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Training / Education
While a variety of new engineering methods are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to deliver desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today’s engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to key the fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
Training / Education
This seminar will present an introduction to Vehicle Dynamics from a vehicle system perspective. The theory and applications are associated with the interaction and performance balance between the powertrain, brakes, steering, suspensions and wheel and tire vehicle subsystems. The role that vehicle dynamics can and should play in effective automotive chassis development and the information and technology flow from vehicle system to subsystem to piece-part is integrated into the presentation. Governing equations of motion are developed and solved for both steady and transient conditions.
Training / Education
The design and development of vehicle suspensions significantly influences vehicle handling and ride comfort. Suspension system design excellence follows the basic laws of physics using design synthesis techniques, a methodical process for suspension geometry development. Suspension geometry is the foundation of vehicle performance from which high-confidence suspension components and tunings can be developed. Suspension component design continues to move toward mass and cost efficient designs with high levels of stiffness being essential to achieving design requirements.
2018-01-02
Standard
J1574/1_201801
The parameters measured according to this SAE Recommended Practice will generally be used in simulating directional control performance in the linear range. (The “linear range” is the steady-state lateral acceleration below which steering wheel angle can generally be considered to be linearly related to lateral acceleration.) But they may be used for certain other simulations (such as primary ride motions), vehicle and suspension characterization and comparison, suspension development and optimization, and processing of road test data. This document is intended to apply to passenger cars, light trucks, and on-highway recreational and commercial vehicles, both non-articulated and articulated. Measurement techniques are intended to apply to these vehicles, with alterations primarily in the scale of facilities required.
2018-01-02
Standard
J1574/2_201801
This SAE Information Report presents the background and rationale for SAE J1574-1. The motor vehicle industry is working toward a more complete understanding of the factors affecting the motions of vehicles on the roadway, by using a variety of techniques that predict responses to road and operator inputs. The capability to predict responses is desirable so that vehicles can be designed for optimum safety and utility. In addition to the force and moment properties of the pneumatic tires, a number of vehicle and suspension parameters affect the response of the vehicle; these include weight, center-of-gravity location, moments of inertia, suspension ride and roll rates, suspension kinematic and compliance properties, and shock absorber characteristics. These parameters must be quantified in order to predict vehicle responses. Measurement of most of these parameters will be limited to determining their values in the linear range for use in directional control simulations.
2017-12-07
WIP Standard
AS24586C
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0128
André Tognolli, Erica Machado, Fabio Batista, Paulo Mayer, Jamilton Silva, Fernando Utiyke
Abstract Through computational dynamic simulations is possible to achieve high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and component cost can generate significant levels of competitiveness and quality. This work suggests the validation of a methodology for simulation, able to predict and quantify the best design of the parking brake cable that although it is flexible, has in its structure composite elements of different mechanical properties. Known difficulty of mathematically predict nonlinear relationships deformation under forces and moments effect was first established, studies based on experimental measurements serve as input parameters for simulating the dynamic behavior of the flexible cable. With the aid of motion making use of NX9 CAD software, it was prepared the dynamic movement that the leaf spring suspension system does.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0126
Milton Monteverde Belli, Ricardo Daldegan
Abstract The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0382
Caroline Goulart Campos, André Noronha de Oliveira, Alejandro Oscar Peralta, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto, Aldélio Bueno Caldeira
Abstract In this work, an inverse problem approach is employed to estimate the suspension parameters of a light vehicle based on field tests. The modeling process of a rear-wheel drive (RWD) vehicle is depicted. The model considers only the vertical dynamics of the vehicle. The experimental data were measured by sensors installed on the vehicle during specific road tests in a proving ground. The inverse problem is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), minimizing the quadratic error between experimental data and numerical results of the vehicle simulation. Accuracy, computational time, efficiency and efficacy of the model were compared regarding the behavior of the performance responses of the vehicle measured on the road tests. Throughout this process, the vehicle model was validated to be used in future studies of vehicle dynamics.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0389
G. R. Sanchez, T. R. L. Santos, Y. C. Pereira, A. V. N. Dias, F. Malvezzi
Abstract Worldwide, there is a popular charge for equipment and processes that have an ecological responsibility, aiming the preservation of the environment. That charge comes specially in the automotive industry, due to the emission of harmful gases to the health, provoked by the burn of fossil fuel, being directly correlated with the fuel consumption of the vehicle. Although the automotive researches have worked to increase the vehicle autonomy, the driver behavior has influence on the vehicle fuel consumption, due their involvement with vehicle components maintenance. Moreover, nowadays there is a large effort by the automobile industry and their suppliers to use software to simulate real test, aiming to reduce the outdoor test. This work aims to analyses the influence of parameters that can be controlled by the driver on the fuel consumption.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0406
Lucas F. Berto, André L. F. Ferreira, Alvaro C. Michelotti, Pedro P. Pastorelli
Abstract In current Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), efforts have been employed in reducing emissions and fuel consumption. One of the alternatives is the reduction of the idling speed of the engines. However, such strategy involves great challenges from the aspect of torsional vibrations in the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system. Because it is coupled to the largest inertia of the FEAD assembly, the alternator pulley should provide a good vibration attenuation capability. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the development of an automotive component that employs two distinct types of springs: a clutch spring and a torsion spring. These elements are required in alternator pulleys to reduce torsional vibration generated by the crankshaft fluctuation and to avoid damage or durability issue with other components of the FEAD system.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0407
Pedro P. Pastorelli, Alvaro C. Michelotti, André L. F. Ferreira, Lucas F. Berto
Abstract Among the alternatives for solving NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) problems in automobiles, the alternator pulley has become one of the most promising alternatives in the Frond-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) of modern engines. The rigid pulley has evolved from a simple device whose only function is torque transmission to a system with much more complex functions. At this higher level of complexity, many innovative designs have been created, such as pulleys with overrunning function and pulleys with both One-Way Clutch (OWC) and vibration dampening functions, which are devices that require a high level of study in order to guarantee an adequate design of the system for each new application. This paper presents the steps taken in dimensioning two distinct types of springs: a clutch spring and a torsion spring, to be applied in alternator pulleys with OWC and vibration dampening systems.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0238
Gilson Pereira, Anderson Chaves, Lean Santana, Ciro Almeida
Abstract During a B-Car durability validation route, it was observed a squeak noise coming from front suspension structure. In the teardown, it was verified metal to metal contact between coil spring and damper spring plate and squeeze-out of spring pad. To reproduce the vehicle failure, it was developed in laboratory a fixture and test to reflect a B-Car McPherson suspension motion, to reproduce the failure and validate a proposal. After root cause understanding, the challenge was to design a new spring pad to avoid squeeze-out keeping the coil spring lower pigtail unchanged. It was tested some prototype parts also in vehicle to approve the design proposal.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0348
Rafael Kiemo Pfau Santos, Marcus Vinicius Hamann Silveira, Modesto Hurtado Ferrer
Abstract Considering technology development and the raise in computational power, numerical methods became important device in developing new products and in improving existing ones, being a differential for market competition among companies, consequently from the reduction of time and cost in projects. For Student Competition Teams, like Formula and Mini Baja SAE series, the use of simulation is even more important in their vehicle development, due to team limited resources available and their lack of experience. This work has the main goal of presenting the development steps of a structural component of the suspension system, the steering knuckle, for Formula SAE competition vehicles, aided by computational aided engineering. Starting from the geometrical and functional configuration of the vehicle, a multibody model was generated by the Altair Motion View software to simulate high performance maneuvers, and then estimate two cases of loads.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0179
Lucas Ramos Carvalho, Eduardo Moraes Coraça
Abstract Damping treatments can be employed to mitigate vibration levels of structures near a specific resonance frequency. In the automotive area, constrained-layer dampers are the most employed, consisting on a viscoelastic layer bonded to a metallic-restrictor layer and to the structure itself subsequently. The damper’s frequency performance is strongly dependent upon the temperature of operation, which means that there is a need to characterize this relation in order to choose the best damping material, thus optimizing the application. In this paper, a laboratory test procedure known as the Oberst Beam Method was employed to characterize the frequency and temperature behavior of a commonly used damper. The test, which involves the Frequency Response Function measurement of a system composed by the damper applied to a standardized beam, followed a SAE procedure. An auxiliary CAE model was also developed and compared to physical test results.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0123
Girish Kokane, Dinesh Kalani, Ravindra Kharul, Muragendra Magdum
With advancements in powertrain technologies & light weighting of vehicle structures, the average driving speeds of motorcycles are increasing. This makes it important to safeguard the vehicle structure from possible impact loads or crash events. The front suspension of a motorcycle typically consists of telescopic front fork which acts as a structural member as well. Thus modern vehicle front forks should be designed keeping in mind frontal impacts as well. Which means the structural stiffness of front fork needs to be optimally designed so that during impacts, the structure should deflect absorbing the bulk of the impact energy safeguarding the rest of the vehicle structure including chassis. At the same time the front fork should not break. The popular design improvement techniques like increasing section modulus, heat treatments to increase strength may or may not have positive effect on impact strength.
2017-10-23
Technical Paper
2017-01-7008
Yoshiharu Inaguma
Abstract This article describes cavitation in a hydraulic disk valve to control an inlet pressure by changing a valve opening at a constant flow rate and an outlet pressure. In the hydraulic system, because the cavitation occurs often and causes an unpleasant noise as well as an instability in pressure-flow control, the cavitation avoidance is important. Hence, for cavitation avoidance under a high pressure condition, the influences of the specifications of the disk and nozzle as well as operating conditions on the cavitation and the inlet pressure change against the valve opening are experimentally investigated. Under a constant flow rate and an outlet pressure, the inlet pressure rises and the cavitation appears when the valve opening decreases. By decreasing the valve opening more, however, the cavitation disappears despite a rise in the inlet pressure. In addition, the round edge at the nozzle outlet is effective in avoiding the cavitation.
2017-09-28
Magazine
Advances for off-highway engine design As manufacturers continue to drive out cost and meet a worldwide patchwork of regulatory frameworks, the tools for developing those engines are advancing. From showcase prototypes to advanced analytical techniques, suppliers are helping the cause. Military vehicles battle for autonomy at lower cost Engineers are adding sensors, more powerful micros and faster networks as they automate tasks and pave the way to autonomy. Heavy duty lightweighting Optimization of tractor-trailer systems and component design helps to reduce overall vehicle mass, a key strategy in improving fuel economy and meeting upcoming Phase 2 GHG regulations. Navistar's SuperTruck II explores composites, WiFi to cut weight Methane state of mind New Holland ramps up its focus on alternative fuels, showcasing a methane-powered concept tractor that trims emissions, operating costs.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2486
Kyung Jae Lee, Dong Won Kim, Daekyung Ko
Abstract Brake grinding noise is caused by the friction of the disc and pads. The friction generates vibration and it transmits to the body via the chassis system. We called it structure-borne noise. To improve the noise in the vehicle development, the aspects of chassis or body's countermeasure occurs many problems, cost and time. In this reason many brake companies try to make solution with brake system, like brake pad materials or disc surface condition. However the countermeasures of excitation systems also have a lot of risk. It could be occurred side-effects of braking performance, and need to re-verify brake noise like Creep-groan, Groan, Squeal, Judder and so on. For this reason, it is essential to make a robust chassis system in the initial development stage of the vehicle for the most desirable grinding noise-resistant vehicle. This paper is about rear brake grind noise path analysis and countermeasure of chassis system. There are two steps to analysis.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2487
Yasuyuki Kanehira, Yusuke Aoki, Yukio Nishizawa
Abstract Brake squeal is uncomfortable noise that occurs while braking. It is an important issue for automobile quality to prevent brake products from squealing. Brake shims are widely used to reduce squeal occurrence rate. In particular, laminated shims can effectively suppress squeal via the viscoelastic damping of an adhesive layer. However, there are cases where the damping performance at low temperature and the durability performance at high temperature deteriorate. In that regard, we thought of applying frictional damping to shims instead of relying on a temperature-sensitive adhesive layer. To study the application of frictional damping for shims, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics thereof. In order to quantify the damping performance of shims, loss factor has been generally measured with a bending mode tester. However, the influence of friction cannot be evaluated because it is measured under pressure-free condition.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2497
Georg Peter Ostermeyer, Alexander Vogel
Abstract The Automated Universal Tribotester (AUT) is developed by the Institute of Dynamics and Vibrations (TU Braunschweig) and represents a reduced scale brake dynamometer. The setup is based on the pin-on-disc principle and the down-scaled test specimen are brought to contact to the disc and loaded via the specifically designed load unit. The AUT’s load unit is designed as a combination of parallel and serial leaf springs, resulting in a friction free motion. The stiffnesses in radial and tangential directions are much higher than in normal orientation. For the investigation of wear debris over time, changes in loads (e.g. forces, speeds, temperatures) are applied. Those varying loads result in tilting of the contact surface of the test specimen due to small elastic deformations. A change of the contact area is inevitable, and long time periods are needed to adopt the contact area to the new conditions. This prevents from investigating fast changes in the above mentioned loads.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2517
Michael Herbert Putz, Thomas Zipper
Abstract On Electro-Mechanical Brakes (EMB) spring-support can be necessary for releasing the brake without electrical energy. Advantageous brake-configurations can make use of the spring over the whole actuation range during engage and release. Such optimized spring support is known as “energy-swing. Under loss-less conditions the spring force could be in permanent equilibrium with the force required to press the pad, i.e. the brake could be controlled without actuation energy. In reality this will not be fully achievable as actuation losses and different operational conditions need to be covered. Still, significant advantages can be gained. The EMB of Vienna Engineering (VE) fulfills a key condition for energy-swing as it facilitates using the spring for engage- and release-support. Car brakes must release automatically when power is off.
2017-08-31
Magazine
New vision @ Gentex Creating a vital ADAS partner through home-grown R&D and manufacturing in (of all places) western Michigan. Positioning for hybrid growth BorgWarner "modularizes" to provide OEMs optimal electrified-driveline flexibility. Editorial: Beleaguered diesel could use a break-or a breakthrough SAE Standards News Kickoff to begin testing program to validate SAE J2954 wireless charging Recommended Practice Supplier Eye Will you be an active participant or passive bystander? The Navigator For future vehicles, communication equals trust Tenneco readies new semi-active digital suspension for 2020 New 90-degree turbo V6 leads Audi's hybridization blitz GKN using modular control algorithms for added systems integration U of M students engineer new autonomous shuttle system Jaguar's 2018 E-Pace shares Land Rover bones Ford pumps powertrains for 2018 F-150 2018 Subaru Crosstrek moves to new global platform Nissan's Ponz Pandikithura on EV lifecycle value
2017-08-14
Standard
AMS7301J
This specification covers low-alloy steel springs made of annealed round wire heat treated after forming.
2017-08-07
Standard
AMSQQW428B
This specification covers uncoated, round, high carbon steel wire for the fabrication of mechanical springs and wire forms for general purpose use.
2017-08-03
Magazine
Hacked! Is automotive ready for the inevitable? Cybersecurity experts talk defense strategies. Active Aero takes flight Reconfigurable "smart" aerodynamic aids are stretching performance-car envelopes in every direction. The motorcycle's balanced future With its Ride Assist technology, Honda R&D moves two-wheelers toward autonomous capability. Honoring lightweight innovation Chrysler, Toyota, Faurecia and AP&T recognized with the 2017 Altair Enlighten Award for their efforts to reduce vehicle weight.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1926
Jos Frank, Sohin Doshi, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran
Abstract In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1985
Hemasunder Banka, Radhika Muluka, Vikram Reddy
Abstract Conventional materials like steel, brass, aluminum etc will fail without any indication, cracks initiation, propagation, will takes place with a short span. Now-a-days to overcome these problem, conventional materials are replaced by hybrid composite material. Not only have this conventional material failed to meet the requirement of high technology applications, like space applications and marine applications and structural applications in order to meet the above requirements new materials are being searched. Hybrid composites materials found to the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties and light weight. This paper aims to preparing hybrid composite using artificial fibers. Epoxy as resin and glass fiber as fiber for artificial hybrid composite to make a laminate for preparing leaf spring.
2017-06-09
Standard
ARP4912C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides recommendations on cavity design, the installation of elastomer type spare seals in these cavities, and information surrounding elastomer material properties after contact with typical shock absorber hydraulic fluid(s) or grease. This ARP is primarily concerned with the use of spare seals on shock absorbers where only a single dynamic seal is fitted and in contact with the slider/shock absorber piston at any one time. These shock absorbers typically have a spare (dynamic) seal gland located on the outer diameter of the lower seal carrier. This spare seal gland is intended to house a spare elastomer contact seal. Split Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) backup rings can also be installed in the spare seal cavity. During operation, if the fitted dynamic shock absorber standard seal begins to fail/leak, then the aircraft can be jacked up, allowing the lower gland nut of the shock absorber to be dropped down.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1890
Xingyu Zhang, Bo Yang, Manchuang Zhang, Sanbao Hu
Abstract H-Bahn ("hanging railway") refers to the suspended, unmanned urban railway transportation system. Through the reasonable platform layout, H-Bahn can be easily integrated into the existing urban transit system. With the development of urban roads, the associated rail facilities can be conveniently disassembled, moved and expanded. The track beam, circuits, communication equipment, and sound insulation screen are all installed in a box-type track beam so that the system can achieve a high level of integration and intelligence. The carriage of the modern H-banh vehicle is connected with the bogies by two hanging devices. The vehicle is always running in the box-type track beam; therefore there are less possibilities of derailment. Consequently, the key work focuses on the running stability evaluation and curve negotiation performance analysis.
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