissions, several noises can't be avoided such as gear rattle and gear whine noises. Indeed they result from the choice of gear technology. They just can be reduced by an appropriate design. It is widely acknowledged that gear whine noise is mainly due to transmission error, which depends on many parameters such as driveshaft deflection, gear stiffness and operating torque. All these parameters are not necessarily well-known, which may sometimes result in the choice of a gear geometry that doesn't minimize transmission error. That can lead to customer claims once the vehicle is manufactured. To cope with whine noise customer claims, we investigated a statistical gear optimization method. The principle is to use whine measurement data base on benches to find the best geometry against whine noise after a statistical treatment. The main advantage is that it is not necessary to know precisely all the parameters involved in whine noise.
2010-01-01
Book
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable, but under utilized, tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers a wide range of topics including sample preparation, illumination and contrast techniques, methods and reagents, and applications. Studies are presented that provide insight into processing effects, toughening approaches, damage mechanisms, and environmental effects on the microstructure of composite materials. In addition, the power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with more than 180 full color images.
2015-01-30
Book
This set consists of two books, Design of Automotive Composites and CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, both developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports that successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena.
2018-01-09
WIP Standard
J461_201801
Factors influencing the uses of wrought copper and copper alloys concern electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, machinability, formability, fatigue characteristics, strength, corrosion resistance, the ease with which alloys can be joined, and the fact that these materials are nonmagnetic. Copper and its alloy also have a wide range of rich, pleasing colors. The only other metal with such distinctive coloring is gold. These materials are all easily finished by buffing, scratch brushing, plating or chemically coloring, or clear protective coating systems. When it is desired to improve one or more of the important properties of copper, alloying often solves the problem. A wide range of alloys, therefore, has been developed and commercially employed, such as the high copper alloys, brasses, leaded brasses, tin bronzes, heat treatable alloys, copper-nickel alloys, nickel silvers, and special bronzes. nickel silvers, and special bronzes.
2018-01-10
WIP Standard
J463_201801
This standard describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries. Wrought forms covered by this standard include sheet, strip, bar, plate, rod, wire, tube, and shapes; however, form required must be specified by purchaser.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900249
M. Shimotani, M. Hibino, T. Yamamoto, T. Nonami
A voice recognizer for automotive application which controls hands-free car telephone using voice has been developed. To ensure high recognition performance in noisy environments, a pitch synchronous analysis method and utterance detection method adaptable to noisy environments have been adapted to the voice recognizer. A digital signal processor (DSP) for pitch synchronous spectrum analysis and a micro processor for pattern matching and controlling the system have been used as the main components, and the recognizer has been compactly designed for automobile use.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900240
Eric Danstrom
Several methods of indirectly measuring total harmonic distortion (THD) in a power amplifier by measuring characteristics of the input and output waveforms are presented. The relative accuracies of each method is discussed. While the emphasis is on practical methods that can be implemented in a automobile car radio, sensing THD levels within 1% of the target level can be realized.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900476
J. C. Haylock, Antonio Addeo, A. J. Hogan
Recent technological advances have made thermoplastic olefins a viable material for automotive soft interior trim. Targeted at replacing PVC skins, polyurethane foams, and substrates made from traditional styrenics, these new polypropylenes can be used in such applications as instrument panels, door panels, consoles, and seating. They offer many advantages over current materials in these stringent applications. This paper describes the olefinic materials that are suitable for soft interior skins, polyolefin extruded foam sheets that can be used in a laminate with the skin, rigid olefin compounds that are used for substrates, and the process to use these materials in manufacturing soft interior trim components.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900489
Robert E. Hetrick, Larry W. Cathey
A piezoelectrically driven vibrating cantilever blade is damped by a number of mechanisms including viscous damping in a still fluid and aerodynamic damping in a flow. By measuring the damping of devices operating at resonance in the 1 to 5 kHz region, one can measure such properties as mass flow, absolute pressure or the product of molecualar mass and viscosity. In the case of the mass flow measurement, the device offers a mechanical alternative to hotwire and hot film devices for the automotive application.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900431
Francis R. Duffey
: The status of engine coolant specifications is discussed. The differing requirements for coolants for light duty engines and for heavy duty engines, test method development, and future opportunities are among the topics presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900487
Georg F. Mauer, Robert J. Watts
- Many internal combustion engines are equipped with a vibration damper attached to the front. Excessive thermal loads on the viscous damping element occasionally lead to damper failure, which in turn causes excessive torsional oscillation amplitudes in the crankshaft, and subsequent damage to the engine if the damper failure is not recognized immediately. Two non-contacting magnetic sensors at the engine front and flywheel detect the speed at both locations, and the torsional crankshaft strain. A digital circuit, which includes a microprocessor, samples and processes the raw engine speed speed data. The transducer concept provides for stable operation independent of motor speed and varying ambient temperatures. Experimental data were recorded on an eight-cylinder Diesel engine with and without damper. The measurements, made under steady state operating conditions, show that the speed oscillation amplitudes at the engine front more than double when the damper fails.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900425
Bruce D. Schrott, James W. Berg
Improved reaction injection molded (RIM) polyurea polymers for fascia have been developed which provide significantly longer mold fill times while maintaining the fast cure times sought by molders. These polymers have been formulated for use with or without fillers. In either case (filled or unfilled), surface quality comparable to painted steel can be achieved. Material performance data such as heat sag, low temperature impact, coefficient of linear thermal expansion and moisture absorption are compared for RIM polyurea and a commercial thermoplastic copolyester. The data illustrate that RIM polyurea fascia can be processed on existing equipment. These polymers provide superior performance over polyurethane/urea and equal performance with an economic advantage over injection molded engineering thermoplastic.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900422
Craig L. Andrews
The ability to injection mold thermoplastic reinforced with long glass fibers, in the range of .5 inches (12.7 mm) and with contents of up to 60% by weight, has increased the options for selecting structural materials The work reported is in support of developing technology that can be applied to bumper beam applications with possible translation to structural design of other applications. The primary focus of this work was to examine the feasibility of designing a bumper beam for a vehicle which would employ the use of energy absorbers. This design was to be based on the use of nonlinear finite element analysis to develop procedures for future design work. The effect of attachment constraints on the behavior of the basic bumper beam is examined to obtain data that can be provided to the automotive design engineer considering the use of a plastic bumper beam.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900423
Duane M. Naeger, F. Michael Plaver, David E. Henton
Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends are being developed by The Dow Chemical Company to meet the high performance requirements for flexible bumper fascia. Features of these blends include paintability without priming, excellent low temperature impact after painting, good heat resistance, and lower specific gravity than other high performance thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastic polyurethane/ABS blends also have excellent flow properties, which will allow large, complex parts with thin walls to be molded easily.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900421
Terry D. Seagrave
As the material of choice for automotive fascias switches from polyurethanes to polyureas, the capability of making large parts on existing equipment is sacrificed. Thus, a molder is forced to modify his equipment to an increased injection rate. With recent developments in polyurea technology, however, the capability to make large parts on existing equipment is returned. This paper surveys the development of polyurea technology leading up to this most recent development. Processing, physical properties, and filler effects are included. Polyurea RIM fascia materials offer stiffer parts at demold, improved surface appearance, and improved dimensional and thermal stability. With the development described in this paper, injection times similar to polyurethane materials can be added to these benefits.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900437
Yu-Kang Zhou, F. G. Hammitt
With the advent of high-speed, high-ouput diesel engines, cavitation erosion of wet-cylinder liners is one of the most prevalent types of failure and a major problem confronting designers. It has been attributed to many mechanisms by various researchers in different countries. The present paper summarizes the authors' work, reviews published information on this problem, and discusses various contradictory findings. It has been found from vibratory cavitation tests that it is possible to produce conditions leading to erosion of the water-side of diesel engine cylinder liners. Photomicrographs from laboratory vibratory cavitation specimens and eroded liners from diesel engines in the field are compared. It is further confirmed that diesel engine liner erosion is usually due to cavitation erosion, caused, in most cases, by vibration of the liner wall. Liner damage is only a special case of general cavitation damage.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900436
John J. Truhan, R. Douglas Hudgens
Cast aluminum alloys 356 and 319 and wrought alloy 3003 were corrosion tested in a commercial (Fleetguard DCA-4) supplemental coolant additive (SCA) package modified by varying the potassium nitrate level. Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the stability of the passive film as a function of nitrate concentration. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and cyclic galvanostaircase polarization were the principle techniques used and compared. In the presence of the other inhibitors, the passive film stability did not change as the nitrate concentration varied. The corrosion resistance of each alloy was more dependent on the alloy chemistry with 3003 being the most resistant and 319 being the least. The two electrochemical techniques provided results consistent with each other.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900435
R. Douglas Hudgens, W. G. Bugelski
Coolant containing the proper amount of glycol and additives is critical to the reliability and durability of heavy duty diesel engines. Occasional coolant analysis is required in the field to insure that the proper coolant composition is maintained, otherwise severe engine damage can occur. There are several types of coolant test kits currently available in the field as well as commercial coolant analysis services. Some of the test methods used provide information that does not predict or correlate with a coolant's capability to prevent system corrosion and deposit formation. This paper examines the more widely available field coolant analysis methods and documents their strengths and weaknesses. Further, recommendations are made as to acceptable laboratory methods for the analysis of engine coolants.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900434
Richard D. Hercamp, R. Douglas Hudgens, Glenn E. Coughenour
Cavitation corrosion of cylinder liners in heavy duty engines can be one of the significant limits in engine operating time between overhauls. In both laboratory and engine dynamometer studies, engine coolants based on propylene glycol (PG) have performed better than similar formulations based on ethylene glycol with regard to cast iron cavitation corrosion. The performance of PG base coolant in all other aspects of coolant use was equivalent or superior to both industry standards and existing ethylene glycol (EG) products designed for use in heavy duty engines. Additionally, propylene glycol is cost competitive, readily available, and less toxic compared to ethylene glycol. A propylene glycol base engine coolant is described which assists the heavy duty user in solving many current problems related to cooling system servicing and engine life.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900433
Satoshi Ohkawa, Titose Kawasaki, Kenji Kumagae
A new antifreeze coolant has been developed for the heavy-duty diesel engine. This anti-freeze coolant has better anticorrosion performance than Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCAs) and has longer life than commercial permanent-type coolants. The new antifreeze coolant is composed of ethylene glycol and corrosion inhibitors. In glass ware tests, the new antifreeze coolant showed the best anticorrosion performance in cast iron, aluminum and other metals. The anticavitation pitting property and anti-oxidation property were also tested. In order to evaluate the new antifreeze coolant, a bench engine test procedure has been established. Since the new antifreeze coolant caused light cylinder liner pitting on bench test, antifoaminq property of the coolant was improved. The improved coolant showed excellent performance against cavitation-pitting and aluminum corrosion on engine bench and in the field.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900432
Greg P. Reny, Guy L. Titley
: An anhydrous coolant based on propylene glycol has been developed by DOW CHEMICAL CANADA INC. Formulated specifically for automotive cooling needs, its development involved standard ASTM corrosion testing as well as actual fleet testing. This anhydrous coolant, though not commercially available, presently meets or exceeds the current corrosion performance characteristics of present ethylene glycol based automotive coolants. Performance data accumulation from existing fleet service is ongoing and indicates satisfactory results. The latter service testing will be brought to a conclusion at a later date.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900448
J. Reinicke-Murmann, P. Kreuter
To drive the camshafts in modern 4-stroke-engines, roller chains or toothed belts are normally used. These components are highly loaded during engine operation, especially due to torque fluctuations at the camshafts and torsional vibrations of the crankshaft. The stresses can be increased due to vibration excitation in the drive. The goal of this paper is to describe a simulation model for the dynamic behavior of camshaft drive systems. First, the boundary conditions in a camshaft drive of an IC-engine are analysed and evaluated. Then, possible methods of mathematical simulation are discussed. Finally, to show the accuracy of the model, some calculation results are shown in comparison to corresponding measurements.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900457
W. F. Resh
Accurate powerplant inertia information is important for noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) simulation and analysis of vehicle dynamics, both for engine mount systems in isolation and as part of vehicle system models. Because of the amount of effort involved in experimentally testing for the inertia properties of an automotive powerplant, typical practice is to test a single build variation of that powerplant. This inertia property information is then used to approximate the powerplant inertia properties of the other build conditions. This paper evaluates the effect of powerplant build options on powerplant inertia properties. An analytical approach is used, where powerplants are assembled analytically from a database of component inertia information, and the powerplant inertia properties determined. Powerplant inertia property results for a set of four cylinder, in-line powerplants, with different build options, are presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900453
G. Boehm, J. Harrer
Abstract: Gasoline engines achieve maximum efficiency when operated at the knock limit. Knock control ignition systems enable an engine to operate in either continuous or intermittent light knock. Laboratory research has indicated it is harmless to run an engine within this range. Experience with knock control engines in passenger cars has shown erosion damage on pistons. Typical examples of knock erosion damage and ways of influencing severity of damage are discussed. Nickel coating has been developed as an effective and reliable technique to protect pistons from combustion knock erosion. Additional benefits of nickel coated pistons include: Reduced piston deposits Increased wear resistance in the top ring groove. Reduced cylinder head temperatures Engine text results and an analysis of engine efficiency increase due to nickel piston coatings is also presented.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900454
Hideaki Kuratomi, Minoru Uchino, Yutaka Kurebayashi, Kunio Namiki, Saburo Sugiura
Application of microalloyed steel to automobile parts is becoming increasingly common in Japan. However, fatigue properties of actual automotive forged parts with slight notches on their surface have not been fully clarified. In this work, the fatigue properties of microalloyed steel were studied using test specimens and also actual automotive parts. The results indicated that microalloyed steel with an optimal microstructure showed higher notch fatigue resistance than quenched-tempered steel. The improvement of material technology and the application of microalloyed steel have not only served to bring product costs down, but have paved the way for part weight reductions. Lightweight connecting rods for the newly developed Nissan engines have been produced, contributing to improved engine performance.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900450
Syuichi Ezaki, Michihiko Masuda, Hiroya Fujita, Souichi Hayashi, Yukio Terashima, Katsuhiko Motosugi
An investigation was made into the effects of valve lifter material on fuel consumption and engine noise. It was found that the use of aluminum not only improves fuel economy but also reduces valve-train chatter because it is lighter in weight and less hard than steel. The stresses to which the valve lifters are subjected and their surface temperatures were measured in bench tests, and durability tests were conducted to ascertain the problems which might be expected. Based on the results of these tests, the shape was modified, a new aluminum alloy was developed and a coating was applied to the surface. The aluminum valve lifters thus developed were found to be as durable as conventional steel lifters and have been used in the new Toyota V8 engine (IUZ type).
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900451
G. Maas, D. Schmidt, W. Speil
- The Hydraulic Valve Lash Compensation is a well known option to reduce the noise emission of a passenger car engine, especially at low engine speeds. Furthermore, the use of Hydraulic Valve Lash Adjusters reduces the costs of engine assembly and maintenance, and has thermodynamical advantages. Under some engine operating conditions the function of Hydraulic Valve Lash Adjusting Elements can be problematic, which, however, can be covered by an improved element design. For instance, a low oil temperature level at engine start-up can lead to the entrance of air into the high pressure chamber, which will cause tappet noise. A number of short term engine runs, each of which, followed by a short engine stand still time, can produce tappet noise as well. The “INA Labyrinth Design” improves the potential of the hydraulic element against tappet noise without a significant increase in cost. The main feature of this design is an improved internal flow direction.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900384
Kenneth H. Moyer, James B. Ryan
Abstract Often the question has been posed as to where are markets for P/M stainless steels. This question has been difficult to answer. Stainless steels are more expensive than alloy steels, because they contain chromium to provide corrosion resistance. Chromium poses a problem for P/M parts fabricators. Many sinter parts at 2050°F (1120°C). Furthermore, most insist on including at least 25% nitrogen in the sintering atmosphere. If 2050°F (1120°C) is selected for sintering, surface oxides are often only partially reduced. In addition, if nitrogen dilutes the sintering atmosphere, nitriding occurs, limiting corrosion resistance. Therefore a limited market exists for P/M stainless steels because corrosion resistance is limited. However, there is a substantial market for stainless steel bar stock. One such market, totally undeveloped, is for parts for soft magnetic applications.
1990-02-01
Technical Paper
900389
Takanao Uchida, Hiroki Katano
Extensive studies in various technological fields have been conducted to determine the most appropriate engine configuration (arrangement and number of cylinders) for Honda's next-generation compact luxury automobiles. One of the basic concepts incorporated into these models include an ‘exhilarating drive’. Studies in the noise/vibration field disclosed that noise/vibration levels must be reduced while simultaneously realizing linearity in noise/vibration increase. As a result, an in-line five cylinder engine was chosen for this purpose. Additionally, Honda designed a new five-point engine mount system for a longitudinally-mounted engine in its FWD layout. Crankshaft rumbling noise in the in-line five cylinder engine was proven to be caused by crankshaft torsional resonance, as found in previous research of in-line four and six cylinder engines. This noise deteriorates linearity sensation.
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