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Magazine
2014-04-01
Methodology developed for safer hood design The methodology enables material selection and design optimization of energy absorbers for pedestrian protection based on a simple laboratory test and FE model, eliminating the need for extensive vehicle testing. Developing a winning formula It's been 20 years since the University of Michigan won a Formula SAE championship. Sick of getting smoked in recent years by top teams from Germany and the U.S., MRacing is going "big aero" for a better crack at the 2014 crown.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gaurav Gupta, Rituraj Gautam, Chetan Prakash Jain
Abstract Interior sound quality is one of the significant factors contributing to the comfort level of the occupants of a passenger car. One of the major reasons for the deterioration of interior sound quality is the booming noise. Booming noise is a low frequency (20Hz∼300Hz) structure borne noise which occurs mainly due to the powertrain excitations or road excitations. Several methods have been developed over time to identify and troubleshoot the causes of booming noise [1]. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the booming noise by analyzing structural (panels) and acoustic (cavity) modes. Both the structural modes and the acoustic modes of the vehicle cabin were measured experimentally on a B-segment hatchback vehicle using a novel approach and the coupled modes were identified. Panels contributing to booming noise were identified and countermeasures were taken to modify these panels to achieve decoupling of structural and cavity modes which results in the reduction of cabin noise levels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mehdi Safaei, Shahram Azadi, Arash Keshavarz, Meghdad Zahedi
Abstract The main end of this research is the optimization of engine sub-frame parameters in a passenger car to reduce the transmitted vibration to vehicle cabin through DOE method. First, the full vehicle model of passenger car including all its sub-systems such as engine, suspension and steering system is modeled in ADAMS/CAR and its accuracy is validated by exerting swept sine and step input. After that, the schematic geometry of sub-frame is modeled in CAD software and transferred to ADAMS/CAR. Hence, the efficiency of the sub-frame in terms of reducing the induced vibration to vehicle cabin is examined through the various road inputs e.g. swept sine, step and random road input type (B). The results will illustrate that the sub-frame has significant effect in reduction of transmitted vibration to occupants. In order to optimize the sub-frame parameters, the sensitivity analysis is performed to derive effective parameters of sub-frame using DOE method. In this regard, the parameters which have dominant effect on transmitted vibration (the stiffness of sub-frame bushing in vertical direction) are optimized via RSM (Response Surface Method) method.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jingsi Wu, Owusu Agyeman Badu, Yonchen Tai, Albert R. George
While many composite monocoque and semi-monocoque chassis have been built there is very little open literature on how to design one. This paper considers a variety of issues related to composite monocoque design of an automotive chassis with particular emphasis on designing a Formula SAE or other race car monocoque chassis. The main deformation modes and loads considered are longitudinal torsion, local bending around mounting points, and vertical bending. The paper first considers the design of elements of an isotropic material monocoque that has satisfactory torsional, hardpoint, and vertical bending stiffness. The isotropic analysis is used to gain insight and acquire knowledge about the behavior of shells and monocoque structures when subjected to a vehicle's applied loads. The isotropic modeling is then used to set initial design targets for a full anisotropic composite analysis. The flexibility in composite layout and core design coupled with the superior material properties of carbon fiber composites is used to design and move toward an optimized monocoque composite design and layup to obtain satisfactory torsional, hardpoint and bending stiffnesses with minimal weight.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shweta Rawat, Soumya Kanta Das
Abstract With the ever increasing emphasis on vehicle occupant safety, the safety of pedestrians is getting obscured behind the A-pillars that are expanding in order to meet the federal roof crush standards. The serious issue of pillar blind spots poses threats to the pedestrians who easily disappear from driver's field of view. To recognize this blinding danger and design the car around the driver's eye, this paper proposes the implementation of Aluminum Oxynitride marked under name AlON by Surmet Corporation for fabrication of A-pillars that can allow more than 80% visibility through them. AlON is a polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure and is composed of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. With hardness more than 85% than sapphire, its applications range from aerospace to defense purposes which qualify it in terms of strength and thus imply that it can be conveniently used as A-pillars in vehicles. Furthermore, it possesses characteristics of being bonded to metals as well.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Benoit Bidaine, Laurent Adam, Roger Assaker, Hanson Chang, Marc Duflot, Bender Kutub, Emmanuel Lacoste
Abstract In the steady quest for lightweighting solutions, continuous carbon fiber composites are becoming more approachable for design, now not only used in the aerospace but also the automotive industries. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) are now being integrated into car body structures, used for their high stiffness and strength and low weight. The material properties of continuous carbon fiber composites are much more complex than metal, especially with respect to failure; this is further complicated by the fact that a single part is typically made from stacks of several unidirectional plies, each with a different fiber orientation. Hence failure occurs because of various mechanisms taking place at the ply level (matrix cracking, fiber breakage, fiber-matrix debonding) or between the plies (delamination). These mechanisms remain not fully understood and are investigated through experimental and virtual testing. To predict composite failure, we have developed advanced simulation strategies combining finite element analysis (FEA) and nonlinear micromechanical material modeling.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bhaskar Kusuma, Kaizhi Quan, Mingchao Guo, Ram Bhandarkar
Abstract In this paper, four possible CAE analysis methods for calculating critical buckling load and post-buckling permanent deformation after unloading for geometry imperfection sensitive thin shell structures under uniformly distributed loads have been investigated. The typical application is a vehicle roof panel under snow load. The methods include 1) nonlinear static stress analysis, 2) linear Eigen value buckling analysis 3) nonlinear static stress analysis using Riks method with consideration of imperfections, and 4) implicit quasi-static nonlinear stress analysis with consideration of imperfections. Advantage and disadvantage of each method have been discussed. Correlations between each of the method to a physical test are also conducted. Finally, the implicit quasi-static nonlinear stress analysis with consideration of geometry imperfections that are scaled mode shapes from linear Eigen value buckling analysis is preferred.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Paul R. Stibich, Yu Hsien Wu, Weidong Zhang, Michao Guo, Kumar Srinivasan, Sreekanth Surapaneni
Abstract This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis. The ability to predict the buckling phenomenon using a virtual simulation will reduce the risk of late production changes to the vehicle class “A” surfaces.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Masashi Terada, Takashi Kondo, Yukihiro Kunitake, Kunitomo Miyahara
Abstract In automobile development, steering vibrations caused by engine excitation force and suspension vibration input from the road surface are a problem. The conventional method of reducing vibrations and thereby securing marketability has been to dispose a dynamic damper inside the steering wheel. The resonance frequency of a steering system varies for each vehicle developed (as a result of the vehicle size, the arrangement of the stiff members of the vehicle body, and the like). As a result, the individual values of dynamic dampers that are used with vehicles must be adjusted for each developed vehicle type. To address this problem, we have developed a new structure in which, rather than using a conventional dynamic damper, we disposed a floating bush on the Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) module attachment section and used the SRS module itself as the weight for the dynamic damper. In this structure, the dynamic damper weight is approximately eight times greater than the conventional weight, the vibration reduction effect is enhanced, and the effective frequency range is widened.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Anthony Barkman, Kelvin Tan, Arin McIntosh, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal-Hylton
This paper discusses a project intended as a design study for a team of college students preparing for careers in motorsports. The project's objective was to conduct a design study on the possible redesign of the suspension for a dirt-track sprint car. The car examined was typical of those which race on one-quarter to one-half mile dirt oval tracks across the United States. The mission of this concept study was to develop a different configuration from the traditional torsion bar spring system, for the front end. The design included moving the dampers inboard with the addition of a rocker to relate the movement through the front suspension system. For the rear end, components were designed to allow the radius rod to be adjustable from the cockpit, thus providing the driver with adjustability to changing track conditions. The project goal was to design functional front end and rear end changes that could provide a positive impact on handling as well as keeping the system easy to replace in a short period of time.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rajiv Mehta, Mark Hadley
With the ever increasing pressure to improve the fuel economy of vehicles, there has been a corresponding interest in reducing the mass and size of vehicles. While mass is easily quantifiable, vehicle size, particularly the notion of “interior space” as perceived by the customer, is not. This paper explores different ways in which vehicle spaciousness can be quantified and explores new metrics based on customer verbatims. A novel ‘spaciousness calculator’ combines individual metrics to provide a singular holistic rating for spaciousness, useful during vehicle development. Beyond spaciousness, the paper discusses techniques to quantify the ‘packaging efficiency’ of a vehicle; this allows engineers to maximize the interior space for a given exterior size.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Atishay Jain
Abstract One of the key aspects of designing a race car chassis is Torsion Stiffness (Roll stiffness). Designers strive to develop a chassis design with a high value of roll stiffness to counter the forces applied by the suspension during cornering while keeping the weight as low as possible. CAD and static analysis techniques are instrumental for virtual testing and validation in the initial stages of a project prior to experimental testing. This paper intends to encapsulate elementary analysis skills and their application in designing and developing tubular frame structures for amateur racing vehicles and simultaneously focusing on reducing the time for the design and development process. The objective of this paper is to calculate, analyze and optimize the torsion stiffness of a Formula SAE/ Formula Student chassis using an analysis model developed and optimized for quicker design iterations and to compare different design proposals based on certain key parameters in the nascent stage of project development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rahul Shashikant Patil
Abstract The tailgate is the fifth or the rearmost door of an SUV (Sports Utility Vehicle)[1]. It can be side opening or top opening. It is attached to the BIW (Body In White) with two hinge arrangement. The hinges are designed to take the cantilever load of a normal side opening tailgate along with the passenger ingress/egress load. This means that apart from the doors own weight, the hinges have to take the extra load which a passenger exerts on it by resting his/her forehand on the handle. The hinges are designed to take these loads and under normal circumstances, they do not fail for acceptable number of cycles of opening and closing of the tailgate. But in case of an armored vehicle side opening tailgate, it is quite a challenge for the normal hinges to take the heavy load of the tailgate along with passenger ingress / egress load. The normal hinges (Refer figure-1) obviously fail under such heavy loads either in their design or material configuration. To take this extra load, designers had to think of an innovative arrangement/concept that was simple yet convenient from retrofitting point of view on an armored vehicle configuration.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sangil Kim, Seungwoo Seo, ChungHwa Jung, SeungHyun Baek, ChangGi Ha, KiRyun Ahn, MunBae Tak
Abstract Recently, the demand for improving the merchantability of hood open system has been increasing. A novel concept hood open system was proposed by Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in 2012, which was based on a two-step open latch mechanism. The new hood opening mechanism satisfies Safety laws and improves merchantability.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vignesh T Shekar, Sreedhar Reddy, Mukul Mitra, Anil Cherukuri
Abstract ‘To achieve more from less’ has been the oft-quoted phrase in auto industry for quite some time. This philosophy has many analogies like fuel efficiency, modularity, weight reduction, alternative fuels etc. Of these ‘modularity’ is seen as an effective tool, especially for automotive OEMs catering to a wide portfolio of similar products. This paper discusses the implications of modularization on a passenger bus OEM, by taking the ‘bus super structure’ as a test case. The modularized bus structure is compared with the conventional structure for design strength, safety, weight and more importantly manufacturing flexibility. The challenges faced in each of these aspects are discussed. From the study it was understood that the task of manufacturing body modules and interfaces is complex and it calls for a complete revamp of existing fixtures, material handling equipment and even the prescribed tolerances. Considering existing manufacturing processes, adopting modularity in manufacturing is not pragmatic, at least for bus body.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jaehyuk Jang
Abstract Oil canning and initial stiffness of the automotive roofs and panels are considered to be sensitive customer ‘perceived quality’ issues. In an effort to develop more accurate objective requirements, respective simulation methods are continuously being developed throughout automotive industries. This paper discusses a latest development on oil canning predictions using LS-DYNA® Implicit, including BNDOUT request, MORTAR contact option and with the stamping process involved, which resulted in excellent correlations especially when it comes to measurements at immediate locations to the feature lines of the vehicle outer panels. Furthermore, in pursuit of light-weighting vehicles with thinner roofs, a new CAE method was recently developed to simulate severe noise conditions exhibited on some of developmental properties while going through a car wash. This paper introduces such a method to discuss Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) approach using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation in LS-DYNA® for vehicle roof car wash boom noise prediction.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Takanobu Saito, Jiro Hiramoto, Toshiaki Urabe
Abstract A new topology analysis method was developed to optimize part shapes and the configuration of automotive components. Only solid elements are used in the conventional topology optimization method. The key point of the new method is to embed solid elements in a model made of shell elements. In this study, stiffness optimizations were carried out for a simple cylindrical model, automotive floor model and full vehicle model. Specifically, optimized automotive components were a center tunnel, a side-sill and a joint linking a side-member and a cross-member, which are made of steel sheets and have rectangular cross sections. The results show that the newly-developed topology optimization method is valuable in the optimization of automotive components which are made of steel sheets and have rectangular cross sections.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohamed Sithik, Rama Vallurupalli, Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Subash Sudalaimuthu
Abstract In recent trend, there is a huge demand for lightweight chassis frame, which improves fuel efficiency and reduces cost of the vehicle. Stiffness based optimization process is simple and straightforward while durability (life) based optimizations are relatively complex, time consuming due to a two-step (Stress then life) virtual engineering process and complicated loading history. However, durability performances are critical in chassis design, so a process of optimization with simplified approach has been developed. This study talks about the process of chassis frame weight optimization without affecting current durability performance where complex durability load cases are converted to equivalent static loadcases and life targets are cascaded down to simple stress target. Sheet metal gauges and lightening holes are the parameters for optimization studies. The optimization design space is constrained to chassis unique parts. The optimized design is verified for detailed load case and life target.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vesna Savic, Matthew Pawlicki, Paul Krajewski, Mark Voss, Louis Hector, Keith Snavely
Abstract Global regulations intended to enhance pedestrian protection in a vehicle collision, thereby reducing the severity of pedestrian injuries, are presenting significant challenges to vehicle designers. Vehicle hoods, for example, must absorb a significant amount of energy over a small area while precluding impact with a hard engine compartment component. In this paper, a simple passive approach for pedestrian protection is introduced in which thin metal alloy sheets are bent to follow a C-shaped cross-sectional profile thereby giving them energy absorbing capacity during impact when affixed to the underside of a hood. Materials considered were aluminum (6111-T4, 5182-O) and magnesium (AZ31-O, AZ61-O, ZEK100) alloys. To evaluate the material effect on the head injury criterion (HIC) score without a hood, each C-channel absorber was crushed in a drop tower test using a small dart. Two high speed cameras captured dart image data before and during impact from which HIC scores were computed with stereo digital image correlation (DIC).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Madhav Khadilkar
Abstract The purpose of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 is to reduce fatalities and serious injuries when vehicle roof crushes into occupant compartment during rollover crash. Upgraded roof crush resistance standard (571.216a Standard No. 216a) requires vehicle to achieve maximum applied force of 3.0 times unloaded vehicle weight (UVW) on both driver and passenger sides of the roof. (For vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating ≤ 6,000 lb.) This paper provides an overview of current approach for dual side roof strength Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and its limitations. It also proposes a new approach based on powerful features available in virtual tools. In the current approach, passenger side loading follows driver side loading and requires two separate analyses before arriving at final assessment. In the proposed approach only one analysis suffices as driver and passenger side loadings are combined in a single analysis. This is achieved by using sensors to control loadings, resulting in reduced consumption of CPU time (for computer simulation) and disk space utilization without compromising accuracy of current approach.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jingru Bao, Yi Ding, Sibo Hu, Ping Hu
As one of the most important auto-body moving parts, door hinge is the key point of door design and its accessories arrangement, also the premise of the door kinematic analysis. We proposed an effective layout procedure for door hinge and developed an intelligent system on CATIA CAA platform to execute it. One toolbar and five function modules are constructed - Axis Arrangement, Section, Parting Line, Kinematic, Hinge Database. This system integrated geometrical algorithms, automatically calculate the minimum clearances between doors, fender and hinges on sections to judge if the layout is feasible. As the sizes of the clearances are set to 0s, the feasible layout regions and extreme start/end points are shown in parts window, which help the engineer to check the parting line and design a new one. Our system successfully implemented the functions of five modules for the layout of door hinge axis and parting line based on a door hinge database. An instance is carried out and the result shows that our system has great feasibility and validity to arrange the door hinge and shorten the design periods.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kambiz Jahani, Sajjad Beigmoradi
The efficiency of the vehicle cooling system strongly depends on the air flow through the radiator core. The flow through the radiator core in turn depends on other panels that are in the vicinity of the radiator. In this study, the effect of geometrical change at vehicle front-end including the whole bonnet, grille and bumper area is investigated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Numerical modeling is carried out by means of CAE tools. Simulations are performed for maximum power and maximum torque conditions, monitoring the mass flow rate through the radiator core and velocity contribution over the radiator face. To the velocity field of the airflow, the heat exchangers are represented as porous media and fan module is modeled utilizing Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) approach. The validity of the developed simulation capability is tested by successful comparison with the available experimental data for the base model at the given operating conditions. On studying the model with complete new front-end style, local modifications are applied incorporating adding airguide, flap and anti-recycler in order to enhance the flow distribution in the vicinity of radiator and increase the mass flow rate passing through it.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Suhas Kangde, Vishal Shitole, Ashish Kumar Sahu
Abstract Automotive Suspension is one of the critical system in load transfer from road to Chassis or BIW. Using flex bodies in Multi body simulations helps to extract dynamic strain variation. This paper highlights how the MBD and FE integration helped for accurate strain prediction on suspension components. Overall method was validated through testing. Good strain correlation was observed in dynamic strains of constant amplitude in different loading conditions. Combination of different direction loading was also tested and correlated. Method developed can be used in the initial phase of the vehicle development program for suspension strength evaluation. Suspension is one of the important system in vehicle which is subjected to very high loading in all the directions. To predict the dynamic stresses coming on the suspension system due to transient loads, faster and accurate method is required. To accelerate the suspension design process it become necessary to get good accuracy in the results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
James Nelsen, Chang Su Seo
Abstract This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Santosh Uttam Bhise, Meyyappan Valliappan
Abstract This paper highlights a simplified CAE model technique, which can simulate and predict door crush strength performance quickly. Such quick models can be used for DFSS and Design change studies. The proposed method suggests an equivalent sub model technique using only the door beam with tuned stiffness end springs to predict FMVSS214S full vehicle crush performance. Such models can be solved in minutes and hence very useful for DFSS studies during product design. The proposed method can be used to finalize door beam design for identical size of vehicle doors to meet required FMVSS214S crush performance. The paper highlights the door beam end springs tuning for identical size of cars and SUVs. Four vehicles were considered for the study. A single spring F-D (force -displacement) is tuned which correlated well for frond door of all the four vehicles. A separate unique spring F-D was needed which correlated well for rear door of all the 4 vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Simon B. Albrodt, Fadi Tahan, Kennerly Digges
Abstract Different roof strength methods are applied on the 2003 Ford Explorer finite element (FE) model to achieve the current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 requirements. Two different modification approaches are utilized. Additionally, the best design of each approach is tested dynamically, in rollover and side impact simulations. In the first approach, several roll cage designs are integrated in all pillars, roof cross-members, and in the side roof rails. A roll cage design with a strength-to-weight ratio (SWR) of 3.58 and 3.40 for driver and passenger sides, respectively, with a weight penalty of 18.54 kg is selected for dynamic test assessments. The second approach investigates different localized reinforcements to achieve a more reasonable weight penalty. A localized reinforcement of the B-pillar alone with a tube meets the new FMVSS 216 requirements with a weight penalty of 4.52 kg and is selected for dynamic analyses. The two selected reinforcement designs are tested in a dynamic unconstrained rollover crash under different pitch angles while using common rollover initial conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ravi Kiran Cheni, Chetan Prakash Jain, Revathy Muthiah, Srikanth Gomatam
Abstract Automotive OEMs quest for vehicle body light weighting, increase in Fuel efficiency along with significant cut in the emissions pose significant challenges. Apart from the effect on vehicle handling, the reduction of vehicle weight also results in additional general requirements for acoustic measures as it is an important aspect that contributes to the comfort and the sound quality image of the vehicle, thus posing a unique challenge to body designers and NVH experts. Due to these conflicting objectives, accurate identification along with knowledge of the transfer paths of vibrations and noise in the vehicle is needed to facilitate measures for booming noise dampening and vehicle structure vibration amplitude. This paper focuses on the application of a unique design and development of vehicle body structure anti-vibration dynamic damper (DD), unique in its aspect in controlling booming noise generated at a specific RPM range. Design methodology follows the concept of Mass-damper system on vehicle body or engine structure where panel with multi-degree of freedom vibrating at medium level frequency is transferred to damper which is vibrating at same resonant frequency in 180° opposite phase.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Li Yan, Weikang Jiang, Zongbin Huang
Abstract Sound quality of vehicle interior noise affects passenger comfort. In order to improve the sound quality of a micro commercial vehicle, the vehicle interior noise under different conditions such as idle, constant speeds and accelerating is recorded by using artificial head with dual microphones. The sound quality of recorded noise is evaluated in both objective and subjective ways. Physical parameters of interior noise are calculated objectively, and annoyance score is analyzed subjectively using paired-comparison method. According to the regression analyzing of the annoyance score and the physical parameters, an objective evaluation parameter of the sound quality is employed. To analyze the vehicle body panel contribution to interior noise sound quality, the location and spectrum characteristics of major panel emission noise sources are identified based on partial singular valued decomposition (PSVD) method. By investigating the contribution of each noise sources to the sound quality evaluation formula, the dominant interior noise source is determined.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Keisuke Kojima, Takeshi Ogawa
Abstract The CO2 emission from automobile plants is large. A majority of this quantity comes from the body painting process. A breakdown of CO2 emissions from the painting process shows the significant impact of painting process equipment such as the oven used to cure paint and the air conditioning facilities used to maintain controlled temperature and humidity on CO2 emissions. It was concluded, therefore, that shortening these processes will effectively promote the reduction of CO2 emissions. Removing the primer process means that the basecoat (BC) and clearcoat (CC), which provide color and marketability, would be applied on the E-coat directly. By the removing the primer several issues are raised such as stone chipping resistance, weather durability, color variation and appearance. By contrast, this 3Wet painting system applies two coats of waterborne basecoat, dividing it up into 1-Base and 2-Base and then CC, in order to achieve both targets, quality and color variation. For severe corrosion areas, chipping primer (CP) is applied to keep chipping resistance before the application of 1-Base.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Katsuyoshi Kaneko, Toshikazu Hirobe, Yusuke Kawada, Tatsumasa Hidaka
Abstract By increasing the percentage of highly dissociative strong acid components included in the neutralizing acid of the electrodeposition coating, it was possible to improve electrical conductivity and coulomb efficiency and achieve excellent throwing power. The GA cratering caused by the increase in the strong acid ratio was resolved by setting the strong acid ratio to 90% while reducing MEQ. By increasing coulomb efficiency, the quantity of hydrogen gas produced during electrodeposition was minimized, and as a result, gas pinholes remaining in the coating were reduced, increasing the smoothness of the coating beyond than that of the current materials. As a result of this study, the usage of e-coating per vehicle body was reduced by approximately 11%.
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