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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2554
2015-04-22
Event
Working together, the wiper system and windshield glass assure the driver's forward visibility needed for safe operation of the vehicle. Design, analysis and experiments related to windshield wipers and their associated components are discussed, including innovative ideas and findings in empirical studies and numerical simulations as well as fundamental advancements dealing with tribology, mechanisms, fluid flow, and heat transfer. The Wiper's ally in visibility, laminated glass, not only provides the substrate for the wiper, but contributes to passenger comfort, safety, and fuel savings, while meeting an ever-expanding web of regulation around the world.
2015-04-22
Event
LED technology advancement continues in the past year. This leads to broader lighting applications. The latest studies presented in this session cover design strategy, thermal management and reliability related testing. Other topics in this session also centered on continuing improvement for lighting performance and product safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0673
Rohit Ray, Nagarjun Jawahar
Automotive OEM’s are looking to develop plastic parts with maximum life and durability through virtual simulations with help of CAE tools, thereby saving the mold cost, material cost and time. The design constrains would be manufacturability, loads, boundary condition and aesthetics. This work involves the multi-discipline approach to virtually visualize the effect of fluid structure interaction due to splashing on the rear fender of a motorcycle which acts as mud guard. This study shows effect of splashing of water over rear fender on wet roads. First, the pressure developed on the rear fender due to impingement of water on surface is obtained through a multiphase volume of fluid analysis using CFD software Fluent. Secondly, these pressure values are taken as input in Abaqus software and the part is analyzed for its durability along with road excitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1378
Takeshi Sasaki, Tatsuya Ohmaru, Taisuke Goto
We developed a windshield washer system that enhances washing performance while reducing the amount of washer fluid consumed. This system reduces the time required to remove dirt and reduces stress on users. To enhance washing efficiency, we studied how the windshield wiper and washer remove dirt. The washer fluid contacts and floats the dirt from the glass surface then wipes it away with the wiper blade. The amount of windshield washer fluid required and the time after the windshield washer fluid floats the dirt from the windshield and wipes it away were analyzed. When mounting the system in a vehicle, the required amount of windshield washer fluid and the required time were correlated to the washer fluid spray and control. The washer spray format, the target amount of washer fluid that contacts the glass surface and the target wiping timing can be achieved by locating the windshield washer nozzle near the center of the wiper blade.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
This paper describes about recycled polyethylene terephthalate(R-PET) material for canopy strip part in automotive application. This recycled PET is a compounded material which is made out of used PET bottles and it is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Canopy strip is a structural exterior part which requires better mechanical and thermal properties. The major function of this part is to act like a structural frame to hold the canopy sheet which is present at the both sides of the vehicle. Generally, PET bottles are use and throw product. PET is inert and takes an extremely long time to degrade so the empty bottles would also take an enormous amount of space in landfills which will directly affect rain water percolation. This compounded material is one of the sustainable solution for the environment where the waste bottles get converted to useful automotive parts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because this system has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of these kinds of new systems. In this research, the durability test mode of AFLS (Adaptive Front Lightning System) with LED (Light Emitting Diode) lamp has been developed. First of all, The failure modes were analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal load, vibration, swiveling movement and electrical loads were investigated. The RLDA (Road Load Data Acquisition) technique was used for obtaining the vibration and temperature of LED AFLS in proving ground. The vibration test mode was developed by PSD (Power Spectral Density). The thermal load effect on life time of LED was investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1705
Miguel Hurtado, Amine Taleb-Bendiab, Julien Moizard, Patrice M. Reilhac, Heinz Mattern
Current market trend indicates an increased interest in replacing mirrors by camera monitoring systems (CMS) to reduce CO2 emissions while at the same time improve driver visibility in future cars with a more aerodynamic profile. This improvement in visibility is expected to be more beneficial during the night or under extreme weather conditions. A CMS is an advanced system composed of an electronic imager, a display, and an intelligent electronic control unit. The CMS is intended to provide at least the same level of functionality of mandatory and legally prescribed interior and exterior mirrors in vehicles as specified in various international regulations and standards such as FMVSS 111 and SAE J985. Such system must take into consideration not only the required external field of view (FoV), but also the physical constraints of the human operator, i.e. visual acuity. This captured information is subsequently displayed to the driver inside the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1700
John D. Bullough
Warning lights and beacons on service vehicles such as maintenance trucks, tow trucks, utility service vehicles and delivery vehicles are an important line of defense for the workers who operate them. These lights can also contribute to visual chaos making it difficult to navigate through a work zone location. Research on the flashing configuration and spatial and temporal coordination of warning lights that adapt to ambient conditions and situations will be described, leading to recommendations for preliminary performance specifications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1703
John D. Bullough
Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper will describe several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and records of near-miss incidents might provide new opportunities to understand how forward lighting improves traffic safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
This paper presents a novel technology to achieve world lowest power (4W) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp(55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp(6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm, the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0360
Maryline Leriche, Wolfgang Roessner, Heinrich Reister, Bernhard Weigand
An accurate model to predict the formation of fogging and defogging which occurs for low windshield temperatures is helpful for designing the air-conditioning system in the car. Using a multiphase flow approach and additional user-defined functions within a commercial CFD-software (STAR-CCM+), a model which is able to calculate the amount of water droplets on the windshield from condensation and which causes the fogging is set up. Different parameters like relative humidity, air temperature, mass flow rate and droplet distributions are considered. Because of the condition of the windshield’s surface, the condensation occurs as tiny droplets with different sizes. The distribution of these very small droplets must be obtained to estimate numerically the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation process to predict the defogging time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the passengers while driving. It will create poor visibility to the passengers when the mist is not cleared on side windows to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don’t clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. Defrost/Demist is one of the major issues for all OEMs in recent years. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. Multiple flow simulation needs to be carried out for various design configurations of demister outlet until the target velocity is achieved before finalizing the design and its time consuming.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0369
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Apart from thermal comfort of occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is the primary objective of automotive climate control systems. Integrated dew point and glass temperature is widely used senor among several technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the windshield. The erroneous information from sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to delayed response of climate control system. A differential equation model of cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time the ambient humidity of passenger compartment. The specific humidity from the model is used to determine relative humidity for a known window surface temperature. The uniform spatial distribution of cabin air humidity is used to advantage. However non-uniform distribution of window surface temperature and the uncertainty of parameters of differential equation model are evaluated to determine risk of fogging to an acceptable accuracy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0330
Iman Goldasteh, Shi-Ing Chang, Salamah Maaita, Gursaran Mathur
Proper flow distribution on the windshield and side windows is critical for adequate visibility while driving. Fog or ice which forms on the windshield is the main reason of invisibility and leads to major safety issue. It has been shown that proper clear visibility for the windshield could be obtained with a better flow pattern and uniform flow distribution in the defrost mode of the HVAC system. In this study, a three dimensional numerical model of a car cabin with full HVAC system was developed using Star-CCM+, a commercial CFD package. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) approach with the realizable two-layer k-ε turbulence model was employed for simulating the airflow field on the windshield for the defrost mode. The HVAC unit, ducts and defroster grille were included in the analysis in detail and air distribution on the windshield was studied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1330
Yoshiyuki Tosa, Hiroyuki Mae
The passenger airbag hits the windshield when it deploys, causing the impulse force to the windshield. To protect passengers, we must adequately support the airbag between the windshield and the instrument panel. We must not fracture the windshield deploying the airbag. We reviewed methods to simulate the stress on the windshield during deployment. This research predicts the dynamic strain on the windshield from deploying the airbag without vehicle tests. Deployment is fast enough to ignore spatial difference in the patterns of the pressure time histories. In this study, the prediction method consists of a deployment test and an FE simulation. The simple deployment test measures the dynamic pressure distribution between the airbag and the flat panel simulating the windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1528
Kenichi Hirose, Rina Nakagawa, Yukitaka Ura, Hideyuki Kawamata, Hisashi Tanaka, Munehiko Oshima
The door mirrors of a vehicle are one of the significant components generating drag, due to projection from the vehicle body. The ratio of door mirror drag accounts for 2.5-5 percent of the overall aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. The drag ratio is larger than the frontal area ratio of door mirrors and vehicle body. Since it is considered that door mirror drag is composed of not only profile drag but also interference drag that is generated by the mixing of airflow streamlines between door mirrors and vehicle body. However, the generation mechanism of interference drag remained unexplained, so elucidating mechanisms for countermeasures have been needed. In this study, the prediction formulas for door mirror drag expressed by functions in relation to velocities around the vehicle body were derived and verified by wind tunnel test. Door mirror drag is defined as the difference between aerodynamic drag on a vehicle with and without mirrors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1542
Masaaki Arai, Keitaro Tone, Keiichi Taniguchi, Mikako Murakami, Munehiko Oshima
This paper describes the development of the aerodynamics of the new Nissan Murano. This vehicle was developed using full-scale wind tunnel testing and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations (CFD). Three key aerodynamic features -front spoiler, active grille shutter and rear upper body were developed in particular for reducing aerodynamic drag. A large front spoiler was designed to reduce floor drag, especially drag produced by a uneven floor. The front spoiler shape was optimized by designing the lip shape to augment the separation angle of flow, thereby inhibiting the penetration of strong flow to the floor. An active grille shutter was adopted behind the front lower grille opening to reduce engine room drag substantially when engine cooling air is unnecessary. Based on a parameter study, we found that a lower grille is beneficial for the inlet for cooling. Therefore, the upper grille opening area was minimized, and conversely the lower grille opening area was maximized.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1558
Amir Kharazi, Edward Duell, Austin Kimbrell, Ann Boh
Unsteady flow over automotive side-view mirrors may cause flow-induced vibrations of the mirror assembly which can result in blurred rear-view images, adversely affecting marketability and driver safety, as well as customer comfort and quality perception. Prior research has identified two mechanisms by which aerodynamically induced vibrations are introduced in the mirror. The first mechanism is unsteady aero pressure loading on the mirror face due to the unsteady wake, causing direct vibration of the mirror glass. The second mechanism, and the focus of this study, is a fluctuating loading on the mirror housing caused by an unsteady separation zone on the outer portion of the housing. A time-dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to correctly model mirror wake behavior, and thereby predict flow-induced mirror vibration to improve performance estimations, was developed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0516
Nan Wang
Current die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower edges. For aluminum automotive exterior panels, this translates to a gap less than 0.1 mm. However, the tolerances required by such standards often exceed the capabilities of many trim dies. Experimental results on influence of trimming conditions on the shape of the sheared surface will be combined with the results of stretching strips after trimming. The objective of the research described in this paper is to study the mechanism of fracture generation and cracks propagation during half-a-dog bone tensile test representing stretch flanging condition. One side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface. The effect of texture of the sheared edge on stretchability of Al sheet was investigated. Significant attention was paid to understanding of fracture sources.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0417
Akira Yamada, Shunsuke Iwao
To make vehicles conspicuous, carmakers have designed highly-luminescent daytime running lights, position lights, and tail lights. To create the high luminescence, we used a lens with a free curved surface. But, in conventional lens design, we found the following problems: 1) A V-type lens is fixed and emits light unevenly. 2) When there are too few LEDs, the light doesn't appear to be lit. 3) We need many LEDs to make the whole lens emit light, but this is expensive. Lens translucency is degraded when using a milk-white lens with the surface texture of the lens. We designed a special fine-texture form that is highly luminescent and guides the light. We developed technology that controls the luminosity as well. Because the lens is finely-textured we needed a metallic mold to create the form for mass-production. We developed it with CAM, which automatically generates the smooth machining path in the tool and the curved surface.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0709
Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yibing Li
Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film and SentryGlas® Plus (SGP) film have been widely used in automotive windshield and architectures curtain serving as protective interlayer materials. Viscoelasticity is the unique property of such film materials, which can contribute to improving impact resistance and energy absorbing characteristics of laminated glass. In this study, the quasi-static and dynamic tests are conducted to investigate the viscoelasticity of PVB and SGP films used in laminated glass from the aspects of creep, stress relaxation and dynamic mechanical thermal. Firstly, creep and stress relaxation tests of PVB film (0.76mm) and SGP film with three thickness (0.89mm, 1.14mm and 1.52mm) are conducted using Instron universal testing machine to obtain creep and stress relaxation curves. Creep rate equation is fitted and stress relaxation model is built.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1544
Sunil Patil, Robert Lietz, Sudesh Woodiga, Hojun Ahn, Levon Larson, Ronald Gin, Michael Elmore, Alexander Simpson
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called as air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoilers under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
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