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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2553
2016-04-14
Event
BE & D cover several important areas that are related to vehicle body, including its components such as instrument panel, steering column and wheel, seats, hood, decklid, transmission cross-member, hard mounted chassis, CRFM, etc. Topics included are: Novel concepts, Analysis, Design, Testing, Predictions of strength, stiffness, and fatigue life, welding methods, vehicle body quality, durability, reliability, safety, ride & handling, NVH, aerodynamics, mass reduction, as well as fuel economy.
2016-04-14
Event
BE & D cover several important areas that are related to vehicle body, including its components such as instrument panel, steering column and wheel, seats, hood, decklid, transmission cross-member, hard mounted chassis, CRFM, etc. Topics included are: Novel concepts, Analysis, Design, Testing, Predictions of strength, stiffness, and fatigue life, welding methods, vehicle body quality, durability, reliability, safety, ride & handling, NVH, aerodynamics, mass reduction, as well as fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1338
Weight reduction is very important in automotive design because of stringent demand on fuel economy. Structural optimization of dynamic systems using finite element (FE) analysis plays an important role in reducing weight while simultaneously delivering a product that meets all functional requirements for durability, crash and NVH. With advancing computer technology, the demand for solving large FE models has grown. Optimization is however costly due to repeated full-order analyses. Reanalysis methods can be used in structural vibrations to reduce the analysis cost from repeated eigenvalue analyses for both deterministic and probabilistic problems. Several reanalysis techniques have been introduced over the years including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA) and the Epsilon algorithm, among others.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1329
Fulin Wei, Yanhua Shen, Tao xu
Abstract: The wear degree of body which is one of major parts of off- road dump truck has direct influence on maintenance and replacement during its service process. In this paper the discrete element method is used to simulate the dumping work for one 110t dump truck body, and the wear variation curve at one point of body floor is achieved in terms of Archard wear theory during one dumping process. Assuming that the variation of body wear is consistent with geometric Brown movement, the mathematical model of body wear is built based on the stochastic differential theory. The two parameters in the stochastic differential equation, drift coefficient and diffusion coefficient, can be evaluated by the wear variation curve. It is possible to quantitatively predict the wear evolution at any position of the body floor. The wear trend of mathematical model shows the same trend with the first two periods (running-in and mild wear) of general mechanical wear process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1333
Edward C. Fontana
Individuals in the United States consume twice as much energy as those in any other region. The daily solitary commute in light vehicles is the leading reason for this difference. Advances in automotive technology can improve the situation, we propose a Passengers First light truck design that should help. This vehicle must attract passengers in the competitive landscape of the suburban front yard at 6:30 AM. The F-Series trucks and Tesla Model X set the standard. The objective is comparable crash test performance, cargo capability, and sense of freedom; with easier parking, better acoustics and better efficiency. Treating the vehicle as a rolling event venue determined a large windscreen, side-by-side upright seating arrangements, and acoustic excellence - an experience where there are no bad seats. The chassis is platform batteries with dual motor electric rear drive and undetermined front drive. Major findings: 1.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1339
Piyush Bubna, Marc Wiseman
OEMs are investigating opportunities to reduce vehicle mass, driven by a need to meet upcoming CAFE targets and increase the range/reduce battery size of EVs. A number of lightweight materials including high strength steels, aluminum alloys, plastics and composites are now in production. To facilitate development of corporate R&D and commercialization plans for new materials, it is beneficial to understand the current manufacturing costs for production components, and their impact on piece price at different volumes. This paper investigates design and cost impact of light-weighting with respect to front door and floor assembly of Toyota Corolla and BMW i3. Toyota Corolla is a typical high production volume vehicle made of steel body while BMW i3 has relatively low annual sales and is primarily made of composite, aluminum and plastic parts. Use of light-weight materials in automotive have been widely researched.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1330
Lei Shi, Peng Yi, Zhan Zhang
The body joint stiffness plays an important role in achieving vehicle attribute targets. One of the major drawbacks of joint stiffness evaluation is the lack of a rigorous criterion to assess whether the stiffness is proper for a body structure. This paper presents a general metric based on Hooke's low to better evaluate the stiffness of a body joint. A strategy for target setting of body joint stiffness was developed for vehicle body design. Finally, a vehicle body example was presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1331
Shingo Hanano, Kanehiro Nagata, Yusuke Murase
The need to add more color variations to the traditional black gloss has increased globally in recent years. The intention is for automobile manufacturers to differentiate their products in terms of appearance design. The most noticeable trend is to add embellishment around the front grill. The same trend can be seen in the areas around vehicle doors. It is most common to use a coating material to emphasis the gloss of black. However, in overseas countries it is a challenge to meet the required appearance quality, and under the current circumstances CKD is imported from Japan to meet such requirements. We have recently established a new film-transfer technique that can express black gloss as well as any coating material by transferring the roughness of the film surface. It is achieved by crimping the PET film onto the vinyl-chloride surface after the extrusion molding is performed. Moreover, we have successfully localized this technique and reduced the manufacturing cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0434
Roshan N. Mahadule, Jaideep Singh Chavan
Door closing velocity (DCV) is one of the important design parameter which determines durability of the door. DCV varies according to the design and physical properties of the door. The physical properties of the Door assembly can affect DCV and may increase or decrease durability of the door and attached body components, this can be a concern when the overall vehicle durability performance is considered. This paper present a new tool that gives usable input data to durability engineers, which helps to bridge the gap between CAE simulations and physical tests while also reducing computation time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1380
S. Khodaygan, Amir Ghasemali, Hamed Afrasiab
One of the most important characteristics of industrial products, especially mechanical set-ups, is considering the tolerances of production and assembly of these set-ups, which it directly influences the products’ operations. In sheet metal structures, due to the high flexibility of the sheets, the errors appeared while assembly will be as highly influential as the errors due to the production tolerance of the sheets. As a result, having a comprehensive model which could analyze the assembly process of these structures and also clarifies the relation between the tolerance of the parts and the ultimate changes of the set-up will be of considerable importance. During the assembly process, the contact effect between the components is inevitable. If such effect is not considered, the contact surfaces will permeate. The purpose of this paper is to present a method to analyze the tolerance of flexible sheet structures, considering the contact effect between surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1327
Zhenfeng Wang, Mingming Dong, Junfeng xiang, Pu Gao, Liang Gu, Yushuai Wang
The study of properties special in the characteristics of elastic element is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Due to torsion bar spring act an important part of elastic element, and improve performance of torsion bar spring is of great concern. The influences of the torsion bar spring pre-setting precision on the torsional performance are presented. Based on elastic-plastic theory, the model of torsion bar spring is established to analyze the stress, torque and residual stress in the yield and plastic condition pre-setting process. Then, the stress and strain states of various torsion bar springs are simulated in different situations using the validated finite element model in ABAQUS software. The simulation results show the influence of torsion error on the torsional performance is less than 5% in the process of pre-setting process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1334
Christopher Flegel, Parth Bhivate, Liang Li, Yash Mathur, Sanket Phalgaonkar, Mark Benton, Prasanth Muralidharan, Johnell Brooks, Srikanth Pilla, Paul Venhovens, David Lewis, Garrett DeBry, Craig Payne
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for Generation Z for 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multi-material lightweight Body-in-White design. Market data were examined to define personas. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Propositions. The various sub-systems within the vehicle were developed; a systems integration approach was used to balance design, engineering, and project (cost, weight, and timing) attributes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1336
Hee Sang Park
To develop a Headliner substrate of particularly high strength which would meet the future demands of modular Headliner system construction.The paper concludes by summarising the physical properties achieved and shows design concept examples of pre-assembled Headliner systems ready to be "clip mounted at the Car Plant Trackside.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1335
Abhishek sinha, Kamlesh Yadav, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. Detailed analysis with innovative techniques and processes are required to make a cost-effective structure. While working on global platform, it is a tremendous challenge to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) with styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem of meeting both the requirements with less available space.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0532
Masaya Miura, Koichiro Hayashi, Kenichiro Yoshimoto, Natsuhiko Katahira
Weight reduction for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) is important to ensure the long driving distance. One approach to reduce the vehicle weight involves using a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) which has higher specific strength and stiffness. However, a conventional thermoset CFRP needs a long chemical reaction time and is not easy to be introduced for mass production vehicles. In this work, we developed a new stampable thermoplastic CFRP material for a mass production body structural part, and applied the CFRP to the stack frame of "MIRAI". A continuous fiber reinforced composite can utilize fiber strength efficiently, but its shape formability at stamping is poor. To realize a shape formability target, a discontinuous fiber was selected. However, discontinuous fiber reinforced composites tend to have relatively poor mechanical properties, and are not easy to ensure reliability. A carbon fiber-sheet molding compound (C-SMC) is one of the discontinuous CFRP materials.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1328
Praneeth Kurisetty, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta
To compete with the current market trends, there is always a need to develop cost effective frame designs to meet the needs of the customer. During the development of new vehicles, the major focus is on weight reduction, so as to improve the load carrying capacity and fuel efficiency. Due to the introduction of new high strength materials, the static strength conditions can be met by the use of thinner frames, but the dynamic behaviour of the frame deteriorates. The dynamic behaviours like ride & handling, comfort are affected by the stiffness of the vehicle frame. The stiffness of the frame is majorly defined by its Vertical stiffness, Lateral Stiffness and Torsional stiffness. The vertical stiffness of the frame plays major role in isolating road vibrations to frame mounted aggregates. The Lateral stiffness plays a very important role in the handling of the vehicle and cornering ability of the vehicle. Torsional stiffness effects the roll and lateral load transfer distribution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0652
Ravi ranjan, Lakshmaiah Brahmasani, Parvej khan
This paper reports a study on Charge air cooler effectiveness, Pressure drop and Acceleration Performance of a utility vehicle, for different layouts positioning of Inter cooler, radiator, condenser and fan module in order to finalize efficient Power train cooling system layout. The main objective was effective utilization of front end opening area, eliminating inter cooler heat load on the radiator, so that radiator size, fan size and Fan Motor wattage can be optimized to achieve desired cooling performance requirements with the cooling system (CRFM) module. Effect of the inter cooler effectiveness, Intake pressure drop and Vehicle acceleration were studied to finalize the position of inter-cooler along with other engine cooling components. The cooling system restriction was optimized (reduced) by reducing radiator core thickness with finalizing inter cooler position just above the radiator.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0473
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Arunkumar S, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Beverly Katz
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for functioning of passive safety systems precisely and thus directly related to overall vehicle level performance. Most of these sensors and modules are needed to be mounted on vehicle body at locations like pillar or even directly on panels based on its safety functionality and packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior might directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence the sufficient inertance performance level at sensor mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules to meet the vibrational target requirement. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
In current scenario, tremendous amount of thrust is there on CAE to simulate the customer usage pattern or lab test using virtual simulation methods. And is of prime importance to reduce the number of soft tooled or hard tooled prototype for a test if it can be well predicted in CAE. Door slam event in automobiles is one, where structure’s behaviour is complex due to vibration of panels. Current work focuses to derive load histories at different mounting points like hinges, latch and contact patch of door seal area through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. The extracted load histories are then applied to trimmed door Nastran model and Modal transient analysis performed to find the stress history. There is computational advantage with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Also, stress convergence is achieved with Nastran model. The stresses shown higher in the region where actual failure happened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1365
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
The overall automotive industry is moving toward first time right test which in turn needs first time right analysis. This is due to the enormous pressure of cost, mass, time to market and availability of prototype vehicles for testing. Use of finite element methods enables to upfront predict the system behavior in operating conditions and evaluation of structural strength. In vehicle product development process, hood slam durability evaluation is one of the important test for body closure structure. Current work showcases an effort made for developing virtual Hood slam test. The virtual model consists of BIW, hood, hinge joint, interface like CRFM and latch mechanism with spring preload. Analysis performed with LSDyna solver. An impact loading is applied by converting potential energy to kinetic energy, mimicking the hood dropping from a specified height on the hood latch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1510
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu vallabhaneni, Munenori shinada, Kazuto Sato
Active hood system helps in increasing the space between the hood inner and the engine compartment by pushing the hood upwards during a pedestrian impact. Such systems should detect all the pedestrian impacts ranging from 6YO-child to 95th%-male. To carry out rational sensor evaluation tests, a pedestrian detection impactor (PDI-2) was developed to represent the hard to detect pedestrian. To shorten the time of total experimental verification cycle and to increase the efficiency of the sensor simulation logic, a PDI-2 FE model was developed as accurately as possible to match the physical entities such as CG, weight and inertia properties. It is then evaluated with two standard pendulum tests; the results have good correlation with the physical tests. Vehicles with different sensor configurations were impacted with PDI-2 and pedestrian human models of different size & postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1332
Fredrik Henriksson, Kerstin Johansen
In the automotive industry, lightweighting and lightweight design is a continuing trend not probable to decrease in coming years. When looking at where to reduce weight in a vehicle, the body is a preferential subsystem due to its large contribution to overall mass and the stability of body composition over a specific model range. The automotive industry of today moves toward a greater differentiation in materials that compose a car, which can be seen in the several different multi material vehicle bodies that have been introduced by manufacturers in recent years. But while mixing materials may make for a good compromise between weight reduction and vehicle cost, it also proposes a number of challenges that needs to be addressed. Among other material factors, the different coefficients of thermal expansions might introduce new stresses during painting and baking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
In view of increasing safety requirements of vehicles, concerning the field of pedestrian safety, it is especially important to support these topics already from a very early stage of the development process, on a completely virtual basis, by CAE- and FE-methods. Especially if different requirements, e.g. for bumper stiffness, pedestrian safety and pedestrian detection may require conflicting structural solutions, design compromises have to be found against a background of an ever reducing number of real prototype testing possibilities, due to economical constraints. One way to overcome conflicting requirements in vehicle design is the usage of active bonnets to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements. These systems allow increasing the deformation space towards the stiff parts in the engine compartment, but need an extra detection system for reliable activation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0351
Yuki Kudo, Akinori Sato, Kazutaka Kimura, Shoichi Iwamoto, Hiroyuki Ohba, Motoya Sakabe, Yasuhiro Shirai
Use of solar power for driving reduces fuel consumption of automobiles resulting in less CO2 emission. Solar power can be generated by solar modules placed on buildings or on vehicles. Installing solar modules on vehicles with high capacity batteries such as electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles are effective, giving more customers an opportunity to receive benefit of solar energy because no infrastructures for storing and delivering solar energy are needed. However, replacing metal car roof to conventional solar modules results in increase of total car weight and change of barycentric position, which is not preferable for car designing. Therefore, weight reduction is required for solar modules to be equipped on vehicles. Exchanging glass to plastic for cover plate of solar module is one of the major approaches to reduce weight; however, load bearing property, impact resistance, thermal deformation, and weatherability become new issues.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1520
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou
The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure of a passenger car meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, the goal of design would be to find an optimum solution that meets both the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0387
Yunkai Gao, Jingpeng Han, Jianguang fang, Shihui Wang
A compiled method of the programmed load spectrum, which can simplify and accelerate the fatigue bench test of a car body, is proposed and its effectiveness is checked by the fatigue simulation. By using the multi-body dynamics model with a satisfactory accuracy, the virtual iteration is applied to cascade body loads from the wheel hubs. Based on the rain-flow counting method and statistics theory, the distributions of the body loads are analyzed, and then the programmed load spectrum is compiled and simplified. Through comparative study, the simulation results of random and programmed load spectrum are found to agree well with each other in terms of the damage distribution and fatigue life, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0350
Andre Camboa, Bernardo Ribeiro, Miguel Vaz, Luis Pinheiro, Ricardo Malta
This paper describes the development of an automotive bonnet for an electric vehicle based on a polymer-metal hybrid configuration. Special focus is given to the engineering design and prototyping phases. Three different reinforcement geometries were developed and six mechanical simulations were done through finite element analysis to aid best frame geometry choice. The entire bonnet was prototyped containing the selected frame geometry. The fabrication of the frame was performed through metal stamping and the exterior panel through reaction injection moulding followed by their assembling through adhesive bonding. A dimensional control was made over metallic frame by using 3D scanning equipment in order to measure geometrical divergence implicit by its fabrication. This paper addresses also the tool engineering development for those three previous mentioned processes.
2016-02-03
Magazine
Baking in protection With vehicles joining the Internet of Things, connectivity is making cybersecurity a must-have obligation for automotive engineers, from initial designs through end-of-life. New Engines 2016 Highlighting the design, engineering, and technologies inside some of the most competitive new gasoline and light-duty diesel ICEs. Citizen of the world Cuneyt L. Oge begins his term as 2016 SAE International President with a vision about auto-mobility and aero-mobility 2050. CES rollouts extend connectivity, app integration Ford looks to spread Corning's new lightweight Gorilla Glass beyond the 2017 GT New 40%-scale wind tunnel increases GM's aero-development capacity Surface Generation speeds composites throughput with one-shot stamp-forming process 2017 Cadillac XT5 debuts GM's new lightweight crossover architecture Porsche and Bentley plan electric future
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0050
Deepak Agrawal, Sharad Rawat, A. K. Upadhyay
Abstract Corrugated tubes are one among the different types of energy absorbers being used for the protection of passengers during impact /crash events of vehicles. Present work is primarily focused to analyze the effect of the variations of wavelength and amplitude of corrugation along the length of the tube on the crashworthiness of the tube. The circumferential corrugations in the tubes are graded by varying two parameters - wavelength and amplitude individually as well as simultaneously using different sinusoidal corrugation functions. The dynamic impact analysis has been carried out using LS-DYNA FEM code using shell elements for meshing and Magnesium alloy AZ31 as material. Energy absorbed, initial peak force, mean force and stroke length are the parameters used in this comparative study. It is observed that the initial reaction forces as well as the ratio of the mean reaction force to peak load changes with the grading of corrugation.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0250
Kamlesh Yadav, Ruhi Thakur
Abstract Hood is the closure provided in the frontal portion of the vehicle for covering the engine room. Any component disposed in the frontal portion of the vehicle becomes important because of aesthetic as well as regulatory requirements. Introduction of new regulations like pedestrian protection brings new challenges for the original equipment manufacturers and the governing authorities. Introduction of Pedestrian Protection regulation, a recent development in the automotive industry, has thrown several questions in front of original equipment manufacturers. This work explains the procedure to address such question and the learning associated with it.
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