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2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Greenville, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
                                                                 Understanding vehicle dynamics is one of the critical issues in the design of all vehicles, including heavy trucks. This seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of heavy truck dynamics. It covers all of the critical subsystems that must be considered by designers and decision makers in determining the effect of various components on heavy truck dynamics. This seminar begins where the tires meet the ground, progressing up through the various components and bringing together the theory and practice of heavy truck dynamics.
2015-08-17 ...
  • August 17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides an introduction to several critical aspects of heavy truck dynamics. The comprehensive presentation and discussion will begin with the mechanics and dynamics of heavy truck tires, followed by steering dynamics, and finally moves participants into suspension kinematics and dynamics. Starting at the ground and moving up, this seminar explores the important dynamic aspects of each subsystem and how each is related to the overall truck dynamics.
2015-06-22
Event
This session includes papers in the areas of static, dynamic, and fatigue characterization of elastomers, bushings, mounts and shock absorbers used in the mobility industry. Particular emphasis is given to new and innovative analysis and testing methodologies to quantify the non-linear properties of these systems in addition to the effects of temperature, frequency, and aging. Papers dealing with specific applications and case studies of existing methodologies are also welcome.
2015-05-18 ...
  • May 18-20, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
  • November 16-18, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While a variety of new engineering tools are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to ensure desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today's engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to the key fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
2015-04-22 ...
  • April 22-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 4-6, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Just as the chassis and suspension system provides an ideal framework for the automobile, this popular SAE seminar provides an informative framework for those involved in the design of these important systems.
2015-04-21
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1505
Ibrahim A. Badiru
Vehicle pull is a condition experienced by customers where a constant torque at the steering wheel is required to maintain the vehicle on a straight path. Vehicle lead is a condition where a non-zero steering wheel angle is required to maintain a straight path. There are many potential causes for vehicle pull or lead—road condition, suspension asymmetry, and tire characteristics to name a few. Both vehicle pull and lead can cause customer dissatisfaction with the vehicle as well as drive OEM warranty service costs. Electronic Power Steering (EPS) systems have overtaken Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS) as the predominate steering architecture for new passenger vehicles. One of the key benefits of EPS is the ability to program value added features (VAF) into the EPS controller. These features can significantly enhance the pleasure and safety of the driving experience for the customer. EPS pull compensation is a feature that reduces the driver workload to compensate a vehicle pull.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1504
Ning Wei Bao
A ball screw regenerative shock absorber was designed for the relief of the vehicle vibration and the energy recovery of the vehicle vibration. The effect of its main parameters on the suspension system was numerically analyzed. According to the principle of the ball screw regenerative suspension system, a mathematical model of the ball screw regenerative shock absorber was established regarding the ball screw rotational inertia, the motor rotational inertia, the screw lead and the radius of the screw nut. A suspension dynamic model based on the ball screw regenerative shock absorber was developed combining the road model and the two-degrees-of-freedom suspension dynamic model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1501
Ryusuke Hirao, Kentaro Kasuya
Many electronic control components have been introduced into vehicles with the aims of improving their safety and comfort, and saving energy. Various suspension systems have been developed, to reconcile ride feeling with control stability at a high level. Development efforts have been particularly active in the field of semi-active suspension, prompted by its superior energy-saving and cost performance. Algorithm which is based on skyhook control has been applied mostly to the ride comfort control of semi-active suspension system of vehicle. Also, at the time of steering, control for enhancing damping force are commonly used as handling control to restrain transitional roll angle. Therefore, in this development we developed new ride comfort control and new handling control, and constructed a system which uses only vehicle height sensor as dedicated sensor and uses damping force variable damper of pressure control type.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1497
Hideaki Shibue, Devesh Srivastava
Torsion beam suspensions are lightweight and low-cost, and they are therefore frequently used for the rear of small front-wheel drive vehicles. The configuration of the suspension is simple and it comparatively consists of fewer components. However, it is difficult to predict their characteristics and satisfy the target of the performance in the early stages of development in particular, because it should realize the various performance elements demanded of a suspension in a single part. A great deal of research has been conducted on the cross-sectional shape of the beam section, but up to the present there has been almost no discussion of the effect of property of the trailing arms on suspension characteristics. This paper discusses tests conducted to study the effect of the rigidity of the trailing arms, and considers the mechanism of that effect.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1495
Qiushi Wang, Shenjin Zhu, Yuping He
Articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) exhibit poor directional performance that is attributed to the high accident rate of these vehicles. Many control strategies have been proposed to increase the safety of AHVs. Optimal controllers based on the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) technique have been explored to enhance the lateral stability of AHVs; these controllers are designed under the assumption that the vehicle model parameters and operating conditions are given and they remain as constants. However, in reality, the vehicle system parameters and operating conditions may vary. For example, the payload of trailer may vary within a huge range. To address the vehicle model parametric variation issue, this paper proposes a model reference adaptive controller for active trailer steering of AHVs. The adaptive controller is designed based on a tractor-semitrailer model with three degrees of freedom; to ensure the convergence of the controller, Lyapunov theory is applied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1502
Liangyao Yu, Wenwei Xuan, Liangxu Ma, Jian Song, Xianmin Zhu, Shuai Cheng
Energy saving is one of the most popular and significant motifs of contemporary and future vehicles. A relatively large amount of concern is concentrated on the power steering system as over 70% of the fuel consumed by conventional HPS system is unnecessary and avoidable, so the application of advance power steering systems like EPS and EHPS can help a lot on saving energy. Although the EHPS system has been widely used among passenger cars, SUV, Pickup trucks and Vans, it is now still infeasible on the conventional heavy duty vehicles because of the contradiction between the limitation of the 24V electric power system and the power demand of the electric motor of the general EHPS system. As a solution for this problem, a new type of EHPS system was investigated, which can decrease the demand of the motor power significantly, so that it can be applied to heavy duty vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1498
Yuyao jiang, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Qingrong Zhao, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
Driver steering torque feedback is one of the critically important factors in the consideration and measurement both on vehicle design and performance, and on model accuracy of vehicle dynamics. On the one hand, driver steering torque feedback is one of the key measures on human-machine interface for drivers’ comfort and intuitive road feel, such as return-to-center capability, on-center feel and ease of steering effort, etc. This mainly involves the design of vehicle dynamics as a whole, but in particular, vehicle steering system. On the other hand, it is also the most determining factor to the quality of drivers’ interaction with or driver-in-loop simulation of vehicle dynamics models, such as driver simulator, etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0667
Kei Ichikawa
The importance of reducing road noise is increasing . Methods that enhance acoustic sensitivity and reduce the force transferred from the suspension to the body are used to reduce road noise. Reduction of body suspension mounting point compliance has been used as a method of reducing acoustic sensitivity. There were cases where this method reduced acoustic sensitivity, the road noise pressure was not reduced; this study focused on the suspension transfer force and analyzed its mechanism of change using the Transfer Function Synthesis Method. The results showed that the balance between the body suspension mounting point, suspension bush and suspension arm tip compliance is an important factor influencing the change in suspension transfer force.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1506
Bastian Scheurich, Tilo Koch, Michael Frey, Frank Gauterin
Today, body vibration energy of passenger cars gets dissipated by linear working shock absorbers. A new approach substitutes the damper of a passenger car by a cardanic gimbaled flywheel mass. The constructive design leads to a rotary damper in which the vertical movement of the wheel carrier leads to revolution of the rotational axis of the flywheel. In this arrangement, the occurring precession moments are used to control damping moments and to store vibration energy. A gyroscope is set to high speed revolutions by an electric motor and a gimbal is used for bearing. The gimbal consists of an outer ring which is connected to the vertical movement of the wheel carrier. Right-angled to the outer ring, there is an inner ring pivoting the gyroscope right-angled. In order to avoid undesirable body movements, the directional vector of the angular velocity of the gyroscope is parallel to the car’s yaw axis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Honda developed the right and left independent toe-angle control system (first-generation P-AWS) in the Acura RLX in 2013 and announced it as the first in the world. As indicated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has realized an excellent balance between the fun of handling that is at the driver’s will (INOMAMA) and driving performance with a sense of stability. This first-generation P-AWS is designed to be optimal to the vehicle specifications (suspension axial force, steering gear ratio, etc.) of the Acura RLX. Honda is due to widely adapt P-AWS to other models from now on. Following this, we developed the next-generation P-AWS system (second-generation P-AWS) in order to reconcile system performance and low cost wherever possible, in order to be adaptable for all ACURA models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1589
Michael W. Neal, Walter Cwycyshyn, Ibrahim Badiru
The goal of this paper is to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles. These aspects include ride and handling performance attributes, damper basics, conflicts in achieving desirable results, tuning philosophies and the influence of the damper design. The marketplace has become increasingly competitive. Customer preference, cost, mass and regulatory pressures often conflict. Yet each year more vehicles are required to do all these things well. Damper tuning can play a significant role in resolving these conflicts. Although many papers have been written on the theory behind damper design and capabilities, there has been very little written about the techniques of tuning dampers for production vehicles. This paper attempts to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles in four sections. The first section discusses the performance attributes of ride and handling. The second section provides a basic understanding of dampers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0642
Per Hyldahl, Sebastian Andersen, Sebastian Mikkelsen, Ole Balling
The modeling of a vehicle’s suspension system is one of the most crucial tasks when designing and optimizing modern vehicles. One of the preferred tools to assist the designers to perform this task is multibody dynamics. When using multibody dynamics, it is possible to model arbitrary systems with high mechanical complexity, include non-linear characteristics of e.g. springs and dampers, and simulate the systems behavior in the time domain to assess its performance in various scenarios. A non-trivial job when building a vehicle model, is estimating the characteristics of the many suspension components that exhibits non-linear behavior during operation of the vehicle. Examples of such components are rubber bushings and stabilizer bars. Especially the latter can be difficult to characterize using an idealized spring with a non-linear force-deflection curve, since its stiffness depends highly on its geometry and deformation stage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1508
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng
As the electric technique develops fast, steering systems change from conventional mechanic steering systems to electrically controlled steering (ECS) systems, including electric power (EPS) system, active front steering (AFS) system and steer-by-wire (SBW) system. ECS could improve vehicles’ steering portability at a low speed and handing stability at a high speed. The study of ECS involves mechanic design, detection of electric components, software design and so on, which need a lot of trials and errors. By now, the development of ECS mostly depends on experiments on hard-ware-in-the-loop (HIL) and real vehicles. Because tests on real vehicles have many short cuts, such as a higher cost, a longer period, etc. HIL is gradually taking the place of real vehicles to carry out kinds of experiments in order to reduce test times, cycles and cost, which has been a main means to research and develop ECS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1345
Srinivas Kurna, Arpit Mathur, Sandeep sharma
In commercial vehicle, Leaf Spring design is an important milestone during product design and development. Leaf springs are the most popular designs having multiple leaves in contact with each other and show hysteresis behavior when loaded and unloaded. Commonly used methods for evaluation of leaf spring strength like endurance trials on field and Rig testing are time consuming and costly. On the other hand, virtual testing methods for strength and stiffness evaluation give useful information early in the design cycle and save considerable time and cost. They give flexibility to evaluate multiple design options and accommodate any design change early in development cycle. A study has been done in VECV to correlate rig result with FEA simulation result of Multi-stage Suspension Leaf Spring, entirely through Finite Element Analysis route. Virtual leaf spring with U-Clamps and Suspension brackets with revolute joints are modeled in FEA which is similar to rig test bed setup.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1356
Atishay Jain
Swingarm, originally known as the swing fork or pivoted fork is a dynamic structural part of the rear suspension of most modern motorcycles. It is used to hold the rear axle firmly, while pivoting vertically on the frame, to allow the suspension to absorb bumps in the road. Driving and braking loads are also transmitted through the swing arm, and thus, it plays a major role in vehicle dynamics. Weight minimization is important in a swingarm as it is largely an unsprung mass. The conventional swingarm design includes steel tubing and sheet metal structures. Due to higher forces near the pivot, conventional swingarm are inherently over-designed as they use tubular structures of same cross section through the entire length of the swingarm. An aluminum alloy swingarm design even when subjected to casting manufacturing constraints, has the potential for better material layout and weight minimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1371
Samuel T. Bartlett
With the many model variations produced on the same production line because of increasing power train options, fuel efficiency targets, performance and customer demands we saw limitations with our existing suspension mount equipment. Layout options were limited due to guided shifts and transfers. Large supporting frame work took up valuable floor space. Model wheelbase sizes and suspension pallets were limited to the model requirements of the original equipment. We needed an adaptable system to install the engine/front suspension assemblies and the rear suspension assemblies. We found a solution by utilizing the capabilities of 6-axis industrial robots to make the core components of the equipment simpler; many of the functions of a traditional machine can now be accomplished by the robot. We were able to vary install position to optimize handling characteristics and accommodate the model-to-model varieties on the same production line.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1088
Tomohiko Usui, Tomoya Okaji, Tatsuya Muramatsu, Yoshiyuki Yamashita
A low-cost lock-up damper displaying a high level of damping performance has been developed for use in torque converters in automatic transmissions. The new damper was actualized by sharing parts (the turbine and damper components) and optimizing parameters for damping characteristics. The new torque converter displays equivalent conversion performance to a conventional model while reducing the width of the torus by approximately 30%. The combination of the lock-up damper and the small torus has made it possible to reduce torque fluctuation transmitted to the transmission to less than 50% with no increase in the overall width of the torque converter against a conventional model. This has reduced engine speed when the vehicle is cruising by 400rpm, resulting in an increase in fuel efficiency of approximately 2%.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1323
DaWei Gao, Cui Ling, Qin Xiao
The geometrical relationship between the shear center of twist beam rear axle and instantaneous roll center of the suspension can be established by using graphical method. The formula of the relationship between roll center of the suspension and shear center of twist beam rear axle, positions of hard points can be derived. Simulation verification was taken by using CAE software and experimental verification was taken by choosing two cars with two different twist beam rear suspension. Veracity of the formula was verified. The basis was provided for development in the early age and subsequent design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1328
DaWei Gao, XU Jun, Zheng lin
Taking a domestic brand car as example, this paper is about how to find out a three-point nonlinear stiffness characteristic curve which can meet the requirements of variable stiffness and three-load condition. The new coil spring gives the passive suspension a lot of improvement in riding and safety, changing the nonlinear stiffness characteristic performance from weak to strong. This paper summarizes the optimization design method for the rear suspension coil spring, including the fitting of ideal stiffness characteristic curve,quantitative method for figuring out how the change of vehicle load influences the load on rear suspension axle,the design method of variable stiffness coil spring which corresponds to the change of vehicle load. A new kind of modified ideal point solution for building the objective function was also put forward.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1500
Marcus Ljungberg, Mikael Nybacka, Gaspar Gil Gómez, Diomidis Katzourakis
This paper present and discusses the process to parameterize an electric power assist steering (EPAS) system, employing solely computer-aided engineering (CAE). It addresses the model and the simulation environment setup as-well-as methods for setting the optimal metric targets, based on correlation studies from expert test drivers. The rationale for the study derives from today’s vehicle manufacturer’s needs, to develop high quality cars in a short period of time that satisfy the consumer needs and to stand out in the competition. Further exploitation of the potentials of simulation and CAE tools is needed to enable quick evaluation of different vehicle concepts and setups without the need of building physical prototypes. The main goal of the current study is to facilitate the aforementioned need by developing and evaluating an optimisation process for the control parameters of an EPAS system by solely using CAE tools.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0607
Xincheng Liang, Jingshan Zhao
This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorber, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation that is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0432
Xingxing Feng, Jinglai Wu, Yunqing Zhang, Ming Jiang
The optimization of vehicle suspension kinematic/compliance characteristics is of significant importance in the chassis development. Practical suspension system contains many uncertainties which may result from poorly known or variable parameters or from uncertain inputs. However, in most suspension optimization processes these uncertainties are not accounted for. This study explores the use of Chebyshev polynomials to model complex nonlinear suspension systems with interval uncertainties. In the suspension model, several kinematic/compliance characteristics are considered as objectives to be optimized. Suspension bushing characteristics are considered as design variables as well as uncertain parameters. A high-order response surface model using the zeros of Chebyshev polynomials as sampling points is established to approximate the suspension kinematic/compliance model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0608
Gang Tang, Hengjia Zhu, Yunqing Zhang, Ying Sun
The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the pneumatic system including the air spring, the leveling valve and the pipe is presented. The frequency dependency of the air spring’s stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiments and the simulation. The co-simulation method using ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the pneumatic system into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0492
Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta, Ashutosh Dubey, Nitin Chopra
The need to develop products faster and to have designs which are first time right have put enormous pressure on the product development timelines, thus making Computer Aided Optimization one of the most important tool in achieving this targets. In this paper, a Design of Experiments (DOE) study is used, to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of Front Suspension & Steering of a Passenger Bus affect its kinematic properties & thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of Handling parameters such as bump steer, roll steer, percent Ackermann, Lock to Lock rotation angle. The Conventional Hit & Trial method is time consuming and monotonous & still is an approximate method, whereas in Design of Experiments (DOE), a model is repeatedly run through simulations in a single setup, for various combinations of parameter settings. Effects and interactions of the design variables of the model are then studied, which provides an insight to help design an optimized model.
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