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2016-11-14 ...
  • November 14-16, 2016 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While a variety of new engineering methods are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to deliver desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today’s engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to key the fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
2016-11-07 ...
  • November 7-9, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Increased public pressure to improve commercial truck safety and new stopping distance regulations have intensified the need to better understand the factors influencing heavy vehicle braking performance. To assist individuals and their organizations in preparing for these new truck braking standards, this seminar focuses attendees on understanding medium-duty hydraulic brake systems and heavy-duty air brake systems and how both systems' performance can be predicted, maintained and optimized.
2016-11-02 ...
  • November 2-4, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Hydraulic brake systems, one of the most important safety features on many road vehicles today, must meet manufacturer and customer requirements in addition to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. This course will analyze automotive braking from a system's perspective, emphasizing legal requirements as well as performance expectations such as pedal feel, stopping distance, fade and thermal management. Calculations necessary to predict brake balance and key system sizing variables that contribute to performance will be discussed.
2016-10-13 ...
  • October 13-14, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Once reserved for high-end luxury vehicles, electronic brake control systems are now required standard equipment on even the most inexpensive cars and trucks. Today, nearly every new vehicle benefits from the optimized braking, enhanced acceleration, or improved stability that these systems provide. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the system-level design considerations, vehicle interface requirements, and inevitable performance compromises that must be addressed when implementing these technologies. The seminar begins by defining the tire-road interface and analyzing fundamental vehicle dynamics.
2016-09-30 ...
  • September 30, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Scottsdale, Arizona
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Brake noise is one of the highest ranked complaints of car owners. Grunts, groans, squeaks, and squeals are common descriptions of the annoying problem which brake engineers spend many hours trying to resolve. Consumer expectations and the high cost of warranty repairs are pushing the optimization of brake NVH performance. This course will provide you with an overview of the various damping mechanisms and tools for analyzing and reducing brake noise. A significant component of this course is the inclusion of case studies which will demonstrate how brake noise squeal issues have been successfully resolved.
2016-09-29 ...
  • September 29, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Scottsdale, Arizona
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Brake Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) is recognized as one of the major problems currently faced by the automotive manufacturers and their suppliers, with customers warranty claims of more than $100 million per year for each manufacturer. With increasing consumer braking performance expectations, automotive OEM’s and suppliers need the ability to predict potential problems and identify solutions during the design phase before millions of dollars have been spent in design, prototyping, and manufacturing tooling.
2016-09-29 ...
  • September 29, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Scottsdale, Arizona
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The choice of brake friction materials varies per application, but each must have the appropriate coefficient of friction and be able to disperse large amounts of heat without adversely effecting braking performance. This seminar will provide an introduction to brake lining raw materials and formulation, manufacturing, quality control and testing. The course covers the critical elements that must be reviewed before arriving at a lining selection decision. Different classes of friction material and their use will be defined.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8010
M. Kamel Salaani, David Mikesell, Chris Boday, Devin Elsasser
Rear-end collisions account for roughly 20% of all police-reported heavy truck crashes in 2004, and the heavy truck was the striking vehicle in 60% of these cases. In light of this, Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB), an electronically-assisted means of avoiding or mitigating frontal collision, could have significant safety benefits. Field testing of such systems using real vehicles is necessarily limited by the danger and expense inherent in crash-imminent scenarios, especially when the system is not designed to eliminate all collisions but rather reduce their severity. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) systems have the potential to enable safe and accurate laboratory testing and evaluation of AEB systems. This paper describes the setup and experimental validation of such a HiL system.
2016-09-27 ...
  • September 27-30, 2016 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Designing a brake system requires the ability to balance a multitude of parameters against the required tradeoffs of system weight, system cost, and system performance. Understanding the basic fundamentals of how each brake component attribute contributes to the overall Force vs Deceleration behavior of the vehicle is critical to the design and release of a safe, legal and optimized system for today’s vehicles. Brake balance also is a contributing factor to other chassis control and safety systems, such as regenerative braking, ABS, and electronic brake distribution (EBD).
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8112
Jorge Leon, Andres Gonzalez, Jose M. Garcia, Mario J. Acero
Electric motors have energy efficiency and performance advantages over traditional internal combustion engines. Nevertheless, when used for transportation, they have limited ranges due to the state of current energy storage technologies. In order to improve efficiency and increase the range of operation of electric vehicles, complementary energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is proposed to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage. This system consists of a hydraulic accumulator, a low pressure reservoir and a hydraulic pump/motor. The pump/motor device transforms kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during breaking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. This energy can later can be used to propel the vehicle. The proposed system is particularly useful for vehicles in heavy start-stop traffic and public transportation.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1942
Sarah Chen, Steve Hoxie
Developing a brake system with high overall customer satisfaction rating is a constant challenge for OEMs as well as their brake suppliers. Brake system performance is directly linked to the engagement between the rotor and pads. The materials for the rotors and pads play a key role in the nature of the engagement. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of brake rotor materials to meet performance targets. Due to its superior thermal handling capacity, damping characteristics, wear and cost advantages, gray iron is the most widely used brake rotor material in the industry. G30 per ASTM A48 is generally specified for most brake rotors with minimum tensile strength of 200 Mpa and Brinell hardness of 187~241. G20 is also widely used for brake rotors, especially when people are looking for brake smoothness and optimal pad life. This study has found that variation in gray iron material can considerably affect brake output, wear, DTV, BTV, and noise propensity.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1929
Nimrod Kapas, Ajith Jayasundera
There is an increasing interest in transient thermal simulations of automotive brake systems using CFD software. This paper presents a detailed high-fidelity simulation tool for modeling complete braking cycles including both the deceleration and the acceleration phases. During braking, this model applies the total heat input directly at the friction interface on the contacting rotor and pad surfaces. Based on the conductive heat fluxes within the surrounding parts, the solver automatically determines the division of the thermal energy flowing from the friction interface into the solid volumes of the rotor and the pad. The convective heat transfer between the surfaces of solid parts and the cooling airflow is simulated through conjugate heat transfer, and radiative heat exchange between solid surfaces is captured by using the discrete ordinates model.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1930
Heewook Lee
Contamination protection of brake rotor has been a challenge for auto industry for a long time. As contamination of rotor causes corrosion and it in turn causes many issues like pulsation and short rotor and lining lives, splash shield became a common part for most vehicles. While rotor splash protection shield provides contamination protection for brake rotor, it makes brake cooling performance worse as it blocks air reaching brake rotor. Therefore, balancing between contamination protection and enabling brake cooling has become key critical factor when splash shield is designed. Although analytical capability of brake cooling performance has become quite reliable, due to lack of technology to predict contamination pattern the design of splash protection shield has relied on engineering judgment and vehicle test. Optimization opportunities were restricted by cost and time associated with vehicle test.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1932
Niclas Strömberg
During several years a toolbox for performing virtual rig tests of a brake disc has been developed by the author. A thermo-flexible multi-body model of a test rig is derived and implemented. A thermo-mechanical model of the pad-disc system is formulated including thermo-elasticity, frictional contact and wear. The energy balance at the contact interface is governed by contact conductance that depends linearly on the contact pressure and the frictional heat depends on a temperature dependent coefficient of friction. Instead of adopting a standard Lagrangian approach, the disc is formulated in an Eulerian frame like a fluid. This is then coupled to the pad most accurately by using Signorini’s contact conditions, Coulomb’s law of friction and Archard’s law of wear. The numerical treatment of these laws are performed by applying an augmented Lagrangian formulation, which in turn is solved with a non-smooth Newton method.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1944
Seongjoo Lee, JeSung Jeon, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Rhee, Wan Gyu Lee, Young Sun Cho, Jeongkyu Kim
It is widely known that brake squeal repeatability and reproducibility are difficult to achieve whether a run on a vehicle on the road, a vehicle on a chassis dynamometer or a single brake on a noise dynamometer. At one time, the same brake may generate only low-frequency squeals (1.5 - 5 kHz) and at another time, only high-frequency squeals (5 - 20 kHz). More specifically, on a chassis dynamometer, the left side may produce only low-frequency squeals (or high-frequency squeals) while the right side produces only high-frequency squeals (or low-frequency squeals), or mixed squeals at different rates. The same phenomenon is observed when brakes are run on a noise dynamometer; more low-frequency squeals at one time or more high-frequency squeals at another time on an apparently same brake system. This study was undertaken to find out what causes these discrepancies.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1935
Binyu Mei
With the continuous increasing requirements of commercial vehicle weight and speed on highway transportation, conventional friction brake is difficult to meet the braking performance. To ensure the driving safety of the vehicle in the hilly region, eddy current retarder has been widely used due to its fast response, lower prices and convenient installation. Electric eddy current retarder breaks the vehicle through the electromagnetic force generated by the current, and converted vehicle mechanical energy into heat through magnetic field. Air cooling structure is often used in the traditional eddy current retarder and cooling performance is limited, which causes low breaking torque, thermal recession, low reliability and so on. A water jacket has been equipped outside the eddy current region in this study, and the electric eddy current retarder is cooled through the water circulating in the circuit, which prolongs its working time.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1940
Scott Lambert
Industry requirements to improve fuel economy now drive the automotive industry to continually find ways to reduce vehicle mass, particularly to components contributing to ‘un-sprung’ weight. One such component is the steel disc brake backing plate, with commercial vehicle applications weighing as much as 2 kg each; however until now there have been no lightweight alternatives offered. To address this growing requirement, NUCAP Global developed a composite disc plate design which consists of 2 thin-gauge steel facing plates integrally bonded to a phenolic core via mechanical attachment. While the composite design results in the immediate advantage of significant weight reduction, up to 40% on larger vehicle applications, it must also meet or exceed the same function and performance criteria required for solid steel plates by industry standard test methods. Additionally, manufacturability and cost must be factors.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1941
Tie Wang, Xin Gao, Zhiwei Zhang
Vehicle hydraulic retarder is applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling system of hydraulic retarder, working fluid is introduced into heat exchanger to transfer heat to cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by engine cooling system, not enabling waste heat of working fluid used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on Rankine cycle, organic working fluid transfers heat with hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1913
Alessandro Sanguineti, Andrea Bonfanti, Federico Tosi, Flavio Rampinelli
Organic brake pads for automotive can be defined as brake linings where the bonding matrix is constituted of high-temperature thermosetting resins. Bonded together inside the polymeric binder are a mix of components (e.g. abrasives, lubricants, reinforcements, fillers, modifiers…), each playing a distinctive role in determining the tribology and friction activity of the final friction material. The herein reported work presents novel inorganic “alkali-activated”-based materials suitable for the production of alternative brake linings (i.e. brake pads), by means of an unconventional low-temperature wet process. Exploiting the hydraulic activity of specific components when exposed to an alkaline environment, such peculiar inorganic materials are capable of coming to a complete hardening without the need of traditional high-temperature energivorous procedures.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1943
Tadayoshi Matsumori, Yoshitsugu Goto, Noboru Sugiura, Kenji Abe, Yoshihiro Osawa, Yosuke Akita, Satoshi Wakamatsu, Katsuya Okayama, Kyoko Kosaka
This paper deals with the friction coefficient COF variation in a disk brake system when the wear debris between the brake pad and the disc rotor contains water. In our previous study, it was experimentally found that little moisture content leads to high COF compared with COF under dry condition. Based on the results, we propose a hypothesis that agglomerates composed of the wet wear debris induce COF variation when the agglomerates stand at gaps between friction surfaces. In this paper, for supporting the hypothesis, firstly, testing the friction property of the wet wear debris, we confirm that capillary force affects COF variation. After that, using a particle-based simulation assuming firstly and secondary particles of wear debris, we simulate the wear debris behavior with or without the capillary force.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1933
Mingzhuo Li, Dejian Meng, Lijun Zhang
Brake judder severely affects the riding comfort and safety of vehicle. For the brake corner system, a rigid-flexible coupling model are established based on ADAMS. In the model, brake pads, caliper, anchor and knuckle are flexible body, and the contacts between pads and disc and the contact between pads and caliper are defined in detail. Meanwhile, the vibration acceleration of the brake corner components and the contact forces between disc and pads are used as evaluation index and the evaluation system of brake judder are improved. The analysis results show that the novel model and evaluation system can be used to predict brake judder effectively.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1911
Philippe Dufrenoy
A multiscale model of a disc brake including material and surface heterogeneities Y. Waddad; V. Magnier; P. Dufrénoy* ; G de Saxcé University of Lille Cité scientifique Avenue Paul Langevin F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex * Corresponding author : philippe.dufrenoy@univ-lille1.fr During friction it is well known that the real contact area is much lower to the theoretical one and that it evolves constantly during braking. It influences drastically the system’s performance. Conversely the system behavior modifies the loading conditions and consequently the contact surface area. This interaction between scales is well-known for the problematic of vibrations induced by friction but also for the thermomechanical behavior. Indeed, it is necessary to develop models combining a fine description of the contact interface and a model of the whole brake system. This is the aim of the present work. The macroscopic model is obtained with Finite Element analysis.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1912
Bo Hu, Sydney Luk, Peter Filip
Copper and copper alloys are widely used in friction materials such as brake pad formulations as one of key ingredients by providing good thermal conductivity and high temperature friction stability to achieve desired friction performance, fade and wear resistance. However, the use of copper or copper containing material is being restricted in brake pads due to environment and health concerns. Extensive works have been made to explore the copper substitutes but most of these efforts became ineffective and failed with issues either thermal fade or excessive pad/rotor wear. In this paper, friction and wear responses were examined when a metallic composite material was used as the copper substitute in NAO and Low-met brake formulations where the copper and copper alloys were added 8% and 22% respectively.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1934
Arun Kumar Prasad, Baskar Anthonysamy, Gopalakrishn V. A., Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Fierce completion in India’s automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle. Braking performance of automotive vehicle is facilitated by the adhesion between the tyre and the ground. Braking force generated at the wheels of a vehicle have to appropriately match to the adhesion. Antilock braking system (ABS) is used for this purpose. ABS is a modern braking system which could significantly improve directional stability and reduce stopping distance of a vehicle. However this system still too complicated and expensive to use in low end compact car and pickup truck.
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