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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2412
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0270
Leigh Berger, Lisa Fallon, Michael G. Carpenter
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0466
Mohammad R. Movahhedy, Saeed khodaygan
The process capability indices are widely used to measure the capability of the process to manufacture objects within the required tolerance. Fit quality is mainly dominated by the distribution of fit dimensions, i.e., a gap dimension. As the fit dimensions are very difficult to be measured in mass production, they are not to be considered as a direct inspection objective. The quality inspection and evaluation relative to fit quality are focused on whether the processes of assembly requirements are conformed with their specification limits respectively. Fit quality specification can be indicated by the process capability indices of mating parts. In this paper, the statistical-based process capability analysis method is presented to estimate ability of manufacturing process for considering of assembly requirements and fit quality in a mechanical assembly with asymmetric tolerances.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0509
Megumu Oshima, Kanya Nara
This paper describes the development of a design method and process for quality variation control. Conventional approaches utilizing Taguchi method [6,7,8] can quantify the sensitivities of parts characteristics on a system characteristic from both viewpoints of nominal value and variation. But the interpretation of the sensitivities depends on engineers' judgments. At the new process, function deployment has been introduced as the tool for breaking down hierarchically vehicle performance to the level of parts characteristics. And the relation between vehicle performance and parts characteristics is formulated based on a physical model in order to interpret the sensitivities more technically. The methodology combining the formulated function deployment and Taguchi method is referred to as design response analysis and variation effect analysis. These approaches can facilitate the interpretation of the quantified sensitivities considering the mechanism.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0450
Akindeji Ojetola, Landon Onyebueke
Long periods of sitting occur during our day to day life. It has been estimated that up to 80% of our active non-sleeping time is spent in some sort of sitting position during work, recreation, entertainment, commuting, resting, and exercising. As a result, several health effects like numbness, nerve/circulation occlusions, pressure sore, low back pain, and vein thrombosis have been associated with protracted sitting. Numerous researches have been conducted in the area of seat comfort that depended on conventional methods of testing physical prototype of seat model for comfort. The implementation of the seat comfort results are implemented in the next cycle of the design which may take up to three years. Recent advances in new technology, available after the prototype seat comfort testing, may not be incorporated in the next new seat design. This research work is geared towards developing a technique, tool and metric for seat comfort prediction.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1523
Len Kaplan, Dana W. Clarke
The cost of Gage R&R operations is dependent on several, often conflicting, factors including quality policies, organizational structure, culture, technology decisions, business issues and even employee preference. Failing to align these factors can lead to dilemmas where quality costs can rise at a faster rate than profitability. With these conflicting pressures and without a deliberate plan, measurement methods often evolve in a way that minimize business profit and sacrifice customer needs. Quality engineers/managers must understand how to intentionally evolve methods and techniques to reduce the total cost of ownership of quality. Structured problem-solving approaches can effectively address the underlying dilemmas and turn both quality and process control into a business advantage.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1737
Barbara E. Mizdail
Today, our manufacturing enterprises exist in a climate of accelerating change. This climate necessitates that engineers understand a systems approach and that they can function as integrators in the process of design and manufacture of products and services. Consequentially, it is incumbent upon our educational systems to see that the education and training of future work forces, as well as the retraining of present workers, include an interdisciplinary approach. Such an approach will produce engineers capable of imparting knowledge integrated from a holistic view and applying a systems approach to practical solutions. The old principles where one understands a single system and attempts to assemble the resulting systems from that perspective are no longer viable. To be the best no longer means building a manufacturing advantage around standard designs and mass production of products.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1027
John C. Hebeisen, Bruce M. Cox
Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) has been routinely used to densify castings for aerospace and medical applications for over 30 years. While HIP is widely known to improve the toughness and fatigue life of castings through the healing of internal porosity, it has been perceived as too expensive for most cast aluminum alloys for automotive applications. Recent developments suggest that the cost effectiveness of certain special HIP processes should be revisited due to reductions in process cost and improvements in throughput. This paper will evaluate the Densal® II process applied to a front aluminum steering knuckle. Two casting processes representing differing levels of relative cost and quality were evaluated. The first was Alcoa's VRC/PRC process, a metal mold process with bottom fill, evacuation before fill and pressurization after fill. This is considered to be a premium quality, but higher cost casting process that is already qualified for this application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1259
Matt LaCourse, Dan Fisher
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0786
An (Kevin) Wang, Ralph O. Buchal
Collision free path planning for Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) is an important task in automatic inspection planning. The goal is to generate an efficient and collision-free path between two adjacent points in the inspection sequence. Two interference detection methods based on swept volumes are discussed. The first method extrudes the silhouette boundary of the probe as a 2D profile to create a swept volume then performs a Boolean intersection; the second method exploits raster graphics hardware to provide efficient interference computation in image space using the depth buffer. A heuristic collision avoidance algorithm is then employed to make a detour around the interference volume. The effectiveness of the methods is verified by experiments to demonstrate collision-free path generation for parts with complex geometry.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0039
Mirko Conrad
Usually, the testing of today’s ECU software follows a gut feeling approach, leading to test gaps and test redundancies. This paper presents a new, more systematic way of testing automotive control software. The central element of the approach is the Classification-Tree Method for Embedded Systems (CTM/ES). Using an interface description, which can be based on the specification and/or an executable model of the software, test scenarios can be derived systematically and described in a graphical way so as to provide the user with visual information about test coverage. The CTM/ES can be integrated into an overall test strategy for automotive control software developed in a model-based way. The approach opens up a new way of assuring quality for embedded control software which is especially designed for automotive software developers.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0015
David L. Kaleita, Nico Hartmann
The difference between a strong and a weak automotive supplier can be as little as the difference between 99% perfect order fulfillment, and 90% perfect order fulfillment. In this regard, the automotive supply industry is a demanding environment like almost no other [1}. Compounding the harshness of this reality are the market-driven demands for ever-increasing quality, lower cost and shorter time to market for the very latest digital technologies. To meet demands for lower cost without compromising quality, most successful suppliers of automotive electronics have been increasingly focusing on product and manufacturing process designs that can be built virtually anywhere in the world, and be moved at any time based on market and trade pressures. But to meet the demand for the magical combination of high tech, high quality, long life, and lower cost, it is becoming increasingly necessary to rely on new ideas for test systems and methodologies in all phases of the product life cycle.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3308
Alexandre Fioravanti, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
SUMMARY The existent competitiveness in the automobile industry has been taking their manufacturers to an incessant search for methods and processes that seek the production of vehicles with quality and accessible costs to their costumers. The Vehicle Development Process (VDP) became an essential element for the success of a vehicle in the market, because the companies found out that, when concentrating their efforts during the development phase, the opportunities for product improvement will be much less onerous when compared with the costs spent when the vehicle are already in production. On the other hand, those improvement opportunities are evidently more difficult of be pointed during VDP than when the vehicle is already in production.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3408
Sinval Pedroso da Silva, Claudio Souza Lima, Rogério Machado dos Santos
One of the main aspects in the system engineering is to manage interfaces, especially when using a modular vehicle partitioning. The use of Computer Aided Design has greatly optimized the product development process, mainly regarding higher precision and quality of first prototypes, which means that products must get to market faster, carrying less risk of failure. To achieve that, it is important to have a multifunctional engineering team discussing all interfaces since early stages of a project by performing Compatibility Reviews between all parts and subsystems before starting Production Authority Release, which means that design should be frozen and ready for production. This paper describes the results of a Six-sigma Green Belt Project conducted during EcoSport 4WD development. This Six-sigma methodology was used to optimize the Mechanical Package approval process in order to achieve a robust analytical sign-off, reducing timing and penalty cost risks.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3449
Roberval Aurimenes de Assis
The application of quality tools has proven to be effective in predicting, preventing, and mitigating risks, in addition to current industry practices related to project management. The work presented in this paper shows actual application of selected quality tools as a result of Visteon Automotive Systems projects launched over the last 3 years in the Mercosur region. The quality tools described are Pareto Diagrams, Scatter Diagrams, FMEAs (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), DOE (Design of Experiments), Problem Solving Process and their respective applications. These tools were selected from the many currently available today, based on their relevance and their benefits during actual project development.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1764
Diomidis (Dean) H. Stamatis
This paper attempts to address the issues of six sigma as they apply to non-manufacturing organizations. Specifically, it summarizes the DMAIC model, and the DCOV model which is the prevention model of the six sigma approach. It concludes with applications of the six sigma approach in service industry and some general comments.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1748
Brian W. Kroeger
The audio qualities of the digital and analog signals are characterized and compared for the HD Radio In-Band On-Channel (IBOC) Hybrid FM broadcast system. The Hybrid HD Radio modes of transmission carry the original (host) analog signals simultaneously with a digital signal conveying the same audio program, but with superior sound quality. The digital signal is transmitted at a lower level than the analog signal in a carefully designed modulation scheme that minimizes corruption and maximizes compatibility with the host analog audio. Audio quality characteristics, such as SNR for an analog signal, are compared to audio characteristics for a digital audio codec.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0729
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Asif Salahuddin, Brian Komarisky
In this paper a design methodology for automotive heat exchangers has been applied which brings robustness into the design process and helps to optimize the design goals: as to maintain an optimal coolant temperature and to limit the vehicle underhood air temperature within a tolerable limit. The most influential design factors for the heat exchangers which affect the goals have been identified with that process. The paper summarizes the optimization steps necessary to meet the optimal functional goals for the vehicle as mentioned above. Taguchi's [1] Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methods have been employed to conduct this analysis in a robust way.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0774
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, Dmitri Konson
Abstract A modern definition of quality control and improvement is the reduction of variability in processes and products. The reduced variability can be directly translated into lower costs, better functions and fewer repairs. However, the final quality of processes and products is sometimes derived from other measured variables through some implicit or explicit functional relationships. Sometimes, a tiny uncertainty in a variable can produce a huge uncertainty in a derived quantity. Therefore, the propagation of uncertainty needs to be understood and the individual variables need to be well controlled. More importantly, the critical factors that affect quality the most should be identified and thoroughly investigated. Design of experiments and statistical control plays central roles in finding root cause of failure, reduction of variability and quality improvement.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0720
Lauren L. Thompson, Craig Jensen
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0766
Altaf S. Imam, Balakrishna Chinta, Scott Thorpe
The present study defines the functional requirements for a liftgate and the body in order to avoid rattle, squeak, and other objectionable noises. A Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology was used to study the impact of various constraint components such as bumpers, wedges, and isolated strikers on functional requirements. These functional requirements include liftgate frequency, acoustic cavity frequency, and the stiffness of the liftgate body opening. It has been determined that the method of constraining the gate relative to the body opening has a strong correlation to the noise generated. The recommended functional performance targets and constraint component selection have been confirmed by actual testing on a vehicle. Recommendations for future liftgate design will be presented.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0777
Ahn Joong Jei
IQS score (hard to open/close) is a major factor in determining automotive door closing performance. There are several functions that automotive side doors must fulfill: isolation from snow/ rain/ noise/ dust/ high temperature, wind noise, and opening/closing functions. This paper focuses on side door Opening/Closing, which is not only the primary function but also the first operation that all customers experience when car shopping. As the subjective demands of customers have increased and their level of sophistication has grown, the ergonomics of automotive side door functions has become a critical issue for both designer and customer. The side door area does not generally have specifications because door operability totally relies on each customer's senses and there are no parameters to be measured by test/experimental devices. So the IQS score could become the standard for evaluating a door's difficulty of opening and closing.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1268
Ioan F. Campean, Edwin Henshall, David Brunson, Andrew Day, Rod McLellan, Joseph Hartley
Function analysis provides the backbone of systems engineering design and underpins the use of Design for Six Sigma and Failure Mode Avoidance tools. Identification and management of interfaces is a key task in systems engineering design, in ensuring that the system achieves its functions in a robust and reliable way. The aim of the work presented in this paper was to develop and implement a structured approach for function analysis of a complex system, which focuses on the identification and characterization of interfaces. The proposed approach is based on the principle of separation of the functional and physical domains and development of function decomposition through iteration between functional and physical domains. This is achieved by integrating some existing / known engineering tools such as Boundary Diagram, State Flow Diagram, Function Tree and an enhanced interface analysis within a coherent flow of information.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1254
Andrei Mihai Negrus, Laurentiu Aurel Mihail, Anghel Chiru
The article presents an innovative approach to the implementation of a robust design optimization solution in an automobiles assembly process. The approach of the entire project is specific to the 6 Sigma optimization process, by applying the DMAIC cycle integrated in a robust engineering approach for rendering lean the final product assembly process. According to the improvement cycle, the aspects specific for such a process are presented sequentially starting with the “Define” phase for presenting the encountered problem and continuing with the presentation of the scope of the project and its objectives. The “Improvement” cycle phase is applied by the analysis of the monitored 6 Sigma metrics (defined during the previous “Measure” phase and the cause and effect analysis, done during a brainstorming meeting developed during the “Analyze” phase). There follows a proposal for the innovative robust solution by which the assembly process is optimized.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1251
Sudripto De, PR Ramakrishnan, Kaustav Das
Automotive manufacturers across the world have experienced the saturation of demand in the mature markets. Foraying into the emerging markets of India and China brings a mix of opportunities and challenges. These economies with 15%+ rising consumer demand, 7%+ rise in per-capita income and a passenger car density less than 1/8 of mature markets, hold promise of sustaining double-digit growth of vehicle sales. But the challenges are immense. Ultra-low margins of OEMs, lack of transportation infrastructure, Low level of maturity of funding operations, fragmented demand, import restrictions and mandatory export obligations pose serious constraints to non-linear growth. HONDA (Honda Siel Cars India Limited), a subsidiary of Honda Motor Corporation, Japan has developed the next generation supply chain with a strategy cognizant of the global opportunities and the local limitations which such emerging economies present.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1019
Hussain Tajmahal, Shantanu Ranadive
The paper presents a development strategy for a Low Cost Vehicle (LCV) concept set at a target MSRP of $8000 (USD) for the U.S. market. Tata Nano, currently the world's cheapest car in production, is developed on similar principles of the Ford's Model T concept. This paper adopts a similar methodology behind the development of the Tata Nano and is considered as the starting point for the LCV development. It gives an overview of the unique product development process of the ‘Tata Nano’ and shows the possibility of applying similar methodologies, based on systems engineering principles, for future low cost vehicles which will be suitable for the American market. The major automotive systems were assigned specific cost targets based on the set target cost of $8000 (USD) for the LCV. The specifications of the systems were derived based on customer needs and the U.S.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0081
Akihiro Honda
Recently, enhancements to product quality from the standpoint of consumer protection have become a prerequisite in responding to the increase of social awareness of product quality. The results of our researches[1, 2] on quality problems suggest that they were often induced by a known contributing factor, which means many of them could have been prevented if the design engineers and/or design reviewers had “smelled” the known factors. This report describes the steps taken by the System Control Components Product Division in DENSO Corporation in order to make a change to the existing quality control strategy by providing a new systematic tool for conveying know-how needed to prevent recurrences of quality problems.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1595
Rajesh Bhangale, Kumbhar S. Mansinh
Recent development in automobile industries has seen increased customer attention for good door slamming noise. One of the constituent which plays major role in building brand image of vehicle in terms of NVH performance is door slam noise quality. Hence it is very desirable to understand how different door elements radiate sound during a door-closing event and how to optimize a door structure to achieve specific sound target in order to ensure the door closing noise quality, NVH engineers needed to look at contributions from different door subsystems. The use of statistical tools like Six Sigma can further help them to ensure the consistency in results. This paper explains the systematic approach used to characterize different element of door which contributes to the overall door slam noise quality through QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and contribution analysis. The different mechanisms contributing to door slam noise were studied.
2010-10-17
Technical Paper
2010-36-0548
I. M. Pepe, C. S. Silva Brasil, P. J. Brito Pereira, V. Ponte, L. C. S. Soares @sJr., J. D'Erasmo Fernando, L. M. Aragao
Synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral vehicular oils used in gasoline/alcohol/VNG engine were evaluated by Rancimat® method. The experiment consisted in submitting 3 g of different virgin (off the self) motor oils samples to a temperature of 110°C and 10 L/h air flow. The oils are chosen and classified as multiviscous brands and recognized by their trademarks: Lubrax (Petrobras) and Mobil (Esso). The conductivity curves show the oxidative evolution as a function of time for the different oils. The synthetic, as well as, the mineral motor oil shows almost the same profile, where the conductivity curve differential is about 0.55 μS/cm₂h. However, once one start measuring up to 10.8 days, the mineral oil presents an oxidation meaning values 1.4 μS/cm₂ higher than any synthetic oil.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3584
Joseph M. Colucci, Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis F. Kahlbaum
The importance of the fuel in providing improved vehicle performance and reduced emissions has become widely recognized, especially in the past ten years. In 1998, an SAE paper was presented providing a systematic analyses of 1996 United States gasoline quality. This paper extends the methodology of that paper to include the impact of fuel composition on evaporative emissions, and it provides analyses of gasoline quality for the years of 1996, 1997 and 1998. The vehicle performance and emissions characteristics of gasolines were determined using data from surveys of United States' service station gasoline samples. Results are presented for: gasoline type (California RFG - reformulated gasoline, Federal RFG, low RVP - Reid Vapor Pressure, and conventional); gasoline grade (regular, intermediate and premium); individual cities; individual brands (coded); and for sulfur content.
1999-10-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-3387
Daniel E. Denlinger, Brian M. D’Amico, Brett A. Stanley
The four major discriminators for products in the market place are Technology, Quality,1 Cost and Delivery. Effective measurement systems and initial design quality have the largest impact on delivered field quality, program development cost and timing, as well as customer enthusiasm. System-level reliability testing methods have a major impact on the business health of any product. The implementation of laboratory forced failure testing in simultaneously applied energy environments has the largest influence for "designing in" field reliability and lowering development cost. Clearly a policy change from success based testing to forced failure testing has had the largest impact on results for the consumer.
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