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2015-10-05 ...
  • October 5-7, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar will present an introduction to Vehicle Dynamics from a vehicle system perspective. The theory and applications are associated with the interaction and performance balance between the powertrain, brakes, steering, suspensions and wheel and tire vehicle subsystems. The role that vehicle dynamics can and should play in effective automotive chassis development and the information and technology flow from vehicle system to subsystem to piece-part is integrated into the presentation. Governing equations of motion are developed and solved for both steady and transient conditions.
2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Greenville, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
                                                                 Understanding vehicle dynamics is one of the critical issues in the design of all vehicles, including heavy trucks. This seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of heavy truck dynamics. It covers all of the critical subsystems that must be considered by designers and decision makers in determining the effect of various components on heavy truck dynamics. This seminar begins where the tires meet the ground, progressing up through the various components and bringing together the theory and practice of heavy truck dynamics.
2015-08-17 ...
  • August 17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides an introduction to several critical aspects of heavy truck dynamics. The comprehensive presentation and discussion will begin with the mechanics and dynamics of heavy truck tires, followed by steering dynamics, and finally moves participants into suspension kinematics and dynamics. Starting at the ground and moving up, this seminar explores the important dynamic aspects of each subsystem and how each is related to the overall truck dynamics.
2015-06-25
Event
This session includes papers in the areas of static, dynamic, and fatigue characterization of elastomers, bushings, mounts and shock absorbers used in the mobility industry. Particular emphasis is given to new and innovative analysis and testing methodologies to quantify the non-linear properties of these systems in addition to the effects of temperature, frequency, and aging. Papers dealing with specific applications and case studies of existing methodologies are also welcome.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2355
Luke Fredette, Jason Dreyer
Hydraulic bushings with amplitude sensitive and spectrally varying properties are commonly used in automotive suspension. However, scientific investigation of their dynamic properties has been mostly limited to linear system based theory, which cannot capture the significant amplitude dependence exhibited by the devices. This paper extends prior literature by introducing a nonlinear fluid compliance term for reduced-order bushing models. Quasi-linear models developed from step sine tests on an elastomeric test machine can predict amplitude dependence trends, but offer limited insight into the physics of the system. A bench experiment focusing on the compliance parameter isolated from other system properties yields additional understanding and a more precise characterization. Computational analysis of the bench experiment offers general agreement with both bench experiment and step sine test results.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2351
Hongyu Shu, Shuang Luo, Li Wang
Recently auto shock absorbers have caused automobile users in China a lot of complaints that they have abnormal noise. In order to measure the noise of auto shock absorbers, a test bench which detect piston-rod vibration response of shock absorber excited by oscillating crankshaft mechanism, and measuring analyzer named as SANTS-Ⅰ,which included specialized signal process and analysis software have been developed. A lot of tests of auto shock absorbers of the abnormal noise have been carried out with the test bench and the piston-rod vibration response data have been collected. It has been showed that there are violent peaks with high frequency in the sine curve of piston-rod oscillating with relative low frequency, signal processed by SANTS-Ⅰmeasuring analyzer.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2354
Xiao-Ang Liu, Zhaoping Lv, Wenbin Shangguan
Since the balances of 3-cylinder engine is worse than 4- or 6- cylinder engine, design of powertrain mounting system for engine with three cylinders is much more significant to engine vibration isolation. Inline 3-cylinder engine vibrations are caused by imbalance forces from reciprocate inertial forces of pistons, the rotation inertia forces from the crank and connecting road and the gas combustion forces. The excitation of a 3-cylinder engine is heavier than 3-cylinder engine, so the new design method of mounting system for isolation engine vibration should be developed. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the balance method for 3-cylinder engine, and the optimization method for its mounting system. Firstly the calculation method for obtaining the forces and moments applied to the engine block is presented.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2364
Xianpai Zeng, Jared Liette, Scott Noll
The vibration isolation effectiveness of powertrain mount configurations is examined for electric vehicle application by focusing on the deteriorating effect introduced by internal mount resonances. Unlike internal combustion engines where mounts are typically designed only for static support and low frequency dynamics, electric motors have higher excitation frequencies in a range where mount resonances often occur. The problem is first analytically formulated by considering a simple 2-dimensional powertrain system. It is shown that by modifying the mount shape, the mount resonance(s) can be shifted while maintaining the same static rate. Further, vibration isolation is improved over a narrow frequency range by using non-identical mounts that split mount resonance peaks. Then a computational model for a realistic drive unit (containing electric motor, power invertor, and differential case) is considered.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2353
Jan Bunthoff, Frank Gauterin, Christoph Boehm PhD
In an automotive suspension, the shock absorber plays a significant role to enable the vehicle performances, especially in ride, handling and Noise-Vibration-Harshness (NVH). Understanding its physical characteristics is of great importance, as it has a main influence on the overall vehicle performance. Within this research project simulation models for different passive monotube shock absorber systems have been created in a 1-D system simulation software. The simulation models are designed and parameterized physically. To validate the simulation models measurements on different hydropulse-shaker with specially designed control signals to investigate the response during high frequency excitation, have been done. A detailed discussion of the several models and results of a simulation to measurement comparison is given. After detailed investigation the shock absorber simulation models are now adaptable to the multi body simulation.
2015-05-18 ...
  • May 18-20, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
  • November 16-18, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While a variety of new engineering tools are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to ensure desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today's engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to the key fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
2015-04-23
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2015-04-23
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2015-04-22 ...
  • April 22-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 4-6, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Just as the chassis and suspension system provides an ideal framework for the automobile, this popular SAE seminar provides an informative framework for those involved in the design of these important systems.
2015-04-14
Collection
This technical paper collection provides information on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
Abstract Dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. In this paper, a new motor driven clutch actuator with a force-aid lever has been proposed. A spring is added to assist clutch apply that can effectively reduce the motor size and energy consumption. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of this new clutch actuator, and the force-aid lever actuator's principle, physical structure design, and validation results are discussed in details.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1120
Siddhartha Singh, Sudha Ramaswamy
Abstract 1 The modern engine is capable of producing high torque and horsepower. Now the customer wants state of the art comfort and ergonomics.Thus the manufacturers are focusing on reducing the clutch pedal effort and providing a pleasurable driving experience. In heavy traffic conditions where the clutch is used frequently, the pedal effort required to disengage the clutch should be in comfortable range. Often drivers who drive HCV complain about knee pain which is caused due to high pedal effort, this occurs when ergonomics of ABC (accelerator, brake and clutch) pedals is not designed properly. Thus there is a need to reduce the driving fatigue by optimizing the clutch system. Latest technologies like turbo charging and pressure injection have increased the engine power and torque but have also led to increase the clamp load of clutch. Thus the release load required to disengage the clutch has also increased.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1088
Tomohiko Usui, Tomoya Okaji, Tatsuya Muramatsu, Yoshiyuki Yamashita
Abstract By optimizing parameters related to damping performance and adopting a layout that incorporates the turbine into the damper components, a “Turbine Twin-Damper” lock-up damper was developed that achieves both damping performance and compactness. To reduce losses in the fluid flow channel, a smaller torus was developed that reduce the width of the torus by about 30%.Through the combination of this Turbine Twin-Damper and smaller torus, attenuation of the torque fluctuation transmitted to the transmission to 1/2 or less compared to a conventional product was achieved without increasing the overall width of the torque converter. As a result, the engine speed at cruise fell by 400rpm, and fuel economy improved.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1371
Samuel T. Bartlett
Abstract With the many model variations produced on the same production line because of increasing power train options, fuel efficiency targets, performance and customer demands we saw limitations with our existing suspension mount equipment. Layout options were limited due to guided shifts and transfers. Large supporting frame work took up valuable floor space. Model wheelbase sizes and suspension pallets were limited to the model requirements of the original equipment. We needed an adaptable system to install the engine/front suspension assemblies and the rear suspension assemblies. We found a solution by utilizing the capabilities of 6-axis industrial robots to make the core components of the equipment simpler; many of the functions of a traditional machine can now be accomplished by the robot. We were able to vary install position to optimize handling characteristics and accommodate the model-to-model varieties on the same production line.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1363
Charles Yuan, Niat Mahmud Rahman
Abstract For a CAE model of the park pawl dynamic system, the engagement speed calculation is done by controlling the input rotational velocity of the vehicle. Usually, it requires multiple adjustment of the input rotational velocity to get the engagement speed and that demands time, effort and file management skill of an analyst. The current objective of this paper is to demonstrate how software Isight, working with ABAQUS Explicit as the solver, can be used to automate the engagement speed calculation procedure and thus reduce the time and effort required of a CAE analyst. The automated system is developed in a way such that the accuracy of the results can be controlled by the end user. It is observed that the automated system significantly saves an analyst's effort. The system design can be optimized easily for modifiable design features such as the torsional spring and the actuator spring stiffness values using the proposed procedure.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0432
Xingxing Feng, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
Abstract The optimization of vehicle suspension kinematic/compliance characteristics is of significant importance in the chassis development. Practical suspension system contains many uncertainties which may result from poorly known or variable parameters or from uncertain inputs. However, in most suspension optimization processes these uncertainties are not accounted for. This study explores the use of Chebyshev polynomials to model complex nonlinear suspension systems with interval uncertainties. In the suspension model, several kinematic and compliance characteristics are considered as objectives to be optimized. Suspension bushing characteristics are considered as design variables as well as uncertain parameters. A high-order response surface model using the zeros of Chebyshev polynomials as sampling points is established to approximate the suspension kinematic/compliance model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0489
Jason Rogers
Abstract A 3D-and-Excel-based predictive tool was developed to determine trunk spring movement for preventing recurrence of a noise problem. While effective, the tool could not completely explain measured results on the completed body unit (CBU). Since design data is used as the input, it was hypothesized that the difference between predicted and actual results was related to tolerance variation on the actual vehicle. Using Siemens® Variation Analysis software, the CBU was built and simulated virtually with tolerances using a Monte Carlo model. The study found that the hypothesis was correct; tolerance variation was fully responsible for the differences. In addition, the study also allowed accurate prediction of failure rates.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0492
Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta, Ashutosh Dubey, Nitin Chopra
Abstract The need to develop products faster and to have designs which are first time right have put enormous pressure on the product development timelines, thus making computer aided optimization one of the most important tool in achieving these targets. In this paper, a design of experiments (DOE) study is used, to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of front suspension and steering of a passenger bus affect its kinematic properties and thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of handling parameters such as bump steer, percent ackermann error and lock to lock rotation angle of steering wheel. The conventional hit and trial method is time consuming and monotonous and still is an approximate method, whereas in design of experiments (DOE), a model is repeatedly run through simulations in a single setup, for various combinations of parameter settings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0518
Hirokuni Fuchigami
Abstract In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1589
Michael W. Neal, Walter Cwycyshyn, Ibrahim Badiru
Abstract The goal of this paper is to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles. These aspects include ride and handling performance attributes, damper basics, conflicts in achieving desirable results, tuning philosophies, and the influence of the damper design. The marketplace has become increasingly competitive. Customer preference, cost, mass and regulatory pressures often conflict. Yet each year more vehicles are required to do all these things well. Damper tuning can play a significant role in resolving these conflicts. Although many papers have been written on the theory behind damper design and capabilities, there has been very little written about the techniques of tuning dampers for production vehicles. This paper attempts to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles in four sections. The first section discusses the performance attributes of ride and handling. The second section provides a basic understanding of dampers.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1579
Jun Nakahara, Koji Yamazaki, Yusuke Otaki
Abstract In many cars, ride is less comfortable on smooth roads. This is because when the hysteresis in the suspension components rises steeply, the increase of the equivalent spring constant at small amplitude deteriorates the vibration isolation of the suspension. Therefore suspension components should be designed to prevent a steep rises in hysteresis. Investigating the influence of hysteresis, component models, which can reproduce such hysteresis characteristics, should be installed with model parameters in the vehicle model. Using conventional methods, these parameters can be accurately identified if measurement data is provided; however, it is difficult at the earlier phase of vehicle development. Then, if conflicting performances, such as ride and handling, are to be improved, both should be considered concurrently as early in a phase of vehicle development as possible and the design specifications for suspension components should be determined to satisfy both performances.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1504
WeiNing Bao
Abstract A ball screw regenerative shock absorber was designed for the relief of the vehicle vibration and the energy recovery of the vehicle vibration. The effect of its main parameters on the suspension system was numerically analyzed. According to the principle of the ball screw regenerative suspension system, a mathematical model of the ball screw regenerative shock absorber was established regarding the ball screw rotational inertia, the motor rotational inertia, the screw lead and the radius of the screw nut. A suspension dynamic model based on the ball screw regenerative shock absorber was developed combining the road model and the two-degrees-of-freedom suspension dynamic model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1506
Bastian Scheurich, Tilo Koch, Michael Frey, Frank Gauterin
Abstract Today, body vibration energy of passenger cars gets dissipated by linear working shock absorbers. A new approach substitutes the damper of a passenger car by a cardanic gimbaled flywheel mass. The constructive design leads to a rotary damper in which the vertical movement of the wheel carrier leads to revolution of the rotational axis of the flywheel. In this arrangement, the occurring precession moments are used to control damping moments and to store vibrational energy. Different damper characteristics are achieved by different induced precession. From almost zero torque output to high torque output, this damper has a huge spread. Next to the basic principal, in this paper an integration in the chassis, including a constructive proposal is shown. A conflict with high torque and high angular velocity leads to a special design. Moreover concepts to deal with all vehicle situations like yawing, rolling and pitching are shown.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1328
Da-Wei Gao, Xing-Xing Huang, Jun Xu, Song-Lin Zheng
Abstract Taking a domestic brand car as example, this paper is about how to find out a three-point nonlinear stiffness characteristic curve which can meet the requirements of variable stiffness and three-load condition. The new coil spring gives the passive suspension a lot of improvements in riding and safety, changing the nonlinear stiffness characteristic from weak to strong. This paper summarizes the optimization design method for the rear suspension coil spring, which includes the fitting of ideal stiffness characteristic curve, quantitative method for figuring out how the change of vehicle load influences the load on rear suspension axle, the design method of variable stiffness coil spring which corresponds to the change of vehicle load. A new kind of modified ideal point solution for building the objective function was also put forward.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1314
Max Sardou, Patricia Djomseu
Abstract SARDOU SAS has developed highly stressed composites parts for 35 years. SARDOU SAS and QUALITY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT invented composite coils springs in 2002. Developing composite coils springs, we have faced a big challenge, how to increase the short life expectancy of this highly stressed structure? We have identified that the weak point, in composite coils springs, is its epoxy matrix. In fact, during heavy loading, the matrix undergoes micro cracks. Then, during fatigue, micro cracks propagate and merge, transforming the matrix into a fine powder. The composite coil suspension springs, using, classic epoxy, where ruined after only 100,000 cycles in the best cases. The fact to integrate “functionalized silica aggregates”, in the matrix, enable the springs to exceed 1,000,000 cycles, with the same spring design. In addition, the spring stiffness has increased by 6% and the thermal set has reduced by 1.6%.
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