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Viewing 121 to 150 of 190966
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2323
Keith Lang, Michael Kropinski, Tim Foster
GM's R oad-to- L ab-to- M ath (RLM) initiative is a fundamental engineering strategy leading to higher quality design, reduced structural cost, and improved product development time. GM started the RLM initiative several years ago and the RLM initiative has already provided successful results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the specific RLM efforts at GM related to powertrain controls development and calibration. This paper will focus on the current state of the art but will also examine the history and the future of these related activities. This paper will present a controls development environment and methodology for providing powertrain controls developers with virtual (in the absence of ECU and vehicle hardware) calibration capabilities within their current desktop controls development environment.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2322
Robert Gee
The interdisciplinary and structured integration of subsystems into a functioning whole is at the root of Systems Engineering. Until recently in the automotive market, much of this has been specific to an automotive subdomain such as Telematics, Infotainment, Chassis Control, or Engine Management Systems. In the realm of Telematics and Connected Vehicles, the recent trend has been outward from the vehicle, focusing on expanding connectivity and data sources. Systems Engineering for Telematics now includes multiple transports spanning PAN, WLAN, and WAN communications, and beyond that has grown to include entities on the far side of the network link, including data servers, aggregation portals, and network security.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2313
Robert White, Tao Zhang, Paul Tukey, Kevin Lu, David McNamara
This paper presents modeling, analysis, and results of the business viability of a set of IntelliDrive 1 safety applications in a free market setting. The primary value drivers for motorists to adopt the IntelliDrive system are based on a set of safety applications developed and analyzed by the US DOT. The modeling approach simulates IntelliDrive on-board equipment adoption by motorists based on the value of the safety applications. The simulation model uses parameters that are based on adoption rates in a similar dynamical system from recent history and incorporates feedback loops such as the positive reinforcement of vehicle-to-vehicle applications value due to increased adoption. This approach allows the analysis of alternative IntelliDrive business approaches, deployment scenarios, and policies. The net present value of the IntelliDrive system to the nation is computed under alternative scenarios.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2312
Masanori Ueda, Toshio Hirota, Atsushi Hatano
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2311
Eric A. Fedewa, Charles Chesbrough
There is a profound sense of urgency among leading industrialized nations: governments recognize that massive reductions in carbon emissions are required if we are to limit climate change in an era of ever-increasing global population growth and increasing affluence. They may also believe that the auto industry can deliver more carbon reduction faster at a lower absolute and political cost than other industries. Continued investment on the part of governments and the auto industry to create a viable model for sustainable mobility and vehicle electrification in the 2010 – 2020 timeframe should help drive transport-related carbon emissions down to the 60-90 grams/kilometer level, from 130-155 grams today, and contribute to an overall 20-30 percent reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2314
Niall T. Berkery
Abstract Connectivity, software and services are the key elements that will define the next-generation vehicle experience. Drivers are being provided new innovative solutions that seamlessly integrate their online digital lifestyle into their vehicle environment, enabling automakers increased opportunity for brand differentiation, while giving drivers the ability to personalize their vehicles down to an individual level. This will be accomplished through “virtual accessorization” - where drivers will personalize their connected vehicle experience by choosing applications and services that best suit their individual needs. After selecting applications from an online automotive apps exchange, the apps are sent wirelessly to the car or the driver's smartphone for immediate use. The in-vehicle apps can also be configured based on who is driving, so that preferences and personal functionality moves with each driver.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2336
Veerender Kaul, Sarwant Singh, Krishnasami Rajagopalan, Michael Coury
1. ABSTRACT The U.S. National Highway Transportation and Safety Agency's (NHTSA) early estimates of Motor Traffic Fatalities in 2009 in the United States [1] show continuing progress on improving traffic safety on the U.S. roadways. The number of total fatalities and the fatality rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles (MVM), both show continuing declines. In the 10 year period from 1999 through 2009, the total fatalities have dropped from 41,611 to 33,963 and the fatality rate has dropped from 1.5 fatalities per 100MVM to 1.16 fatalities per 100MVM, a compound annual drop of 2.01% and 2.54% respectively. The large number of traffic fatalities, and the slowing down of the fatality rate decline, compared to the decade before, continues to remain a cause of concern for regulators.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2337
Michael Darms, Florian Foelster, Jochen Schmidt, Dominik Froehlich, Alfred Eckert
Data fusion plays a central role in more and more automotive applications, especially for driver assistance systems. On the one hand the process of data fusion combines data and information to estimate or predict states of observed objects. On the other hand data fusion introduces abstraction layers for data description and allows building more flexible and modular systems. The data fusion process can be divided into a low-level processing (tracking and object discrimination) and a high level processing (situation assessment). High level processing becomes more and more the focus of current research as different assistance applications will be combined into one comprehensive assistance system. Different levels/strategies for data fusion can be distinguished: Fusion on raw data level, fusion on feature level and fusion on decision level. All fusion strategies can be found in current driver assistance implementations.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2334
Falke Hendriks, Riné Pelders, Martijn Tideman
Active safety systems are increasingly becoming available in trucks and passenger vehicles. Developments in the field of active safety are shifting from increasing driver comfort towards increasing occupant safety. Furthermore, this shift is seen within active safety systems: safety functions are added to existing comfort systems, rather than adding new safety systems to the vehicle. Comfort systems such as cruise control are extended via ACC to pre-crash braking systems. Testing of active safety systems must follow these developments. Whereas standardized test programs are available for passive safety systems, such test programs are hardly available yet for active safety systems. Furthermore, test programs for passive safety systems consist of only a handful of scenarios. Test programs for active safety systems, however, should consist of much more scenarios, as those systems should function well in many different situations.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2335
Jeffrey D. Rupp, Anthony G. King
Successful demonstrations of fully autonomous vehicle operation in controlled situations are leading to increased research investment and activity. This has already resulted in significant advancements in the underlying technologies necessary to make it a practical reality someday. Not only are these idealized events sparking imaginations with the potential benefits for safety, convenience, fuel economy and emissions, they also embolden some to make somewhat surprising and sometimes astonishing projections for their appearance on public roads in the near future. Are we now ready for a giant leap forward to the self-driving car with all its complexity and inter-dependencies? Humans will need to grow with and adapt to the technological advancements of the machine and we'll deeply challenge our social and political paradigms before we're done. Even if we as engineers are ready, is the driving public ready?
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2339
Richard Altendorfer, Sebastian Wirkert, Sascha Heinrichs-Bartscher
Driver assistance systems are incorporating more and more advanced safety functions. As these functions have to react quickly and reliably in emergency situations with a false alarm rate close to zero a high integrity of the environmental perception is required. This elevated level of signal integrity can be achieved by data fusion, where the information of several, in general heterogeneous sensors is combined to obtain a better model of the environment in terms of accuracy, object integrity, object identity, etc. As an example, we demonstrate the power of sensor fusion by an automatic emergency brake (AEB) system whose environmental perception is based upon a video camera and a radar sensor. In particular we discuss the improvement of kinematic attributes such as object lateral distance as well as the object's confidence or probability of existence.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2328
Jinming Yang, Jason Bauman, Al Beydoun
An effective methodology for design verification and product validation is always a key to high quality products. As many body control applications are currently implemented across multiple ECUs distributed on one or more vehicle networks, verification and validation of vehicle-level user functions will require availability of both the vehicle networks and multiple ECUs involved in the implementation of the user functions. While the ECUs are usually developed by different suppliers and vehicle networks' infrastructure and communication protocols are normally maintained and developed by the OEM, each supplier will be faced with a similar challenge - the ECU being developed cannot be fully verified and tested until all other ECUs and their communication networks are available in the final development stage.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2329
Edoardo Sivera
Automotive systems are obviously becoming more and more complex. In fact, a typical vehicle is built using various communication networks, many electronic units and a never ending amount of software! The main problem automakers face now is related to the integration of different distributed functionalities, and often these functionalities are based on software. For these reasons it is very important to have an approach at “system” level in order to assure that the complete vehicle conforms to requirements and the statement of needs. It is also important that the testing phases assure a complete coverage of all requirements, in order to verify all system aspects. In this context, the software, in general, plays an important role during all phases of system development: from requirement analysis, system architecture definition, system implementation and testing phases. The software is generally acquired by external suppliers and is already programmed in the electronic devices.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2327
Roger Shulze, P.K. Mallick
The automotive industry is expected to accelerate the transition to revolutionary products, rapid changes in technology and increasing technological sophistication. This will require engineers to advance their knowledge, connect and integrate different areas of knowledge and be skilled in synthesis. In addition, they must learn to work in cross-disciplinary teams and adopt a systems approach. The College of Engineering and Computer Science (CECS) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-Dearborn) responded by creating interdisciplinary MS and Ph.D. programs in automotive systems engineering (ASE) and augmenting them with hands-on research. Students at the undergraduate level can also engage in numerous ASE activities. UM-Dearborn's ASE programs offer interesting and possibly unique advantages. The first is that it offers a spectrum of ASE degree and credit programs, from the MS to the Ph.D. to continuing education.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2332
Jorge Sans Sangorrin, Jan Sparbert, Ulrike Ahlrichs, Wolfgang Branz, Oliver Schwindt
Active safety systems will have a great impact in the next generation of vehicles. This is partly originated by the increasing consumer's interest for safety and partly by new traffic safety laws. Control actions in the vehicle are based on an extensive environment model which contains information about relevant objects in vehicle surroundings. Sensor data fusion integrates measurements from different surround sensors into this environment model. In order to avoid system malfunctions, high reliability in the interpretation of the situation, and therefore in the environment model, is essential. Hence, the main idea of data fusion is to make use of the advantages of using multiple sensors and different technologies in order to fulfill these requirements, which are especially high due to autonomous interventions in vehicle dynamics (e. g. automatic emergency braking).
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2333
Zachary Doerzaph, Thomas A. Dingus, Jon Hankey
The design of a safe transportation system requires numerous design decisions that should be based on data acquired by rigorous scientific method. Naturalistic data collection and analysis methods are a relatively new addition to the engineer's toolbox. The naturalistic method is based on unobtrusively monitoring driver and vehicle performance under normal, everyday, driving conditions; generally for extended collection periods. The method generates a wealth of data that is particularly well-suited for identifying the underlying causes of safety deficiencies. Furthermore, the method also provides robust data for the design and evaluation of safety enhancement systems through field studies. Recently the instrumentation required to do this type of study has become much more cost effective allowing larger numbers of vehicles to be instrumented at a fraction of the cost. This paper will first provide an overview of the naturalistic method including comparisons to other available methods.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2113
Benjamin Akih-Kumgeh, Jeff Bergthorson
The quest for sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels leads to a growing diversification of the molecular structures of fuel sources. Since ignition is a vital property in the choice of an engine combustion concept, the ability to tailor the ignition behavior of various fuel sources by means of fuel additives is expected to aid the development of fuel-flexible engines. Ethanol is one of the biofuels with a potential to play an important role in the transportation fuel mix of the future. One of the final processes during ethanol production involves distillation in order to minimize the water content. Using wet ethanol in combustion engines could lead to a reduction in the energy consumption during fuel processing. An understanding of fundamental combustion properties of ethanol in the presence of water vapor such as ignition behavior is expected to aid in the design of efficient engine combustion processes.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2114
Xingguo Cheng
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) just like Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) can be used as fuel for domestic and commercial purposes like town gas and auto gas. Although the caustic sulfur components derived from Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) processing in LPG have been removed before the LPG is transported into tanks, sometimes the case converted the result of copper strip corrosion test from passing to failing still happened when the LPG were stored in tanks for several days in some refineries. In order to find out which kind of sulfide components are the resource of corrosion, the sulfur species in LPG batches that passed and failed in copper strip corrosion test had been analyzed by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Photometric Detector (GC-FPD), and the conversion law among the different sulfide components was discovered.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2116
Luc Jolly, Koji Kitano, Ichiro Sakata, Wenzel Strojek, Walter Bunting
Previous studies have investigated the impacts of biofuel usage on the performance, drivability and durability of modern diesel engines and exhaust after-treatment systems including test work with different types, concentrations and mixtures of bio fuel components. During this earlier work vehicle fuel filter blocking issues were encountered during a field trial using various types of EN 14214 compliant Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) blended into EN 590 diesel. This paper summarises a subsequent literature review that was carried out looking into potential causes of this filter blocking and further work that was then carried out to expand on the findings. From this, a laboratory study was carried out to assess the increase in fuel filter blocking tendency (FBT) when various FAMEs from mixed sources were blended into EN 590 diesel at different concentrations, including levels above those currently allowed in the European market.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2109
Steffen Kuhnert, Uwe Wagner, Ulrich Spicher, Simon-Florian Haas, Klaus Gabel, Immanuel Kutschera
Diesel engines face difficult challenges with respect to engine-out emissions, efficiency and power density as the legal requirements concerning emissions and fuel consumption are constantly increasing. In general, for a diesel engine to achieve low raw emissions a well-mixed fuel-air mixture, burning at low combustion temperatures, is necessary. Highly premixed diesel combustion is a feasible way to reduce the smoke emissions to very low levels compared to conventional diesel combustion. In order to reach both, very low NOX and soot emissions, high rates of cooled EGR are necessary. With high rates of cooled EGR the NOX formation can be suppressed almost completely. This paper investigates to what extent the trade-off between emissions, fuel consumption and power of a diesel engine can be resolved by highly premixed and low temperature diesel combustion using injection nozzles with reduced injection hole diameters and high pressure fuel injection.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2110
Chris De Boer, Junseok Chang, Shreeram Shetty
Spark ignition gasoline engine efficiency is limited by a number of factors; these include the pumping losses that result from throttling for load control, spark ignition and the slow burn rates that result in poor combustion phasing and a compression ratio limited by detonation of fuel. A new combustion process has been developed based on the patented concept of injection-ignition known as Transonic Combustion or TSCi™; this combustion process is based on the direct injection of fuel into the cylinder as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical fuel achieves rapid mixing with the contents of the cylinder and after a short delay period spontaneous ignition occurs at multiple locations. Multiple ignition sites and rapid combustion combine to result in high rates of heat release and high cycle efficiency. The injection-ignition process is independent from the overall air/fuel ratio contained in the cylinder and thus allows the engine to operate un-throttled.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2105
Klaus Siegfried Oppenauer, Daniel Alberer, Luigi del Re
This paper presents a detailed optical and thermodynamic analysis of effects which influences the soot formation and oxidation process during Diesel combustion. To measure the actual soot concentration over crank angle an optical sensor was installed on the engine. In combination with a thermodynamic engine process calculation, based on the measured cylinder pressure, several important effects are analyzed and described in detail. The main focus of the paper is to produce knowledge on how soot dynamics is influenced by changed engine control unit (ECU) calibration parameters. A modern 4 cylinder production car Diesel engine was used for the studies, which offers a lot of opportunities to influence combustion by varying injection timing and air path ECU parameters. As a consequence discussion is done on how the analyzed effects are treated by published 0-dimensional simulation models with focus on later control and optimization application.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2104
Ulf Aronsson, Clément Chartier, Öivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Johan Sjöholm, Rikard Wellander, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Paul C. Miles
The soot distribution as function of ambient O₂ mole fraction in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated at low load (6 bar IMEP) with laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity. A Multi-YAG laser system was utilized to create time-resolved LII using 8 laser pulses with a spacing of one CAD with detection on an 8-chip framing camera. It is well known that the engine-out smoke level increases with decreasing oxygen fraction up to a certain level where it starts to decrease again. For the studied case the peak occurred at an O₂ fraction of 11.4%. When the oxygen fraction was decreased successively from 21% to 9%, the initial soot formation moved downstream in the jet. At the lower oxygen fractions, below 12%, no soot was formed until after the wall interaction. At oxygen fractions below 11% the first evidence of soot is in the recirculation zone between two adjacent jets.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2106
Lyle M. Pickett, Caroline L. Genzale, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec, Laurent Hermant, Caspar Christiansen, Jesper Schramm
Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models that will be used to optimize future engine designs. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. For this paper, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2107
Ettore Musu, Riccardo Rossi, Roberto Gentili, Rolf D. Reitz
Homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is triggered by spontaneous ignition in dilute homogeneous mixtures. The combustion rate must be reduced by suitable solutions such as high rates of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and/or lean mixtures. HCCI is considered a very effective way to reduce engine pollutant emissions, however only a few HCCI engines have entered into production. HCCI combustion currently cannot be extended to the whole engine operating range, especially to high loads, since the use of EGR displaces air from the cylinder, limiting engine mean effective pressure, thus the engine must be able to operate also in conventional mode. This paper concerns an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fuelled engines. This new combustion concept is called Homogenous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC). HCPC is based on split-cycle principle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2100
V. Macian, B. Tormos, J. M. Salavert, Y. A. Gomez
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a promising alternative fuel due to several main reasons, specially the strict engine emission regulations all over the world. This has made that lot's of cities have decided to use CNG as an alternative fuel in their urban transport fleets or in other urban tasks. Nevertheless, due to the recent implementation of the CNG technology in automotive sector, several problems related to lubrication have been detected, mostly affecting a reduction of the oil drain period and these problems showed no relationship with a particular fleet nor with the lubricant's brand used. These effects will have a very important weight on fleet manager's decision to select CNG as an alternative fuel, thus this reduction does not only increase the cost in engine oil, there are other maintenance actions referred to this basic period of oil drain, thus also increases other more significant costs.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2094
John Williams, Nozomi Yokoo, Koichi Nakata, Rana Ali, Walter Bunting, Kenichi Ishiwa
Toyota and BP have performed a collaborative study to understand the impact of fuel composition on the combustion and emissions of a prototype 1.8L lean boosted engine. The fuel matrix was designed to understand better the impact of a range of fuel properties on fundamental combustion characteristics including thermal efficiency, combustion duration, exhaust emissions and extension of lean limit. Most of the fuels in the test matrix were in the RON range of 96 - 102, although ethanol and other high octane components were used in some fuels to increase RON to the range 104 - 108. The oxygen content ranged from 2 - 28%, and constituents included biocomponents, combustion improving additives and novel blend components. Performance and emissions tests were conducted over a range of engine operating conditions. Thermal efficiency was mapped at stoichiometric and lean conditions, and the limit of lean combustion was established for different fuels.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2098
Petter Tornehed, Ulf Olofsson
The drive to reduce particle emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines has reached the stage where the contribution from the lubricant can have a major impact on the total amount of particulate matter (PM). This paper proposes a model to predict the survival rate (unburnt oil divided by oil consumption) of the hydrocarbons from the lubricant consumed in the cylinder. The input data are oil consumption and cylinder temperature versus crank angle. The proposed model was tuned to correlate well with data from a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine that meets the Euro 5 legislation without exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measured (and modelled) oil survival shows a strong correlation with engine power. The maximum oil survival rate measured (19%) was at motoring conditions at high speed. For this engine, loads above 100 kW yielded an oil survival rate of nearly zero.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2091
Michael J. Lance, C. Scott Sluder, Samuel Lewis, John Storey
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions standards. In order to better understand fouling mechanisms, eleven field-aged EGR coolers provided by seven different engine manufacturers were characterized using a suite of techniques. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy following mounting the samples in epoxy and polishing. Optical microscopy was able to discern the location of hydrocarbons in the polished cross-sections. Chemical compositions were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Mass per unit area along the length of the coolers was also measured.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2090
Michael Marr, James S. Wallace, Silvio Memme, Sanjeev Chandra, Larry Pershin, Javad Mostaghimi
Surface temperature and heat flux were measured in a single cylinder SI engine piston when uncoated and with two different surface coatings: a metal TBC and YSZ. Average heat flux into the piston substrate was 33 % higher with the metal TBC and unchanged with the YSZ relative to the uncoated surface. The increase with the metal TBC was attributed to its surface roughness. However, the metal TBC and YSZ reduced peak heat flux into the substrate surface by 69 % and 77 %, respectively.
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