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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3876
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0499
Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang
The Taipei Metro is one of the major transportation systems in the Taipei area. Noticeable noise and vibration caught attention during the train turning on a rail with a large angle. The initial investigation indicates the noise occurs between the slewing ring bearing and the friction sets which are located between the body and chassis systems. A study was conducted to identify the root causes. A lab test to duplicate the reported problem observed on the train was established, and a set of experiments were performed in the lab to identify the root causes. Under certain contact conditions, unsmooth turning would occur and cause the noise and vibration. To further identify and understand the root causes. An ADAMS multibody dynamic model which included the slew bearing and friction set was build to perform the train turn motion, and to verify the lab test. Different friction materials were also included in the simulation.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0756
Bradley D. Duncan, Satheesh Kandasamy, Khaled Sbeih, Todd H. Lounsberry, Mark E. Gleason
In an environment of tougher engineering constraints to deliver tomorrow's aerodynamic vehicles, evaluation of aerodynamics early in the design process using digital prototypes and simulation tools has become more crucial for meeting cost and performance targets. Engineering needs have increased the demands on simulation software to provide robust solutions under a range of operating conditions and with detailed geometry representation. In this paper the application of simulation tools to wheel design in on-road operating conditions is explored. Typically, wheel and wheel cover design is investigated using physical tests very late in the development process, and requires costly testing of many sets of wheels in an on-road testing environment (either coast-down testing or a moving-ground wind-tunnel).
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1962
Robert Otto Rasmussen
Pavements complying with the ISO 10844 standard are an important component of vehicle and tire noise testing. In 2011, a new version of this standard was published, which includes many important changes compared to the 1994 version. As a result, some tracks that complied with the 1994 standard are now nonconforming with the 2011 version. Many tracks are in the process of being resurfaced, particularly before regulations are adopted that require conformance with the new version of the standard. While repaving is costly, it can also lead to opportunity. Pavement engineering encompasses pavement design, materials selection and proportioning, and the selection of construction techniques. Pavement life is also an important engineering criterion. In the case of test tracks, life is most often defined by functional performance including changes in friction, rolling resistance, ride, and in this instance, noise.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9094
Waleed Faris, Hesham Rakha, Salah A.M. Elmoselhy
Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions has led to new vehicle emissions standards which in turn have led to a call for vehicle technologies to meet these standards. Modeling of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions emerged as an effective tool to help in developing and assessing such technologies, to help in predicting aggregate vehicle fuel consumption and emissions, and to complement traffic simulation models. The paper identifies the current state of the art on vehicle fuel consumption and emissions modeling and its utilization to test the environmental impact of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)’ measures and to evaluate transportation network improvements. The study presents the relevant models to ITS in the key classifications of models in this research area. It demonstrates that the trends of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions provided by current models generally do satisfactorily replicate field data trends.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0175
Eui Yoon Chung, Jee Yeong Kim, Eugene Chang, Jin Min Chun, In Sik Lee
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems, which detect distance of a preceding vehicle and a radar-mounted vehicle using the radar, are available from automobile manufacturers. The distance and a relative velocity of the preceding vehicle and the radar-mounted vehicle can be estimated by analyzing a millimeter-wave signal obtained through the radar. Due to a characteristic of the radar and the relative velocity between the preceding vehicle and the radar-mounted vehicle, it is difficult to detect and track the preceding vehicle in the same lane where the radar-mounted vehicle is moving. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to solve the above difficulties. The proposed algorithm separates a radar-search range into several blocks. And it detects and tracks a preceding object as a detected block of the several blocks. Applying this algorithm and assigning priority among the blocks, the searching range for the targeting vehicle and response time of the system are reduced.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0177
Shunji Miyahara
A new practical algorithm is proposed for multiple object detection in automotive FM-CW radars. They are radars for ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) radar, collision avoidance, pre-crash safety, side-object detection, etc. This algorithm can provide the distance and relative velocity of objects without the ambiguity of distance and relative velocity, an inherent problem of FM-CW. Since it is simple, straight-forward and fast, it is suitable for automotive application, in which the update time is less than 100 [msec]. This algorithm is based on two down chirp frequency sweeps with small slope-difference. Since the difference is small, the correct pairs of beat frequencies are obtained automatically. Because of the down chirps, the polarity of beat frequencies owing to the distance and the doppler becomes the same for an approaching object and then the distance and the velocity are uniquely determined.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0170
Mark Müller, Markus Reif, Madhukar Pandit, Wolfgang Staiger, Bert Martin
A predictive automatic gear shift system is currently under development. The system optimizes the gear shift process, taking the conditions of the road ahead into account, such that the fuel consumption is minimized. An essential part of the system is a module that predicts the vehicle speed dynamics: This calculates a speed trajectory, i.e. the most probable vehicle speed the driver will desire for the upcoming section of the route. In the paper the theoretical background for predicting the vehicle speed, and simulation results of the predictive shift algorithm are presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0171
Wassim G. Najm, David L. Smith
This paper presents a driver performance map of braking and steering in response to three driving scenarios that lead to rear-end crashes. This map encompasses low risk, conflict, near-crash, and crash imminent driving states that correspond to advisory warning, crash imminent warning, and crash mitigation functionalities for intelligent vehicle rear-end crash countermeasures. Specifically, this paper models driver response to a lead vehicle decelerating by building upon prior research that estimated the state boundaries for driver response to lead vehicle stopped or moving at slower constant speed. In addition, this paper compares braking performance to steering performance in the lead vehicle-decelerating scenario using plots of range and range-rate that roughly quantify the boundaries between the driving conflict states. Driver performance is also discussed among the three rear-end crash scenarios.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0180
Xavier Huppé, Nicolas Gaubert, Mathieu Beauregard, Francçois Michaud, Jean de Lafontaine
The long-term goal of this project is to derive systems that would allow the safe and efficient coordination of collaborating vehicles in high-density highway traffic. The challenge is to ensure safe movements of each vehicle, inside the collaborative driving system. Different control scenarios for making vehicles join or leave a platoon, merging two platoons, are presented. The presented longitudinal guidance and control part follow a safe time-headway distance policy between the vehicles. A two-level longitudinal controller is developed using the Linear Quadratic Regulor (LQR) and feedback linearization methods. A “safe virtual bubble” is created according to each vehicle dynamics and road conditions.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0179
Shoji Muramatsu, Yuji Otsuka, Hiroshi Takenaga, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Tatsuhiko Monji
A new automotive vision platform has been developed for practical applications. The vision platform simultaneously realizes high-performance computing power and reliability for automotive use by using a newly developed dedicated image processor. The developed processor has specialized and novel hardware allowing it to process a large amount of image data at high speed under a moderate clock frequency. The vision platform has enough capability to process multiple applications at the same time. In this paper, we describe the unified memory architecture in the vision platform. We introduce specific functional units for various applications such as the edge analysis unit. We report results from experiments with a real-time on-board lane recognition system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0450
John L. Campbell, David H. Hoffmeister, Raymond J. Kiefer, Daniel J. Selke, Paul Green, Joel B. Richman
This paper describes an effort to develop a valid and reliable process for comprehension testing of candidate automotive symbols and to conduct comprehension testing on a set of new symbols being considered for in-vehicle active safety systems. The comprehension testing process was developed though a multi-year effort, supported by Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) and other organizations, aimed at generating a test methodology that would: yield high-quality comprehension data for new automotive symbols, provide clear and specific guidance back to symbol developers based on the test results, and could be adopted and performed internationally to support international standards efforts. Seventeen (17) candidate symbols were evaluated for three classes of in-vehicle active safety systems: forward collision warning (4 symbols), side collision warning (6 symbols), and lane departure warning (7 symbols).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0451
Marita Irmscher, Martin Ehmann
A driver model is presented that accounts for individual driver behavior and allows driver classification or behavior for common driving tasks. Typical driver errors can be modeled by means of parameters of the driver controller and by influencing the driving course. This is illustrated for some typical driver types and driving maneuvers.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1963
B. Tormos, V. Macián, P. Olmeda, L. Montoro
This paper is structured into two different parts: Firstly, it describes a methodology to evaluate wear conditions in internal combustion engines in order to go beyond the classical evaluation based on specified wear concentration limits provided by engine manufacturers or commercial oil laboratories. The proposed methodology uses spectrometric wear debris measurement data and typical maintenance data to obtain a more representative parameter of wear condition, defined as “compensated wear rate”, that takes into account particular engine operating conditions affecting wear concentration measurements. Later, an evaluation of this compensated wear rate is carried out using statistical criteria and considering individual engine characteristics such as engine age, type of service, engine metallurgy, environmental conditions of work etc.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1243
Masanori Ichinose, Atsushi Yokoyama, Takaomi Nishigaito, Hiroyuki Saito, Daisuke Iwanuma
A Hardware-In-the-Loop simulator with a vehicle-ready Electronic Control Unit (ECU) coupled with a vehicle model, simulating a real vehicle movement in real time, was developed. The simulator was used to validate the ECU software and hardware components of the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system. The authors have modularized each vehicle component so that the entire vehicle model can be rebuilt automatically by selecting each component. This feature enables flexible and rapid building of the virtual vehicle. As a result, the simulator with auto building vehicle model allowed the development and validation of the ACC control system for various vehicle configurations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1306
Richard M. Wood
An assessment of the role of fluid dynamic resistance and/or aerodynamic drag and the relationship to energy use in the United States is presented. Existing data indicates that 16% of the total energy consumed in the United States is used to overcome aerodynamic drag in transportation systems. Application of existing pressure drag reduction technologies to all ground vehicles within the United States will reduce yearly energy costs by 20 billion dollars.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0748
C. Basnayake, O. Mezentsev, G. Lachapelle, M. E. Cannon
A Global Positioning System (GPS) technology development known as high sensitivity GPS (HSGPS) can significantly improve availability in challenging environments such as in urban canyons where standard GPS performance is extremely poor. However, this technology could produce higher measurement noise, multipath and cross-correlation errors resulting in position errors of hundreds of metres in such cases. The use of internal filtering with “heavy” constraints provides better results in some cases but may result in major biases and overshooting effects in other cases. This paper develops a portable vehicle navigation system by aiding a standalone HSGPS receiver with self-contained inertial sensors and map-matching. Since traditional GPS error estimation methods are shown to be invalid in urban canyon environments for HSGPS, nontraditional data fusion algorithms are needed for augmenting HSGPS with self-contained sensors (MacGougan et al, 2002).
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0752
Mathieu St-Pierre, Denis Gingras
Land navigation systems need a precise and continuous position in order to function properly. The sensors commonly found in those systems are differential odometer, global positioning system and 2 or 3 axis inertial measurement unit respectively. Two or more of these complementary positioning methods must be integrated together to achieve the required performance at low cost. The integration, which implies the fusion of noisy data provided by each sensor, must be performed in some optimal manner. Most positioning system designers choose the Kalman filter as the data fusion method. An interesting alternative to the Kalman filter is the artificial neural network (ANN). This paper describes the research conducted to evaluate the potential of an ANN as a centralized fusion method and as nonlinear filters for land vehicle positioning.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0761
Liangtao Zhu, Ravindra Patankar
A non-dynamic motor inverse model is used to achieve torque control of the motor in an automotive electric power steering system. Variations of the motor parameters directly impart inaccuracies in the motor control. Parameter estimation schemes based on the non-dynamic motor inverse model have been investigated in the past. This paper proposes an improved adaptive control scheme by approximating motor electrical dynamics and correcting for the back EMF compensation error caused by the velocity sampling delay. Comparison of simulations confirms a lower bound of error of the estimated parameter and faster adaptation with the proposed scheme compared to previously employed methods.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0760
Kurt Kornbluth, Andrew Burke, Geoff Wardle, Nathan Nickell
This study focuses on the design of a narrow (44 inches maximum width) vehicle capable of moving two occupants safely at freeway speeds with an emphasis on comfort, efficiency and performance. The design addresses consumer acceptance problems of past narrow vehicles such as “too small,” “too ugly,” “too unstable,” “too wet,” “too slow,” “too complicated,” and “too expensive” A full CAD model was developed to show the external vehicle shape, occupant seating and ergonomics, and the packaging of driveline components. Simulations were run using SIMPLEV and Advisor 2002 to predict vehicle performance and range. The size and mass characteristics of the driveline components used in the simulations were based on commercially-available EV products and selected for the special requirements of a relatively lightweight (450-600 kg) vehicle. Dynamic stability and safety of the vehicle are of prime importance and were considered in all phases of the design.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0058
Yoshihiko Teguri
In recent years, new technologies have been developed and are being marketed with the aim of reducing the number of injuries and fatalities due to traffic accidents. They range from systems designed to reduce the driving burden to systems for controlling vehicles in the hope of mitigating the harm done by accidents when they do occur. One of the most important components in creating these systems has been a front obstacle detection sensor that detects obstacles in the paths of vehicles. DENSO is developing laser sensors, millimeter-wave radar, and vision sensors for front obstacle detection. Of these three, it is the laser sensors that have had the important role of supplying adaptive cruise control (ACC) to the market at a low price. This paper focuses on the laser sensor, the expansion of its applications, and the development of new technology to that end.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0057
Masayuki Furutani
The increase in automobile accidents has heightened the awareness of safety in the general public, and serious safety measures have been pushed forward in various countries. Although those efforts have achieved a certain level of success, more effective methods are needed to cope with further increases of automobile ownership.Besides the collision safety, measures that prevent accidents or reduce the possibility of accidents will now be necessary to reduce the number of injuries.Here, we will present the current development status and issues for an obstacle recognition system that reduces the likelihood of accidents by utilizing radars and image sensors.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0056
Thomas Breitling, Jörg Breuer, Uwe Petersen
Active safety systems are designed to help the driver to avoid accidents or, if an accident is unavoidable, to mitigate accident severity. This paper describes the activities in the field of active safety pursued at the Mercedes Car Group. An accident causation analysis reveals four major types of accidents that account for the majority of fatal accidents and accidents with injuries. It is shown, how current driver assistance systems contribute to reducing these types of accidents and what future developments can be expected in this field.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0067
Steve Polakowski, Tim Pryor
To facilitate driver effectiveness, in light of a barrage of features and functions, coupled with continuous price/performance pressures, a new approach is necessary. This objective is met with the development of the Reconfigurable Tactile Display. The focus has been to improve the average driver’s ability to control the vehicle with minimum distraction through the application of tomorrow’s sensory, telematic and electronic capabilities. This breakthrough - an interior system blending Automotive and Consumer electronics - is elegantly simple yet dramatic, affordable and familiar to all. It employs reusable design and hardware, has novel customization possibilities, and appears to meet today’s FMVSS 101 regulations without change. The paper will describe a center stack application and how it blends the simultaneous objectives of lower cost, improved reliability and reduced development time.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0061
Wolfgang Runge
This contribution deals with the fundamental trends in car electronics, driveline, and chassis technology. Electronically controlled active systems replace most of purely mechanic systems. In driveline systems, additional hybrid systems will find a place on the market. In Europe, the largest advantage gained will be the extension of functionalities in the fields of dynamics and car behavior. The advantages and the added value generated by functional driveline networking for the manufacturer and vehicle owner are explained by means of examples. A look into the future allows the depiction of comprehensive system integration with reference to driveline and chassis, e.g. refer ti information provided. Making this new networked based functionalities possible, requires a lot of new competencies e.g. in mechatronics, software, real-time control, model - based and software development processes, tools, test methods, and equipment.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0068
Vladimir Rasin, Dave McNamara, Craig Simonds, Frank Perry, Gary Streelman
Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0041
Alexandre Saad, Ulrich Weinmann
The paper introduces an integrated view on the emerging domain of system services as important part of an automotive IT infrastructure. System services are essential to allow an adequate administration and reliable operation of complex automotive IT systems during production, operation or maintenance of a vehicle. System services are vehicle-wide services. They range from software installation and configuration services, safety and security services, system diagnosis services, communication, connectivity and network services, up to vehicle status or engergy management services. The paper will discuss requirements, architecture and implementation issues as well as organisational implications, based on lessons learned from a prototypical implementation at BMW Car IT GmbH.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0049
Bernhard Wiederseiner
Some of the key drivers within our automotive infotainment industry are open systems, modular hardware concepts, software configuration, unified HMI concepts and Telematics online services. Leading edge infotainment systems take care about consumer oriented applications as well as vehicle and OEM related services. This leads us to work on concepts to integrate consumer driven mobile devices within the special automotive environment and increase the value for the end-user by offering seamless end-to-end solutions. A lot of different market trends will support such distributed infotainment solutions. We will show you some interesting concept studies to bridge the gap between consumer and automotive life cycle challenge and comprehensive solution offerings.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0053
Wim van Acker, Mark Mildon
Even successful automakers increasingly face problems in managing products that incorporate technologies from different industries such as consumer electronics or telematics. This paper will discuss the major factors that cause this situation. Finally the paper will suggest some concrete steps that can be taken by OEMs and suppliers to ensure that good ideas are successfully transformed into great products. Some key highlights are: OEMs need to set clear and realistic technology strategies OEMs and High Tech Suppliers must build up trust OEMs and Suppliers must understand their respective roles and how they should evolve Suppliers need to choose a distinctive strategy based on how they want their role to evolve
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0055
Randy Frank
Various sensing technologies are used today for collision avoidance, blind spot detection, and other vision enhancing systems in luxury vehicles. These sensing technologies include radar, lidar, infrared, and ultrasonic sensing as well as CCD and CMOS imaging and, in most cases, require intensive and sophisticated computing capability to implement. Turning these systems and those still in the development phase into standard or optional features on mid-range vehicles will require performance enhancements and considerable cost reduction. However, affordable vehicle systems that anticipate accidents and allow the driver and/or the vehicle itself to avoid them could provide one of the most remarkable vehicle safety advances. This paper will review automotive industry goals and objectives for vision-based systems and present the electronics industries’ current and projected capability to meet these demands.
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