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2017-04-06
Event
BE & D cover several important areas that are related to vehicle body, including its components such as instrument panel, steering column and wheel, seats, hood, decklid, transmission cross-member, hard mounted chassis, CRFM, etc. Topics included are: Novel concepts, Analysis, Design, Testing, Predictions of strength, stiffness, and fatigue life, welding methods, vehicle body quality, durability, reliability, safety, ride & handling, NVH, aerodynamics, mass reduction, as well as fuel economy.
2017-04-06
Event
BE & D cover several important areas that are related to vehicle body, including its components such as instrument panel, steering column and wheel, seats, hood, decklid, transmission cross-member, hard mounted chassis, CRFM, etc. Topics included are: Novel concepts, Analysis, Design, Testing, Predictions of strength, stiffness, and fatigue life, welding methods, vehicle body quality, durability, reliability, safety, ride & handling, NVH, aerodynamics, mass reduction, as well as fuel economy.
2017-04-05
Event
The session will address multibody system modeling and simulation, rigid and flexible body modeling, loads predictions for vehicle body, frame/sub frame, exhaust system, driveline, and powertrain. Also discussed are vehicle dynamics simulation, durability loads simulation, data processing and analysis, design load minimization, prediction of loads effects, robust design methods, driver modeling, and system modeling.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0441
Zhenyu Wang, Mei Zhuang
Abstract A numerical study on sunroof noise reduction is carried out. One of the strategies to suppress the noise is to break down the strong vortices impinging upon the trailing edge of the sunroof into smaller eddies. In the current study, a serrated sunroof trailing edge with sinusoidal profiles of wavelengths is investigated for the buffeting noise reduction. A number of combinations of wavelengths and amplitudes of sinusoidal profiles is employed to examine the effects of trailing edge serrations on the noise reduction. A generic vehicle model is used in the study and a straight trailing edge is considered as a baseline. The results indicate that the trailing edge serration has a significant impact on the sound pressure level (SPL) in the vehicle cabin and it can reduce the SPL by up to 10~15 dB for the buffeting frequency.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0443
Yong Hyun Nam, Gwansik Yoon
Abstract Significant effort has been expended to improve the sound made by a closing car door. This study focuses on reducing door glass rattle sounds, not only evaluating the rattle influence of door glass support but also introducing an approach to reduce glass rattle noise by using sealing components. The first part of the study is dedicated to minimizing vibration. A jig is constructed to evaluate the influence of a door glass support on the rattling. The jig is employed so that the glass meshing between the A and B pillars can be controlled; the glass holder moves in the x- and z-directions and the belt molding moves in the y-direction. An impact hammer test was adopted for investigating door glass rattle. The frequency response obtained via impact hammer testing is analyzed by varying the glass support points and important factors that should be considered in early design stages are obtained. The second study is about optimizing vibration absorption.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0473
Satoshi Nakada, Toru Furusawa, Eiichiro Yokoi, R Carbas, M Costa, E Marques, G Viana, LFM da Silva
Abstract In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0290
Veera Aditya Yerra, Srikanth Pilla
Abstract The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart material flow control. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop. By creating a digital twin for every physical part, we no longer need to adhere to the conventional manufacturing processes and layouts, thus opening up new opportunities in terms of equipment and space utilization. The century-old philosophy of the assembly line might not be the best layout for vehicle manufacturing, thus proposing a novel assembly grid layout inspired from a colony of ants working to accomplish a common goal.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1271
David Wright, John Henshaw, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Abstract High-strength aluminum alloys such as 7075 can be formed using advanced manufacturing methods such as hot stamping. Hot stamping utilizes an elevated temperature blank and the high pressure stamping contact of the forming die to simultaneously quench and form the sheet. However, changes in the thermal history induced by hot stamping may increase this alloy’s stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility, a common corrosion concern of 7000 series alloys. This work applied the breaking load method for SCC evaluation of hot stamped AA7075-T6 B-pillar panels that had been artificially aged by two different artificial aging practices (one-step and two-step). The breaking load strength of the specimens provided quantitative data that was used to compare the effects of tensile load, duration, alloy, and heat treatment on SCC behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1272
Nick Parson, Jerome Fourmann, Jean-Francois Beland
Abstract One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0395
Xin Xie, Danielle Zeng, Boyang Zhang, Junrui Li, Liping Yan, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Vehicle front panel is an interior part which has a major impact on the consumers’ experience of the vehicles. To keep a good appearance during long time aging period, most of the front panel is designed as a rough surface. Some types of surface defects on the rough surface can only be observed under the exposure of certain angled sun light. This brings great difficulties in finding surface defects on the production line. This paper introduces a novel polarized laser light based surface quality inspection method for the rough surfaces on the vehicle front panel. By using the novel surface quality inspection system, the surface defects can be detected real-timely even without the exposure under certain angled sun light. The optical fundamentals, theory derivation, experiment setup and testing result are shown in detail in this paper.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0388
Haeyoon Jung, MiYeon Song, Sanghak Kim
Abstract CO2 emission is more serious in recent years and automobile manufacturers are interested in developing technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. Among various environmental-technologies, the use of solar roof as an electric energy source has been studied extensively. For example, in order to reduce the cabin ambient temperature, automotive manufacturers offer the option of mounting a solar cell on the roof of the vehicle [1]. In this paper, we introduce the semi-transparent solar cell mounted on a curved roof glass and we propose a solar energy management system to efficiently integrate the electricity generated from the solar roof into internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. In order to achieve a high efficiency solar system in different driving, we improve the usable power other than peak power of solar roof. Peak power or rated power is measured power (W) in standard test condition (@ 25°C, light intensity of 1000W/m2(=1Sun)).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0423
Lei Yang, Qiang Li, Chuxuan Wang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This paper focuses on dynamic analysis and frame optimization of a FSAE racing car frame. Firstly, a Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model of the racing car is established using ADAMS/Car. The forces and torques of the mechanical joints between the frame and suspensions are calculated in various extreme working conditions. Secondly, the strength, stiffness and free vibration modes of the frame are analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The extracted forces and torques in the first step are used as boundary conditions in FEA. The FEA results suggest that the size of the frame may be not reasonable. Thirdly, the size of the frame is optimized to achieve minimized weight. Meanwhile the strength and stiffness of the frame are constrained. The optimization results reveal that the optimization methodology is powerful in lightweight design of the frame.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0417
Yingjun Li, Yunkai Gao, Gangan Ma, Qianqian Du, Yabin Wan
Abstract To solve the problem of serious roller wear and improve the smoothness of the sliding door motion process, the rigid-flexible coupling multi-body model of the vehicle sliding door was built in ADAMS. Force boundary conditions of the model were determined to meet the speed requirement of monitoring point and time requirement of door opening-closing process according to the bench test specification. The results of dynamic simulation agreed well with that of test so the practicability and credibility of the model was verified. In the optimization of the ride comfort of the sliding door, two different schemes were proposed. The one was to optimize the position of hinge pivots and the other was to optimize the structural parameters of the middle guide. The impact load of lead roller on middle guide, the curvature of the motion trajectory and angular acceleration of the sliding door centroid were taken as optimization objectives.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1725
Tanawat Tessathan, Chutiphon Thammasiri, Prabhath De Silva, Rehan Hussain, Nuksit Noomwongs
Abstract It is common for users of commuting passenger cars in Thailand to use the vehicle’s HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) system predominantly in recirculation (REC) mode. This minimizes the compressor work, thereby saving fuel, and reduces dust and odor infiltration into the vehicle cabin. The car windows are rarely opened for ventilation purposes, except for exchanges at service stations such as garage entrances and tollway booths. As such, there are few opportunities for fresh air to enter the cabin with the consequent accumulation of CO2 in vehicle cabins due to occupants’ exhalations being well documented. Field experiments conducted showed that the in-vehicle CO2 concentrations could reach up to 15 times that of the ambient concentration level during typical city commutes. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to quantify the air exchanges between the cabin and the ambient when the doors are opened for occupant egression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0504
Anthony Berejka, Dan Montoney, Dan Dispenza, Len Poveromo, Rick Galloway, Mark Driscoll, Marshall Cleland
Abstract Having demonstrated the feasibility of using X-rays derived from high current industrial electron beam accelerators (EB) to cure the matrices of carbon fiber composites and then scaled this up to cure large sized, non-structural automobile components, performance car hoods, the New York State Vehicle Composites Program had a chassis designed, a cured epoxy mold made and then the chassis matrix cured using X-rays with a formulated radiation responsive matrix material. A feasibility study had shown how X-rays could cure through materials embedded within the composite layers, such as metal inserts that could be used for mechanical fastening without fracturing the composite. In producing X-ray cured hoods, the power consumption for X-ray curing was found to be more than 20% lower than that needed for autoclave curing the same sized hoods using conventional thermosetting pre-pregs. More significant was the time-to-cure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1300
Raj Jayachandran, Bhimaraddi Alavandi, Matt Niesluchowski, Erika Low, Yafang Miao, Yi Zhang
Abstract An engine cooling system in an automotive vehicle comprises of heat exchangers such as a radiator, charge air cooler and oil coolers along with engine cooling fan. Typical automotive engine-cooling fan assembly includes an electric motor mounted on a shroud that encloses the radiator core. One of main drivers of fan shroud design is Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements without compromising the main function of airflow for cooling requirements. In addition, there is also a minimum stiffness requirement of fan shroud which is often overlooked in arriving at optimal design of it. Low Speed Damageability (LSD) assessment of an automotive vehicle is about minimizing the cost of repair of vehicle damages in low speed crashes. In low speed accidents, these fan motors are subjected to sudden decelerations which cause fan motors to swing forward thereby damaging the radiator core. So designing fan shroud for low speed damageability is of importance today.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1298
Kamlesh Yadav, Abhishek Sinha, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
Abstract For many years, the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understanding the load cases in the part, the fear of quality issues occurring, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and an increase in manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through the design process followed to design an in-molded attachment clip on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips beginning with a design concept idea, followed by basic concept testing using a desktop 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1303
Nobuhisa Yasuda, Shinichi Nishizawa, Maiko Ikeda, Tadashi Sakai
Abstract The purpose of this study is to validate a reverse engineering based design method for automotive trunk lid torsion bars (TLTB) in order to determine a free, or unloaded, shape that meets a target closed shape as well as a specified torque. A TLTB is a trunk lid component that uses torsional restoring force to facilitate the lifting open of a trunk lid, as well as to maintain the open position. Bend points and torque of a TLTB at a closed trunk position are specified by a car maker. Conventionally, a TLTB supplier determines bend points of the free shape by rotating the given bend points from a closed position around a certain axis to satisfy the specified torque at the closed position. Bend points of a deformed TLTB shape in the closed position often do not match the target bend points given by a car maker when designed by the conventional method, which can potentially cause interference issues with surrounding components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1301
Deepak A. Patil, Hrishikesh Buddhe
Abstract Frontal collisions account for majority of car accidents. Various measures have been taken by the automotive OEMs’ with regards to passive safety. Honeycomb meso-structural inserts in the front bumper have been suggested to enhance the energy absorption of the front structure which is favorable for passive safety. This paper presents the changes in energy absorption capacity of hexagonal honeycomb structures with varying cellular geometries; under frontal impact simulations. Honeycomb cellular metamaterial structure offers many distinct advantages over homogenous materials since their effective material properties depend on both, their constituent material properties and their cell geometric configurations. The effective static mechanical properties such as; the modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio of the honeycomb cellular meso-structures are controlled by variations in their cellular geometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1308
Abhishek Softa, Anuj Shami, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract The fuel efficiency of a vehicle depends on multiple factors such as engine efficiency, type of fuel, aerodynamic drag, and tire friction and vehicle weight. Analysis of weight and functionality was done, to develop a lightweight and low-cost Roof rack rail. The Roof rack rail is made up of a lightweight material with thin cross section and has the design that allows the fitment of luggage carrier or luggage rack on the car roof. In starting this paper describes the design and weight contribution by standard Roof rack rail and its related parts. Secondly, the selection of material within different proposed options studied and a comparison of manufacturing and design-related factors. Thirdly, it has a description of the design of Roof rack rail to accommodate the luggage carrier fitment on the car roof. Moreover, optimizations of Roof rack rail design by continuous change in position, shape, and parts used.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1305
Yucheng Liu, Jeremy Batte, Zachary Collins, Jennifer Bateman, John Atkins, Madelyn Davis, David Salley, Cindy L. Bethel, John Ball, Christopher Archibald
Abstract A robot mining system was developed by the State Space Robotic undergraduate student design team from Mississippi State University (MSU) for the 2016 NASA Robotic Mining Competition. The mining robot was designed to traverse the Martian chaotic terrain, excavate a minimum of 10 kg of Martian regolith and deposit the regolith into a collector bin within 10 minutes as part of the competition. A Systems Engineering approach was followed in proceeding with this design project. The designed mining robot consisted of two major components: (1) mechanical system and (2) control system. This paper mainly focuses on the design and assessment process of the mechanical system but will also briefly mention the control system so as to evaluate the designed robotic system in its entirety. The final designed robot consisted of an aluminum frame driven by four motors and wheels. It utilized a scoop and lifting arm subsystem for collecting and depositing Martian regolith.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1310
Harihar T. Kulkarni, Yu Wang, James Alanoly
Abstract The perceived quality of automotive closures (flushness and margin) is strongly affected by flanging and hemming of the outer panels and assembly respectively. To improve the quality of closures, the traditional hardware approach needs significant amount of time and costly die re-cuts and trials with prototype panels. Thus, such approach may delay the vehicle program and increase the overall investment cost. The proposed CAE methodology provides upfront design guidance to dies and panels, reduces time and increases cost savings associated with flanging and hemming while improving overall quality of the closures. In this proposed approach, as a first step, analytical formulae and design of experiments (DOE) are followed to estimate magnitude of design parameters of panels and dies as the upfront design guidance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1309
S. M. Akbar Berry, Hoda ElMaraghy, Johnathan Line, Marc Kondrad
Abstract Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1511
Anton Kabanovs, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Martin Passmore, Adrian Gaylard
Abstract The motivation for this paper is to consider the effect of rear end geometry on rear soiling using a representative generic SUV body. In particular the effect of varying the top slant angle is considered using both experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Previous work has shown that slant angle has a significant effect on wake shape and drag and the work here extends this to investigate the effect on rear soiling. It is hoped that this work can provide an insight into the likely effect of such geometry changes on the soiling of similarly shaped road vehicles. To increase the generality of results, and to allow comparison with previously obtained aerodynamic data, a 25% scale generic SUV model is used in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. UV doped water is sprayed from a position located at the bottom of the left rear tyre to simulate the creation of spray from this tyre.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1416
B. Nicholas Ault, Daniel E. Toomey
Abstract Reconstruction of passenger vehicle accidents involving side impacts with narrow objects has traditionally been approached using side stiffness coefficients derived from moveable deformable barrier tests or regression analysis using the maximum crush in available lateral pole impact testing while accounting for vehicle test weight. Current Lateral Impact New Car Assessment Program (LINCAP) testing includes 20 mph oblique lateral pole impacts. This test program often incorporates an instrumented pole so the force between the vehicle and pole at several elevations along the vehicle - pole interface is measured. Force-Displacement (F-D) characteristics of vehicle structures were determined using the measured impact force and calculated vehicle displacement from on-board vehicle instrumentation. The absorbed vehicle energy was calculated from the F-D curves and related to the closing speed between the vehicle and the pole by the vehicle weight.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1415
John D. Struble, Donald E. Struble
Abstract Crash tests of vehicles by striking deformable barriers are specified by Government programs such as FMVSS 214, FMVSS 301 and the Side Impact New Car Assessment Program (SINCAP). Such tests result in both crash partners absorbing crush energy and moving after separation. Compared with studying fixed rigid barrier crash tests, the analysis of the energy-absorbing behavior of the vehicle side (or rear) structure is much more involved. Described in this paper is a methodology by which analysts can use such crash tests to determine the side structure stiffness characteristics for the specific struck vehicle. Such vehicle-specific information allows the calculation of the crush energy for the particular side-struck vehicle during an actual collision – a key step in the reconstruction of that crash.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1463
Xianping Du, Feng Zhu, Clifford C. Chou
Abstract A new design methodology based on data mining theory has been proposed and used in the vehicle crashworthiness design. The method allows exploring the big dataset of crash simulations to discover the underlying complicated relationships between response and design variables, and derive design rules based on the structural response to make decisions towards the component design. An S-shaped beam is used as an example to demonstrate the performance of this method. A large amount of simulations are conducted and the results form a big dataset. The dataset is then mined to build a decision tree. Based on the decision tree, the interrelationship among the geometric design variables are revealed, and then the design rules are derived to produce the design cases with good energy absorbing capacity. The accuracy of this method is verified by comparing the data mining model prediction and simulation data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1468
Do Hoi KIm
Previous work identified a relationship between vehicle drop and dummy injury under the high-speed frontal impact condition [1]. The results showed that vehicle drop greater than 60mm made the dummy injury worse. Moreover, that work identified the front side member as the crucial part affecting the vehicle drop. In this study, the body structure mechanism was studied to reduce vehicle drop by controlling the front side member, shotgun, and A-pillar. By analyzing full vehicles, it was recognized that the arch shape of the front side member was very important. Furthermore, if the top of the arch shape of front side member, shotgun, and A-pillar were connected well, then the body deformation energy could lift the lower part of A-pillar, effectively reducing vehicle drop. This structure design concept is named “Body Lift Structure” (BLS). The BLS was applied to B and C segment platforms. Additionally, a “Ring” shape was defined by the front side member, dash panel, and A-pillar.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1451
Jan Vychytil, Jan Spicka, Ludek Hyncik, Jaroslav Manas, Petr Pavlata, Radim Striegler, Tomas Moser, Radek Valasek
Abstract In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario.
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