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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2554
2015-04-22
Event
These papers highlight the interaction of driver vision—which is itself characterized by complexity, flexibility, and high levels of performance—with ever more sophisticated vision technologies to support driver vision. In particular, LED technology continued to advance in the past year, leading to broader lighting applications. Topics covered include lighting design strategy, lighting thermal management, driver fields of view, and characteristics of camera/display systems.
2015-04-22
Event
Together, the wiper system and windshield glass assure the driver's forward visibility needed for safe operation of the vehicle. Design, analysis and experiments related to windshield wipers are discussed, including innovative ideas and findings in empirical studies and numerical simulations as well as fundamental advancements with tribology, mechanisms, fluid flow, and heat transfer. Further discussion on laminated glass, to meet an ever-expanding world-wide regulation will also occur.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0134
Durga Madhab Mishra, Bimal Kant Gupta
Abstract The Two wheeler motorcycles electrical system consists of a generator, a storage battery, voltage control protective devices and the electrical loads. Battery, in motorcycles, supports the starting, lighting and ignition system. Generally, in a vehicle, headlight or any other electrical apparatus consumes significant amount of current from the battery causing drain of the battery when the vehicle is not running and one of the light or electrical apparatus inadvertently remains on for some time. The present invention relates to vehicle light system and, more particularly, to a light control system of a vehicle. This discloses a concept which, automatically turned off vehicle lighting system when engine is OFF. Present invention named as “Intelligent lighting system” which helps in avoiding drainage of battery in case, when rider switches ON the ignition switch (H/L already ON) & engine OFF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0360
Maryline Leriche, Wolfgang Roessner, Heinrich Reister, Bernhard Weigand
Abstract An accurate model to predict the formation of fogging and defogging which occurs for low windshield temperatures is helpful for designing the air-conditioning system in a car. Using a multiphase flow approach and additional user-defined functions within the commercial CFD-software STAR-CCM+, a model which is able to calculate the amount of water droplets on the windshield from condensation and which causes the fogging is set up. Different parameters like relative humidity, air temperature, mass flow rate and droplet distributions are considered. Because of the condition of the windshield's surface, the condensation occurs as tiny droplets with different sizes. The distribution of these very small droplets must be obtained to estimate numerically the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation process to predict the defogging time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0363
Vasanth Balashunmuganathan, Ramakrishna Nukala, Sathishkumar Sampath Kumar, Murali Govindarajalu
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0369
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
Abstract In addition to the thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is an objective of the automotive climate control system. An integrated dew point and glass temperature sensor is widely used among several other technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the cabin side (or inner) surface of the windshield. The erroneous information from a sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to the delayed response of the climate control system. Also the high value, low cost vehicles may not have this sensor due to its high cost. A differential equation based model of the cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time specific humidity of the passenger compartment air. The specific humidity is used along with the windshield surface temperature to determine relative humidity of air and therefore, the risk of fog formation on the interior surface of a windshield.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0516
Nan Wang, Sergey Golovashchenko, Quochung Le
Abstract Experimental results on influence of trimming conditions on the shape of the sheared surface are combined with the results of stretching sheared samples after trimming. The objective of the research described in this paper is to study the mechanism of fracture initiation and cracks propagation during half-a-dog bone tensile test representing sheared edge stretching condition. One side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface. Significant attention was paid to understanding of fracture sources. An interrupted tensile test approach was employed to track fracture initiation and propagation during stretching of sheared surface. The results of the experimental study indicated that multiple sources of fracture were observed in the burr area for trimming with clearances exceeding 10% of the material thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0564
Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Jaeyoung Lim, Byoung-Ho Choi
Abstract In a car accident which is involving pedestrians, head injuries occur very frequently as the head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate the pedestrian injury, and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion by changing the design and/or materials.. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test, e.g. a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful results from single test and thus, tests should be executed several times. In this study, a lab-scale windshield impact test was performed using a modified instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Tests were carried out by switching test conditions such as the impact speed, the size of the head form and the specimen thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0590
Dae-Un Sung, Young Hyun Ryu, Soon Cheol Park
Recently, many kinds of new technology systems are adapted to a new developing vehicle. However the field usage information of a new technology system could not be easily obtained because it has not been used by customers. It is not easy to evaluate the reliability and durability of this system. In this research, the durability test mode of a new Adaptive Front Lighting System (AFLS) with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as a new light source has been developed for a new large luxury sedan vehicle. First of all, the failure mode effect was analyzed by considering failure mechanism for each component. The thermal, vibrational, operational and electrical loads were investigated. The Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) technique was used to collect the vibration and temperature of an AFLS in a proving ground. The vibration test mode was designed by a Power Spectral Density (PSD) approach. The customer usage data was used for making the target cycles of operational movement such as swiveling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1362
Chao Li, Il Yong Kim
Abstract A bumper system plays a significant role in absorbing impact energy and buffering the impact force. Important performance measures of an automotive bumper system include the maximum intrusions, the maximum absorbed energy, and the peak impact force. Finite element analysis (FEA) of crashworthiness involve geometry-nonlinearity, material-nonlinearity, and contact-nonlinearity. The computational cost would be prohibitively expensive if structural optimization directly perform on these highly nonlinear FE models. Solving crashworthiness optimization problems based on a surrogate model would be a cost-effective way. This paper presents a design optimization of an automotive rear bumper system based on the test scenarios from the Research Council for Automobile Repairs (RCAR) of Europe. Three different mainstream surrogate models, Response Surface Method (RSM), Kriging method, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method were compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1528
Kenichi Hirose, Rina Nakagawa, Yukitaka Ura, Hideyuki Kawamata, Hisashi Tanaka, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract It is considered that door mirror drag is composed of not only profile drag but also interference drag that is generated by the mixing of airflow streamlines between door mirrors and vehicle body. However, the generation mechanism of interference drag remained unexplained, so elucidating mechanism for countermeasures reducing drag have been needed. In this study, the prediction formulas for door mirror drag expressed by functions in relation to velocities around the vehicle body were derived and verified by wind tunnel test. The predicted values calculated by formulas were compared with the measured values and an excellent agreement was found. In summary, new prediction formulas made it possible to examine low drag mirror including profile and interference drag.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1558
Amir Kharazi, Edward Duell, Austin Kimbrell, Ann Boh
Abstract Unsteady flow over automotive side-view mirrors may cause flow-induced vibrations of the mirror assembly which can result in blurred rear-view images, adversely affecting marketability through customer comfort and quality perception. Prior research has identified two mechanisms by which aerodynamically induced vibrations are introduced in the mirror. The first mechanism is unsteady pressure loading on the mirror face due to the unsteady wake, causing direct vibration of the mirror glass. The second mechanism, and the focus of this study, is a fluctuating loading on the mirror housing caused by an unsteady separation zone on the outer portion of the housing. A time-dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology was developed to correctly model mirror wake behavior, and thereby predict flow-induced mirror vibration to improve performance estimations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1544
Sunil Patil, Robert Lietz, Sudesh Woodiga, Hojun Ahn, Levon Larson, Ronald Gin, Michael Elmore, Alexander Simpson
Abstract One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoiler under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1542
Masaaki Arai, Keitaro Tone, Keiichi Taniguchi, Mikako Murakami, Munehiko Oshima
Abstract The new Murano was developed with special emphasis on improving aerodynamics in order to achieve fuel economy superior to that of competitor models. This paper describes the measures developed to attain a drag coefficient (CD) that is overwhelmingly lower than that of other similar models. Special attention was paid to optimizing the rear end shape so as to minimize rear end drag, which contributes markedly to the CD of sport utility vehicles (SUVs). A lower grille shutter was adopted from the early stage of the development process. When open, the shutter allows sufficient inward airflow to ensure satisfactory engine cooling; when closed, the blocked airflow is actively directed upward over the body. The final rear end shape was tuned so as to obtain the maximum aerodynamic benefit from this airflow. In addition, a large front spoiler was adopted to suppress airflow toward the underbody as much as possible.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0673
Rohit Ray, Nagarjun Jawahar
Abstract Automotive OEM's are looking to develop plastic parts with maximum life and durability through virtual simulations with help of CAE tools, thereby saving the mold cost, material cost and time. The design constrains would be manufacturability, loads, boundary condition and aesthetics. This work involves the multi-discipline approach to virtually visualize the effect of fluid structure interaction due to splashing on the rear fender of a motorcycle which acts as mud guard. This study shows effect of splashing of water over rear fender on wet roads. First, the pressure developed on the rear fender due to impingement of water on surface is obtained through a multiphase volume of fluid analysis using CFD software Fluent. Secondly, these pressure values are taken as input in Abaqus software and the part is analyzed for its durability.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0709
Xiaoqing Xu, Bohan Liu, Yibing Li
Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) film and SentryGlas® Plus (SGP) film have been widely used in automotive windshield and architectures curtain serving as protective interlayer materials. Viscoelasticity is the unique property of such film materials, which can contribute to improving impact resistance and energy absorbing characteristics of laminated glass. In this study, the quasi-static and dynamic tests are conducted to investigate the viscoelasticity of PVB and SGP films used in laminated glass from the aspects of creep, stress relaxation and dynamic mechanical thermal. Firstly, creep and stress relaxation tests of PVB film (0.76mm) and SGP film with three thickness (0.89mm, 1.14mm and 1.52mm) are conducted using Instron universal testing machine to obtain creep and stress relaxation curves. Creep rate equation is fitted and stress relaxation model is built.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0330
Iman Goldasteh, Shi-Ing Chang, Salamah Maaita, Gursaran Mathur
Abstract Proper flow distribution on the windshield and side windows is critical for adequate visibility while driving. Fog or ice which forms on the windshield is the main reason of invisibility and leads to major safety issue. It has been shown that proper clear visibility for the windshield could be obtained with a better flow pattern and uniform flow distribution in the defrost mode of the automobile heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. In this study, a three dimensional numerical model of a car cabin with full HVAC system was developed using Star-CCM+, a commercial CFD package. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) approach with the realizable two-layer k-ε turbulence model was employed for simulating the airflow field on the windshield for the defrost mode. The HVAC unit, ducts and defroster grille were included in the analysis in detail and the air distribution on the windshield was studied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Abstract Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma (DFSS) and finite element analysis are used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
Abstract This paper describes the suitability of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) material for canopy strip in a commercial vehicle. The material described in this paper is a PET compound recycled from used PET bottles and reinforced with glass fibers so as to meet the product's functional requirements. The application described in this paper is a Canopy strip which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy strip acts as a structural frame to hold the Vinyl canopy in both sides of the vehicle. Functionally, the part demands a material with adequate mechanical and thermal properties. Generally, PET bottles are thrown after use thereby creating land pollution. PET being inert takes an extremely long time to degrade thereby occupying huge amount of space in landfills and directly affecting rain water percolation. This work focused on recycling the PET bottles and compounding them suitably so as convert them into useful automotive parts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1703
John D. Bullough
Abstract Assessing the safety impacts of vehicle forward lighting is a challenge because crash data do not always contain details necessary to ascertain the role, if any, of lighting in crashes. The present paper describes several approaches to evaluating the safety impacts of lighting using naturalistic driving data. Driving behavioral data and descriptive narratives of crashes and near-miss incidents might provide new opportunities to understand how forward lighting improves traffic safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1702
Alex Wang, Jung Hsien Yen
Abstract This paper presents a novel technology to achieve very power (4W, 3.2W LED+0.8W driver) FOG lamp by single LED design which is much enhanced than the existing 2-3 LEDs solutions. This design saves 92.7% energy than conventional Halogen lamp (55W) and saves 38.4% than existing LED FOG lamp (6.5W). The optical design adopts the optimized multifaceted reflector, with precise and unique optimization design scheme, we are able to generate a very sharp cut-off line with a 3.2W LED to enable stronger light penetration in low vision weather condition. The efficiency of multifaceted reflector optics in this study is 50.9% which is 27% higher than the existing reflector design. Design details, anti-block skills and the manufacturing tolerance control are analyzed in this paper. The total light output of the LED fog lamp is 210lm; the L6-line minimal is 4200cd above the ECE R19 requirement of 2700cd.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2554

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