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2015-06-24
Event
The focus of the Structural Analysis session is to share experiences on analyzing, testing, and developing solutions to structural noise and vibration problems from powertrain sources. Analytical modeling, experimental testing and predictive correlation are just a few of the tools used in this endeavor.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers static and dynamic issues in the body and chassis that contribute to noise and vibration problems in vehicles. Included in this session are modal studies, measurement and analysis methods, transfer path analysis, design guidelines, and recommended practices for noise and vibration control of the body and chassis.
2015-06-24
Event
This session covers static and dynamic issues in the body and chassis that contribute to noise and vibration problems in vehicles. Included in this session are modal studies, measurement and analysis methods, transfer path analysis, design guidelines, and recommended practices for noise and vibration control of the body and chassis.
2015-06-23
Event
This session focuses on the development and application of analytical methods for characterizing the dynamic behavior of structural systems. Analysis methods for all structural components, subsystems and complete systems found in automotive vehicles will be considered, except for powertrain and driveline which are covered in Powertrain Structural Analysis session. Examples include (but are not limited to) body structure, chassis structure, seats and interior structures.
2015-04-23
Event
Body Engineering & Design papers cover several important areas that are related to vehicle body, including its components such as instrument panel, steering column and wheel, seats, hood, decklid, transmission cross-member, hard mounted chassis, CRFM, etc. The topics included are: Novel concepts, Analysis, Design, Testing, Predictions of strength, stiffness, and fatigue life, Various welding methods, Improvement in vehicle body quality, durability, reliability, and Performance of safety, ride & handling, NVH, aerodynamics, mass reduction, as well as fuel economy.
2015-04-23
Event
Body Engineering & Design papers cover several important areas that are related to vehicle body, including its components such as instrument panel, steering column and wheel, seats, hood, decklid, transmission cross-member, hard mounted chassis, CRFM, etc. The topics included are: Novel concepts, Analysis, Design, Testing, Predictions of strength, stiffness, and fatigue life, Various welding methods, Improvement in vehicle body quality, durability, reliability, and Performance of safety, ride & handling, NVH, aerodynamics, mass reduction, as well as fuel economy.
2015-04-22
Event
This symposium provides a forum for researchers and application engineers to disseminate the knowledge and information gained in the area of advanced high-strength and press-hardening steel development and applications in automotive structures, enabling light-weight and durable vehicles with improved safety.
2015-04-22
Event
This symposium provides a forum for researchers and application engineers to disseminate the knowledge and information gained in the area of advanced high-strength and press-hardening steel development and applications in automotive structures, enabling light-weight and durable vehicles with improved safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1737
Jean-louis Ligier, Mathieu Benoit, Sylvain Damaz
Today new automotive engine design is optimized in term of mass. However, in term of stiffness, optimizations mainly consider eigenfrequency criteria. But in assembly components with quite low stiffness cumulated microslip phenomena can occur when the structures are subject to cyclic loadings. After a while, macro-displacements will be observed and then failures of the assembly will take place. Bush, plain bearing, roller bearing in conrod or in gearbox can be subject to this kind of problem. In this paper, after a short description of various mechanisms which can cause microreptation phenomena, two types of cumulated microslip occurring in engine and gearbox are presented. Behavior specifities will be highlighted to remind how particular are cumulated microslip. From the field, it appears that both phenomena arise with a low probability of occurrence. It implies not to use the devices concerned by this problem to investigate the phenomenon.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1128
Amrut A. Patki
Several critical factors influence the conventional practice of defining driveline propeller shafts. One of these is the location of the center bearing bracket mounting. This in-turn depends on the frame ladder’s crossmember. It has been observed that this dependence results in more number of joints and propeller shafts. “Driveline optimization by mini crossmember” is one of the solutions that offers flexibility in regards to the location of the center bearing bracket. Also this helps in achieving optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0526
Timo Faath, Lay Knoerr
In the new ThyssenKrupp InCar®plus project, numerous solutions were developed for body parts and systems that contribute to increased efficiency through the use of new materials and manufacturing technologies. They are superior to current production solutions in terms of weight, cost, performance and sustainability, while also meeting the demand for cost-effective weight reduction. One example is the front bumper: This part offers major weight reduction potential in the front end of the car. Both steel and aluminum versions are currently in serial production. In the ThyssenKrupp InCar®plus project, a highly efficient steel solution was developed that matches the weight level of current aluminum solutions at much lower cost. The hot-formed lightweight steel crash beam is around 20% lighter than conventional steel solutions. The latest safety requirements such as the new R-CAR barrier test and the IIHS Small Overlap Test were taken into account during development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0723
Sebastian Bender, Raymond Khoo, Christoph Große, Felix M. Wunner, Heong Wah Ng, Markus Lienkamp
Upcoming stringent regulations on emissions and fuel efficiency are driving the automotive industry towards light-weight vehicle design. A higher share of carbon fiber composite materials in vehicle structures is expected. Current literature addresses development processes of composite components under a limited scope but the considerations of design parameters used in these studies are inadequate for the realistic development of a full vehicle structure, especially in a resource-constrained development project. In addition, existing vehicle structure design philosophies used for metallic structures cannot be directly ported over for composites design due to the differences in material properties, failure modes and design for manufacturing limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0581
Luke Deptula, Alaa Noah
ABSTRACT The approaching corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) regulations will again increase with new model years (MY). The U.S. Government finalized a regulation requiring cars and light trucks average 54.5 mpg fuel economy for MY2025. Vehicle manufacturers recognize removing weight is a key feature to meeting their targets for fuel economy and emission reductions. One common OEM strategy is the implementation of incremental weight reductions to attain these goals. The automotive industry continues to look for opportunities to reduce weight and cost while continually increasing performance and safety. Lightweighting technologies enhance vehicle performance, (fuel economy, acceleration, braking and emissions). New materials are available to reduce weight; however the incremental cost for the weight reduction can be prohibitive. This study will encompass the utilization of lightweight materials, as well as current and evolving manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1549
Jonathan Jilesen, Adrian Gaylard, Iwo Spruss, Timo Kuthada, Jochen Wiedemann
Driving when it is raining can be a stressful experience. Having a clear unobstructed view of the vehicles and road around you under these conditions is especially important. Heavy rain conditions can however overwhelm water management devices resulting in water rivulets flowing over the vehicle’s side glass. These rivulets can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the door mirror, and laterally onto junctions. Designing water management features for vehicles is a challenging venture as testing is not normally conducted until late in the design phase. Additionally traditional water management features such as grooves and channels have both undesirable design and wind noise implications. Having the ability to detect water management issues such as A-pillar overflow earlier in the design cycle is desirable to minimize the negative impact of water management features. Numerical simulation of windscreen water management is desirable for this reason.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0543
Shawn (Xianggang) Zhang, Taylor Sykes-Green, Barry (Baizhong) Lin
For light duty truck, frame is one of the major structural systems and it must go through a series of duty cycle proving ground events to meet durability fatigue performance requirement. Nowadays, in order to meet stringent CAFE standards, auto manufacturers are seeking to keep the vehicle weight as light as possible. The weight reduction on the frame is a challenging task as it still needs to maintain the strength, safety, and durability fatigue performances. CAE durability fatigue simulation is widely used in frame design before the physical proving ground tests are performed. A typical frame durability fatigue analysis includes both the base metal fatigue analysis and seam weld fatigue analysis. Usually the gauges of the frame components are dedicated by the seam weld fatigue performance so the base metal could be over design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0550
Wenxin Qin, Fred Zweng, Xuefeng Zhang
Substructure Stiffness Synthesis for Fatigue Analysis of Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain durability fatigue analysis, FEA model becomes bigger and bigger and close to adopt a full vehicle as computer hardware and software improved. However, due to a huge amount of components (more than 20,000 parts in a vehicle), there are still too much computational time needed and a lot of pre/post process works to do for using full car FEA model. Therefore, for saving time and cost it is desirable to reduce the number of subsystems, and getting an effective subsystem model which keeps the main features of the mechanics of a whole vehicle system. In this paper, authors present a useful and effective substructure FEA model: Substructure Stiffness Synthesis (SSS) method in the automotive durability analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1324
Guangtian Gavin Song, Chin-An Tan
In automotive industry, door slam CAE fatigue life analysis is very important in door durability evaluation and optimization to dramatically reduce the design cycle and minimize the expensive durability testing. Couple of linear stress based methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, have been applied in CAE. Linear material properties are used in these linear stress based methodologies. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area. Then the stress time history is retrieved and input to further fatigue life analysis or firstly converted to nonlinear stress with Neuber’s rule to consider plastic deformation effect. But under some circumstances, the structure may have large local area plastic deformation. So the linear stress based methodology can’t precisely predict the load path, and further affect the accuracy of fatigue analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1352
Ashish Kumar Sahu, Abhijit Londhe, Suhas Kangde, Vishal Shitole
Body in White (BIW) is one of the major mass contributors in a full vehicle. Bending stiffness, Torsional stiffness, durability and modal characteristics are the basic performances for which BIW is designed. Usually while meeting these performances, a lot of weight is added to BIW. Sensitivity analysis helps to identify the critical panels contributing to the performance while BIW optimization helps to reduce the overall mass of the BIW without compromising on the basic performances. This paper highlights the optimization study carried out on the BIW of a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) for mass reduction. This optimization was carried out considering all the basic performance parameters. In the initial phase of BIW development, optimization helps to ensure minimum BIW weight rather than carrying out mass reduction post manufacturing and testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1340
Yoichi Toyooka, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
Warping the exteriors of outer panels happens during the application of heat for hardening structural adhesives. Using aluminum and resin promote warping. Simulation of warping at the design stage and evaluating warping during mass-production require us to quantify the degree of warping to evaluate absolute values. These analytic values correspond to values from warping in panels, and display a correlation with visual examinations. Degree of displacement was an evaluative indicator for the quantification of warping. However, warping will not always be recognized due to gradual change in areas of the panel and cases where it will be recognized due to sudden change, despite that the absolute value of the degree of displacement might be the same. This research considered a warping simulation and evaluation using curvature as the evaluative indicator. Curvature is the gradient of change of the curved surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1370
Mehran Ebrahimi, Kamran Behdinan
Energy consumption is one of the most significant challenges in the world today, and has been the source of many struggles in international level. The future of human’s generations is in serious danger because of energy related issues such as resources shortage and global warming. Hence, responsible governments have codified some policies to reduce fuel consumption in energy-dependent industries and their products. Automobile industries as the manufacturers of fuel consumer products are not exempt from these rules, and are always looking for more lightweight industrial designs. In order to achieve more lightweight solutions, changing the material of an available part to a lower density one is the first option in many applications, and aluminum as an accessible material with acceptable mechanical properties can be a suitable replacement for steel in the majority of industrial demands.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1528
Kenichi Hirose, Rina Nakagawa, Yukitaka Ura, Hideyuki Kawamata, Hisashi Tanaka, Munehiko Oshima
The door mirrors of a vehicle are one of the significant components generating drag, due to projection from the vehicle body. The ratio of door mirror drag accounts for 2.5-5 percent of the overall aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. The drag ratio is larger than the frontal area ratio of door mirrors and vehicle body. Since it is considered that door mirror drag is composed of not only profile drag but also interference drag that is generated by the mixing of airflow streamlines between door mirrors and vehicle body. However, the generation mechanism of interference drag remained unexplained, so elucidating mechanisms for countermeasures have been needed. In this study, the prediction formulas for door mirror drag expressed by functions in relation to velocities around the vehicle body were derived and verified by wind tunnel test. Door mirror drag is defined as the difference between aerodynamic drag on a vehicle with and without mirrors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0568
Wenxin Qin, Sandip Datta, Weidong Zhang, Fred Zweng
Simplified 3D Simulation Models to 2D Plane Strain Analytical Models in Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain finite element numerical analysis, more and more analysts and engineers like to adopt 3D complex FEA models along with improved computer hardware and software. The advantages of 3D FEA model are (1) looked like real model in vision; (2) simulation response is more vivid; (3) easily to discover the mistakes by watching simulation response. The drawbacks of 3D FEA model are (1) more pre/post process works and computation time; (2) numerical divergence is a challenging issue in nonlinear and contact situations and debug becomes difficulty; (3) sometimes accumulated numerical errors will cover the actual response. Therefore, it is necessary to explore what kinds of 3D FEA situations can be successfully converted by the simple 2D plan FEA models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0580
Fei Lei, Xin Chen, Xiao Ping Xie, Jing Zhu
Lightweight automotive body can be obtained in many ways, such as by developing new body constructions, replacing with lightweight materials and implementing structural optimizations, etc. Lightweight materials provide direct ways to reduce the weight by utilizing High Strength Steel, Aluminum, Magnesium and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic, etc. Structural optimizations create optimum topology, proper shape, accurate size, as well as minimum weight. New body constructions usually combine of creative layout, new materials usage, advanced manufacturing and optimizations. All these approaches, in this paper, are classified into three main categories. The principle of the classification bases on the material selected and the type of optimization. Multi-material and single-material are two aspects of material selection. Lightweight optimization and multi-objective optimization are two different optimizations. Three approaches are described below.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1310
Rama Subbu, Baskar Anthonysamy, Piyush Mani Sharma, Prasanna Mahendiran
The main challenge that arise in the design of a motorcycle frame is its effect on the functioning of the vehicle, ride comfort and durability. While functionality and ride comfort can be evaluated before the product reaches customer, evaluation of its durability is a complex process. This work is an investigation of the frame body of a lower cc vehicle. These vehicles are subjected to endurance tests on a rough road to quantitatively evaluate their frame durability. However, such tests require significant time and cost, so we have attempted to develop a virtual rough road simulator and frame test rig, in which the frame body durability of a two wheel vehicle can be evaluated. Also durability results were compared and analyzed among the track data, road simulator and frame test rig. This paper presents an approach for efficiently evaluating motorcycle frame body durability using external loads predicted from measured strain data from test track.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1312
MyoungKwon Je
The power sliding door system(PSD) is being equipped in the MPV(Multi-Purposd Vehicle) vehicle for convenience in the door operation. This study will be done to optimize package for interior design and package in the vehicle which equips PSD system. To optimize the package, investigation for PSD's structure need to be done and the examples of other vehicle maker will be investigated and compared. And the study to reconcile between the performance and good package of PSD system made the unique PSD design method in this study. And finally, this study will show the result vehicle in which the optimized mechanism is applied. So we will realize the effect from this study.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1318
Mohammad Muneer, Yogesh Sharma
The door performance of an automobile is gauged not only by its function but also the “feel” of operating a door which majorly depends upon opening /closing force and closing velocity. This feel is in direct relation to soundness of design and build quality which the customer experiences even before driving the vehicle. The above mentioned performance parameters depend largely on the following factors: 1. Door structure and weight 2. Hinge Axis inclination 3. Body/panel Accuracy 4. Check link/stop comp design 5. Latch mechanism 6. Compression resistance force from sealing 7. Air binding effect 8. Frictional forces (both part and component level) For a sliding door, along with above mentioned factors following also play a major role. 9. Rail design/ door closing/opening locus 10. Door support structure (Hinges) Several studies have been conducted for door open/close performance for a conventional swing door, however little has been done for sliding door.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1462
Seung Jun Yang
Euro-Ncap committee has been adopted overall impact star-grade system after 2009 and strengthening pedestrian protection cut-off score to obtain best impact-star grade until 2016. It is very difficult target to pass enhanced pedestrian cut-off score due to previous method. In this paper, I studied where is pedestrian weak area and why pedestrian injury is so high at that area based on our test result. I compared long-hood, 3 corner pop-up hood and pedestrian air-bag system. Finlly I suggest 3-corner rear-ward hood pop-up system is best method to meet our Impact new target in considering pedestrian protection ability, cost &weight.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1467
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Munenori Shinada
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrians’ lower extremity injury depends on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of impact. The head injury of a pedestrian is also influenced by the ratio of pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small, medium and large pedestrian w.r.t the pedestrian to BLE height-ratio in order to quantify the degree of influence of different parameters (leg orientation, direction of impact, and running/walking state before crash) on pedestrian injuries. Large adult male FE model (95th %ile male AM95:190 cm and 103 kg) is developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50.
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