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Viewing 1 to 30 of 17850
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2320
Markus Jochim, Thomas M. Forest
FlexRay is a time triggered automotive communication protocol that connects ECUs (Electronic Control Units) on which distributed automotive applications are executed. If exact agreement (e.g. on physical values measured by redundant sensors on different ECUs) must be reached in the presence of asymmetric communication faults, a byzantine agreement protocol like Signed Messages (SM) can be utilized. This paper gives examples of how byzantine faults can emerge in a FlexRay-based system and proposes optimizations for a FlexRay-specific implementation of the SM protocol. The protocol modifications allow for a reduction in the number of protocol messages under a slightly relaxed fault model, as well as for a reduction in the number of messages to be temporarily stored by the ECUs.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2319
Mukund Ghangurde
With Ford SYNC, Microsoft Corporation and Ford Motor Company have democratized in-vehicle infotainment systems - delighting consumers and bringing a new kind of agility to the automobile industry. Built on Microsoft Auto (now Windows Embedded Automotive), Ford SYNC is a factory-installed, voice-controlled communications and entertainment system that allows drivers to converge their digital lifestyle with their life on the road. Windows Embedded Automotive is an industry leading technology platform that provides integrated infotainment features and a rich user interface. Car manufacturers and suppliers worldwide can use this software to create differentiated, infotainment in-vehicle systems that are immediately attractive to consumers.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2318
Chris Domin
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) networks within the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) lead to safety and mobility improvements in vehicle road traffic. This paper presents case studies that support the realization of the ITS architecture as an evolutionary process, beginning with driver information systems for enhancing feedback to the users, semi-autonomous control systems for improved vehicle system management, and fully autonomous control for improving vehicle cooperation and management. The paper will also demonstrate how the automotive, telecom, and data and service providers are working together to develop new ITS technologies.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2324
Prasanta Sarkar, Debarsish Hazarika
This paper describes the development of Tata Nano Engine Management System and the related electrical and electronics architecture. The design criteria for the electrical and electronics architecture are discussed in detail in the body of the paper. When the Nano project was first conceived, the existing low cost car in India was not affordable by common people. The Nano project was targeted for a family of 4 which was using a two wheeled vehicle for commuting, irrespective of the season. For engineers, it was difficult to conceive the idea of the Nano vehicle and powertrain. How do you design a benchmark which meets both Indian and export needs and should also be extremely low in cost? There was no low cost car available either for the Nano to benchmark against. It was also clear that the strict pollution regulations existing in India could not be met without an Engine Management System and thus the focus centered on a low cost Engine Management System (EMS).
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2323
Keith Lang, Michael Kropinski, Tim Foster
GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2322
Robert Gee
The interdisciplinary and structured integration of subsystems into a functioning whole is at the root of Systems Engineering. Until recently in the automotive market, much of this has been specific to an automotive subdomain such as Telematics, Infotainment, Chassis Control, or Engine Management Systems. In the realm of Telematics and Connected Vehicles, the recent trend has been outward from the vehicle, focusing on expanding connectivity and data sources. Systems Engineering for Telematics now includes multiple transports spanning PAN, WLAN, and WAN communications, and beyond that has grown to include entities on the far side of the network link, including data servers, aggregation portals, and network security.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2313
Robert White, Tao Zhang, Paul Tukey, Kevin Lu, David McNamara
This paper presents modeling, analysis, and results of the business viability of a set of IntelliDrive 1 safety applications in a free market setting. The primary value drivers for motorists to adopt the IntelliDrive system are based on a set of safety applications developed and analyzed by the US DOT. The modeling approach simulates IntelliDrive on-board equipment adoption by motorists based on the value of the safety applications. The simulation model uses parameters that are based on adoption rates in a similar dynamical system from recent history and incorporates feedback loops such as the positive reinforcement of vehicle-to-vehicle applications value due to increased adoption. This approach allows the analysis of alternative IntelliDrive business approaches, deployment scenarios, and policies. The net present value of the IntelliDrive system to the nation is computed under alternative scenarios.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2312
Masanori Ueda, Toshio Hirota, Atsushi Hatano
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2314
Niall T. Berkery
Abstract Connectivity, software and services are the key elements that will define the next-generation vehicle experience. Drivers are being provided new innovative solutions that seamlessly integrate their online digital lifestyle into their vehicle environment, enabling automakers increased opportunity for brand differentiation, while giving drivers the ability to personalize their vehicles down to an individual level. This will be accomplished through “virtual accessorization” - where drivers will personalize their connected vehicle experience by choosing applications and services that best suit their individual needs. After selecting applications from an online automotive apps exchange, the apps are sent wirelessly to the car or the driver's smartphone for immediate use. The in-vehicle apps can also be configured based on who is driving, so that preferences and personal functionality moves with each driver.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2336
Veerender Kaul, Sarwant Singh, Krishnasami Rajagopalan, Michael Coury
1. ABSTRACT The U.S. National Highway Transportation and Safety Agency's (NHTSA) early estimates of Motor Traffic Fatalities in 2009 in the United States [1] show continuing progress on improving traffic safety on the U.S. roadways. The number of total fatalities and the fatality rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles (MVM), both show continuing declines. In the 10 year period from 1999 through 2009, the total fatalities have dropped from 41,611 to 33,963 and the fatality rate has dropped from 1.5 fatalities per 100MVM to 1.16 fatalities per 100MVM, a compound annual drop of 2.01% and 2.54% respectively. The large number of traffic fatalities, and the slowing down of the fatality rate decline, compared to the decade before, continues to remain a cause of concern for regulators.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2337
Michael Darms, Florian Foelster, Jochen Schmidt, Dominik Froehlich, Alfred Eckert
Data fusion plays a central role in more and more automotive applications, especially for driver assistance systems. On the one hand the process of data fusion combines data and information to estimate or predict states of observed objects. On the other hand data fusion introduces abstraction layers for data description and allows building more flexible and modular systems. The data fusion process can be divided into a low-level processing (tracking and object discrimination) and a high level processing (situation assessment). High level processing becomes more and more the focus of current research as different assistance applications will be combined into one comprehensive assistance system. Different levels/strategies for data fusion can be distinguished: Fusion on raw data level, fusion on feature level and fusion on decision level. All fusion strategies can be found in current driver assistance implementations.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2334
Falke Hendriks, Riné Pelders, Martijn Tideman
Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are added to existing comfort systems, rather than adding new safety systems to the vehicle. Comfort systems such as cruise control are extended via ACC to pre-crash braking systems. Testing of active safety systems must follow these developments. Whereas standardized test programs are available for passive safety systems, such test programs are hardly available yet for active safety systems. Furthermore, test programs for passive safety systems consist of only a handful of scenarios. Test programs for active safety systems, however, should consist of much more scenarios, as those systems should function well in many different situations.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2335
Jeffrey D. Rupp, Anthony G. King
Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2339
Richard Altendorfer, Sebastian Wirkert, Sascha Heinrichs-Bartscher
Driver assistance systems are incorporating more and more advanced safety functions. As these functions have to react quickly and reliably in emergency situations with a false alarm rate close to zero a high integrity of the environmental perception is required. This elevated level of signal integrity can be achieved by data fusion, where the information of several, in general heterogeneous sensors is combined to obtain a better model of the environment in terms of accuracy, object integrity, object identity, etc. As an example, we demonstrate the power of sensor fusion by an automatic emergency brake (AEB) system whose environmental perception is based upon a video camera and a radar sensor. In particular we discuss the improvement of kinematic attributes such as object lateral distance as well as the object's confidence or probability of existence.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2328
Jinming Yang, Jason Bauman, Al Beydoun
An effective methodology for design verification and product validation is always a key to high quality products. As many body control applications are currently implemented across multiple ECUs distributed on one or more vehicle networks, verification and validation of vehicle-level user functions will require availability of both the vehicle networks and multiple ECUs involved in the implementation of the user functions. While the ECUs are usually developed by different suppliers and vehicle networks' infrastructure and communication protocols are normally maintained and developed by the OEM, each supplier will be faced with a similar challenge - the ECU being developed cannot be fully verified and tested until all other ECUs and their communication networks are available in the final development stage.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2329
Edoardo Sivera
Automotive systems are obviously becoming more and more complex. In fact, a typical vehicle is built using various communication networks, many electronic units and a never ending amount of software! The main problem automakers face now is related to the integration of different distributed functionalities, and often these functionalities are based on software. For these reasons it is very important to have an approach at “system” level in order to assure that the complete vehicle conforms to requirements and the statement of needs. It is also important that the testing phases assure a complete coverage of all requirements, in order to verify all system aspects. In this context, the software, in general, plays an important role during all phases of system development: from requirement analysis, system architecture definition, system implementation and testing phases. The software is generally acquired by external suppliers and is already programmed in the electronic devices.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2327
Roger Shulze, P.K. Mallick
The automotive industry is expected to accelerate the transition to revolutionary products, rapid changes in technology and increasing technological sophistication. This will require engineers to advance their knowledge, connect and integrate different areas of knowledge and be skilled in synthesis. In addition, they must learn to work in cross-disciplinary teams and adopt a systems approach. The College of Engineering and Computer Science (CECS) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-Dearborn) responded by creating interdisciplinary MS and Ph.D. programs in automotive systems engineering (ASE) and augmenting them with hands-on research. Students at the undergraduate level can also engage in numerous ASE activities. UM-Dearborn's ASE programs offer interesting and possibly unique advantages. The first is that it offers a spectrum of ASE degree and credit programs, from the MS to the Ph.D. to continuing education.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2332
Jorge Sans Sangorrin, Jan Sparbert, Ulrike Ahlrichs, Wolfgang Branz, Oliver Schwindt
Active safety systems will have a great impact in the next generation of vehicles. This is partly originated by the increasing consumer's interest for safety and partly by new traffic safety laws. Control actions in the vehicle are based on an extensive environment model which contains information about relevant objects in vehicle surroundings. Sensor data fusion integrates measurements from different surround sensors into this environment model. In order to avoid system malfunctions, high reliability in the interpretation of the situation, and therefore in the environment model, is essential. Hence, the main idea of data fusion is to make use of the advantages of using multiple sensors and different technologies in order to fulfill these requirements, which are especially high due to autonomous interventions in vehicle dynamics (e. g. automatic emergency braking).
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2333
Zachary Doerzaph, Thomas A. Dingus, Jon Hankey
The design of a safe transportation system requires numerous design decisions that should be based on data acquired by rigorous scientific method. Naturalistic data collection and analysis methods are a relatively new addition to the engineer's toolbox. The naturalistic method is based on unobtrusively monitoring driver and vehicle performance under normal, everyday, driving conditions; generally for extended collection periods. The method generates a wealth of data that is particularly well-suited for identifying the underlying causes of safety deficiencies. Furthermore, the method also provides robust data for the design and evaluation of safety enhancement systems through field studies. Recently the instrumentation required to do this type of study has become much more cost effective allowing larger numbers of vehicles to be instrumented at a fraction of the cost. This paper will first provide an overview of the naturalistic method including comparisons to other available methods.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2019
William Schaudt, Darrell Bowman, Walter Wierwille, Richard Hanowski, Chris Flanigan
Rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks occur with sufficient frequency that they are a cause of concern within regulatory agencies. In 2006, there were approximately 23,500 rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks which resulted in 135 fatalities. As part of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's (FMCSA) goal of reducing the overall number of truck crashes, the Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks project was developed to investigate methods to reduce or mitigate those crashes where a heavy truck has been struck from behind by another vehicle. Researchers also utilized what had been learned in the rear-end crash avoidance work with light vehicles that was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) serving as the prime research organization. ERS crash countermeasures investigated included passive conspicuity markings, visual signals, and auditory signals.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2018
Zhu Wang, Ales Alajbegovic, Jaehoon Han, Tristan Donley, Kevin Horrigan, David Bloch, Melinda Pell, Andrew Holz
A newly developed simulation methodology for a long term, transient tractor cabin cool-down is presented in this paper. The air flow was simulated using a Lattice-Boltzmann Equation (LBE) based 3-dimensional flow solver. The conduction and radiation effects on the solid parts as well as the average cabin air temperature evolution were solved by the thermal solver, which also includes a human comfort model. The simulation results were compared with the measured experimental test data and good agreement was observed validating the developed simulation approach. The developed methodology can be applied to all other ground vehicles cabin comfort applications.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2017
Abhijit Vishnu Londhe, Suhas Kangde
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2021
Zhixin Liu, Hong Chen, Yongwan Shi, Xiaolong Zhang
Although the chance that occupant's upper limbs were injured is decreased significantly in frontal crash with the popularization of safety belt and airbag, the injury problem of occupant's chest is still most frequent and fatal in traffic accidents. 37 groups of data of C-NCAP crash tests including full frontal crash and offset frontal crash tests were investigated in this paper. The chest injury distributing characteristic of drivers and passengers in these two kinds of crash configurations were obtained, and the effect rules of characteristic parameters on chest injury were summarized.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2020
Gregory Fitch, Myra Blanco, Richard Hanowski, Paul Rau, Chris Flanigan
On-board Camera/Video Imaging Systems (C/VISs) for heavy vehicles display live images to the driver of selected areas to the sides, and in back of the truck's exterior using displays inside the truck cabin. They provide a countermeasure to blind-spot related crashes by allowing drivers to see objects not ordinarily visible by a typical mirror configuration, and to better judge the clearance between the trailer and an adjacent vehicle when changing lanes. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute is currently investigating commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver performance with C/VISs through a technology field demonstration sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Data collection, which consists of recording twelve CMV drivers performing their daily employment duties with and without a C/VIS for four months, is currently underway.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0565
Bryan M. Knight, Joshua A. Bittle, Timothy J. Jacobs
The often-observed differences in nitrogen oxides, or NOx, emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels in diesel engines remain intense topics of research. In several instances, biodiesel-fuelled engines have higher NOx emissions than petroleum-fuelled engines; a situation often referred to as the "biodiesel NOx penalty." The literature is rich with investigations that reveal many fundamental mechanisms which contribute to (in varying and often inverse ways) the manifestation of differences in NOx emissions; these mechanisms include, for example, differences in ignition delay, changes to in-cylinder radiation heat transfer, and unequal heating values between the fuels. In addition to fundamental mechanisms, however, are the effects of "system-response" issues.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0550
Devadatta Mukutmoni, Jaehoon Han, Ales Alejbegovic, Lionel Colibert, Mathieu Helene
Accurate simulation of long term transient thermal convection is critical to automotive related thermal and fluid flow applications. For instance, long term thermal transients are relevant to “key-off” situations in which a moving vehicle brought to a stop leads to a usual initial spike in temperature followed by a drop as the heat sources are turned off. Presented are simulations of a simple tube and plate configuration that captures the contribution of all heat transfer effects and complexities of a vehicle key-off process. The simulations were performed using a coupling between the flow solver and the thermal simulation package that includes conduction and radiation effects. The simulation results were compared with the test data for steady state forced convection cases and transient natural convection cases. Good agreement was observed for both steady and transient simulations.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0379
Guofei Chen, Todd Link, Ming Shi, Tau Tyan, Ruth Gao, Paul McKune
To improve the energy absorption capacity of front-end structures during a vehicle crash, a novel 12-sided cross-section was developed and tested. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) studies showed superior axial crash performance of the 12-sided component over more conventional cross-sections. When produced from advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the 12-sided cross-section offers opportunities for significant mass-savings for crash energy absorbing components such as front or rear rails and crush tips. In this study, physical crash tests and CAE modeling were conducted on tapered 12-sided samples fabricated from AHSS. The effects of crash trigger holes, different steel grades and bake hardening on crash behavior were examined. Crash sensitivity was also studied by using two different part fabrication methods and two crash test methods. The 12-sided components showed regular folding mode and excellent energy absorption capacity in axial crash tests.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0380
Shun Yi Jin, William J. Altenhof
Quasi-static axial cutting of AA6061-T6 and T4 round extrusions were completed using a specially designed cutter with multiple blades. The round specimens had a length of 200 mm, a nominal outer diameter of 50.8 mm, and a wall thickness of 3.175 mm or 1.587 mm. Four different cutters, constructed from heat-treated 4140 steel, having 3, 4, 5 and 6 blades on each cutter with a nominal tip width of 1.0 mm were used to penetrate through the round extrusions. A clean cutting mode was observed for the AA6061-T6 and T4 extrusions with wall thickness of 3.175 mm with an almost constant steady state cutting force. A braided cutting mode was observed for extrusions with both tempers with wall thickness of 1.587 mm, which resulted in a slightly oscillating steady state cutting force. For all extrusions with a wall thickness of 3.175 mm, the steady state cutting force increased with an increase in the number of cutter blades.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0383
Garrett W Wood, Matthew B Panzer, Cameron R Bass, Barry S Myers
The biofidelity of the Hybrid III headform in impact is largely dependent on local head geometry and viscoelastic mechanical properties of its polymer skin. Accordingly, for accurate simulation of the ATD headform in computational models, a quantitative understanding of the mechanical properties of skin material is required at a variety of strain rates and strain amplitudes. The objective of this study was to characterize the head skin material of the Hybrid III test dummy for finite deformations and at moderate strain rates for blunt impact simulation using finite element models Head skin material from a single ATD was tested using uniaxial compression. A viscoelastic constitutive model with separable temporal and elastic responses was used to characterize the nonlinear and viscoelastic material behavior.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0460
Masao Fukushima, Noriyuki Tsukada
The SKY Project (Start ITS from Kanagawa, Yokohama) was launched in October 2004 in Yokohama, Japan in order to contribute to the local community by reducing traffic accidents and congestion. SKY is a private sector collaboration between Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., NTT DoCoMo, Inc., Panasonic Corporation, and Xanavi Informatics Corporation (now Clarion Ltd.). Support has also been provided from the public sector, namely the National Police Agency of Japan (NPA) and the Kanagawa Prefectural Police. Through the use of in-vehicle technology and an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that communicates with the infrastructure, information on nearby vehicles and the surrounding traffic environment can be utilized to reduce traffic accidents, shorten travel times, and increase fuel savings. These are the goals of the SKY project. This paper shows the results of early stage testing and the introduction of newly started trials.
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