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2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Greenville, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
                                                                 Understanding vehicle dynamics is one of the critical issues in the design of all vehicles, including heavy trucks. This seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of heavy truck dynamics. It covers all of the critical subsystems that must be considered by designers and decision makers in determining the effect of various components on heavy truck dynamics. This seminar begins where the tires meet the ground, progressing up through the various components and bringing together the theory and practice of heavy truck dynamics.
2015-08-17 ...
  • August 17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides an introduction to several critical aspects of heavy truck dynamics. The comprehensive presentation and discussion will begin with the mechanics and dynamics of heavy truck tires, followed by steering dynamics, and finally moves participants into suspension kinematics and dynamics. Starting at the ground and moving up, this seminar explores the important dynamic aspects of each subsystem and how each is related to the overall truck dynamics.
2015-06-25
Event
This session includes papers in the areas of static, dynamic, and fatigue characterization of elastomers, bushings, mounts and shock absorbers used in the mobility industry. Particular emphasis is given to new and innovative analysis and testing methodologies to quantify the non-linear properties of these systems in addition to the effects of temperature, frequency, and aging. Papers dealing with specific applications and case studies of existing methodologies are also welcome.
2015-05-18 ...
  • May 18-20, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
  • November 16-18, 2015 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While a variety of new engineering tools are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to ensure desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today's engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to the key fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
2015-04-23
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2015-04-23
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2015-04-22 ...
  • April 22-24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 4-6, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Just as the chassis and suspension system provides an ideal framework for the automobile, this popular SAE seminar provides an informative framework for those involved in the design of these important systems.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0608
Gang Tang, Hengjia Zhu, Yunqing Zhang, Ying Sun
The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the pneumatic system including the air spring, the leveling valve and the pipe is presented. The frequency dependency of the air spring’s stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiments and the simulation. The co-simulation method using ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the pneumatic system into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1118
Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin, Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang
A New Clutch Actuation System for a Dry DCT Fengyu Liu, Li Chen, Jian Yao, Jianlong Zhang, Cheng-Liang Yin Shanghai Jiao Tong University Dongxu Li, Chunhao Lee, Ying Huang General Motors LLC Abstract Dry DCT has played an important role in the high performance applications as well as low-cost market sectors in Asia, with a potential as the future mainstream transmission technology due to its high mechanical efficiency and driving comfort. Control system simplification and cost reduction has been critical in making dry DCT more competitive against other transmission technologies. Specifically, DCT clutch actuation system is a key component with a great potential for cost-saving as well as performance improvement. This paper is to propose a new actuation system that has a unique force-aid spring and consume less power. The main components of this mechanism include a lever and a pre-loaded spring. The spring can store and release energy when needed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1120
Siddhartha Singh, Sudha Ramaswamy
Driving comfort is very important selling factor in today’s automobile market. Manual Transmission Clutch systems has to balance between driving control given to the driver and driver comfort.If ergonomics of ABC pedals are not taken care, driving stress will increase. The increase in engine torque because of change in technologies like turbocharging and pressure injection has also increased the release load for actuating clutch which in turn increases pedal load. There are many assistance mechanisms integrated with pedal to reduce the load like over-center spring, double torsion spring, each with its own limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0607
Xincheng Liang, Jingshan Zhao
This paper proposes a theoretical model to interpret the heat generation mechanism and thermal failure of shock absorber. For a common structure of double-tube shock absorber, all frictions between two contacting components of shock absorber are calculated particularly. The heat generation mechanism and heat distribution can be explained with the theoretical model. Thermal failure is a recurrent malfunction for traditional shock absorber, which leads to shorten the service lives of vehicle components. Heat generation experiments are accomplished to validate the thermal degeneration of shock absorber. So this study is meaningful to develop a new system of vibration attenuation that is essential to improve the riding comfort and handling stability of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0622
H. Metered, A. Elsawaf, T. Vampola, Z. Sika
Proportional integral derivative (PID) control technique is the most common control algorithm applied in various engineering applications. Also, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is extensively applied in various optimization problems. This paper introduces an investigation into the use of a PSO algorithm to tune the PID controller for a semi-active vehicle suspension system incorporating magnetorheological (MR) damper to improve the ride comfort and vehicle stability. The proposed suspension system consists of a system controller that determine the desired damping force using a PID controller tuned using PSO, and a continuous state damper controller that estimate the command voltage that is required to track the desired damping force. The PSO technique is applied to solve the nonlinear optimization problem to find the PID controller gains by identifying the optimal problem solution through cooperation and competition among the individuals of a swarm.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Nowadays with the advances in the vehicle control systems, the customers want new and exciting features in their vehicles, which make the vehicle driving characteristics adjustable as they prefers. One of the vehicle controlled systems which can be used to change the vehicle driving characteristics from time to time is the semi-active suspension system. Therefore, the paper presents a rule-optimized fuzzy controller for semi-active suspension system which is continuously adjusts itself according to the road conditions and the drivers’ requirements. The proposed rule-optimized fuzzy controller has three different control modes (Sport, Normal and Comfort), which can be switched using the button and thus adjusted to customer requirements. The Normal Mode is adjusted to provide an overall balance between the vehicle ride comfort and road holding. On the other hand, the Comfort Mode is adapted to leads to a comfort-oriented, softer basic configuration of the damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0492
Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Umashanker Gupta, Ashutosh Dubey, Nitin Chopra
The need to develop products faster and to have designs which are first time right have put enormous pressure on the product development timelines, thus making Computer Aided Optimization one of the most important tool in achieving this targets. In this paper, a Design of Experiments (DOE) study is used, to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of Front Suspension & Steering of a Passenger Bus affect its kinematic properties & thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of Handling parameters such as bump steer, roll steer, percent Ackermann, Lock to Lock rotation angle. The Conventional Hit & Trial method is time consuming and monotonous & still is an approximate method, whereas in Design of Experiments (DOE), a model is repeatedly run through simulations in a single setup, for various combinations of parameter settings. Effects and interactions of the design variables of the model are then studied, which provides an insight to help design an optimized model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1328
Da-Wei Gao, Xing-Xing Huang, Jun Xu, Song-Lin Zheng
Taking a domestic brand car as example, this paper is about how to find out a three-point nonlinear stiffness characteristic curve which can meet the requirements of variable stiffness and three-load condition. The new coil spring gives the passive suspension a lot of improvement in riding and safety, changing the nonlinear stiffness characteristic performance from weak to strong. This paper summarizes the optimization design method for the rear suspension coil spring, including the fitting of ideal stiffness characteristic curve,quantitative method for figuring out how the change of vehicle load influences the load on rear suspension axle,the design method of variable stiffness coil spring which corresponds to the change of vehicle load. A new kind of modified ideal point solution for building the objective function was also put forward.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1356
Atishay Jain
Swingarm, originally known as the swing fork or pivoted fork is a dynamic structural part of the rear suspension of most modern motorcycles. It is used to hold the rear axle firmly, while pivoting vertically on the frame, to allow the suspension to absorb bumps in the road. Driving and braking loads are also transmitted through the swing arm, and thus, it plays a major role in vehicle dynamics. Weight minimization is important in a swingarm as it is largely an unsprung mass. The conventional swingarm design includes steel tubing and sheet metal structures. Due to higher forces near the pivot, conventional swingarm are inherently over-designed as they use tubular structures of same cross section through the entire length of the swingarm. An aluminum alloy swingarm design even when subjected to casting manufacturing constraints, has the potential for better material layout and weight minimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1345
Srinivas Kurna, Arpit Mathur, Sandeep Sharma
In commercial vehicle, Leaf Spring design is an important milestone during product design and development. Leaf springs are the most popular designs having multiple leaves in contact with each other and show hysteresis behavior when loaded and unloaded. Commonly used methods for evaluation of leaf spring strength like endurance trials on field and Rig testing are time consuming and costly. On the other hand, virtual testing methods for strength and stiffness evaluation give useful information early in the design cycle and save considerable time and cost. They give flexibility to evaluate multiple design options and accommodate any design change early in development cycle. A study has been done in VECV to correlate rig result with FEA simulation result of Multi-stage Suspension Leaf Spring, entirely through Finite Element Analysis route. Virtual leaf spring with U-Clamps and Suspension brackets with revolute joints are modeled in FEA which is similar to rig test bed setup.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0634
Adebola Ogunoiki, Oluremi Olatunbosun
This paper presents a statistical characterisation of the effects of variations in vehicle parameters using a quarter vehicle model as a case study. A quarter vehicle model of a commercial sport utility vehicle (SUV) is created in a multi-body dynamics simulation environment to reproduce the real-life behaviour of the SUV. The model is validated by correlating the data collected from both the model and laboratory test rig to the same road input. In order to ensure that only the effects of the variation of the vehicle parameters are captured, a time domain drive signal for a kerb strike on the on the physical vehicle is generated from the proving ground data collected during durability testing of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0652
Hui Hua, Lifu Wang, Hengmin Qi, Jie Zhang, Nong Zhang
Air spring due to its superior ride comfort performance has been widely used in distance passenger transporting vehicles. Since the requirements for ride comfort and handling performance are contradict to each other, handling performance and even roll stability are sacrificed to some extent to obtain good ride comfort. Due to the complex terrain and limited manufacturing level, in the past several years, bus rollover accidents with serious casualties have been reported frequently and bus safety has attracted more and more attention from bus manufacturers in China. On one hand the bus standards have to be raised, and on the other hand, novel solutions which can effectively improve the roll stability of air spring bus are needed to replace the inadequate of anti-roll bars.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0658
Min Zhou, Lifu Wang, Jie Zhang, Nong Zhang
Hydraulic suspensions with different interconnecting configurations can decouple suspension mode and improve performance of a particular mode. In this paper, two types of interconnected suspensions are compared for off-road vehicle trafficability. Traditionally, anti-roll bar, a mechanically interconnected suspension system, connecting left and right suspension, decouples roll mode from the bounce mode and results in a stiff roll mode and a soft bounce mode, which is desired. However, anti-roll bars fail to connect the front wheel motions with the rear’s, thus the wheels’ motions in the warp mode are affected by anti-roll bars and it results an undesired stiffened warp mode. A stiffened warp mode limits the wheel-ground contact and may cause one wheel lift up especially during off-road drive. In contrast to anti-roll bars, two types of hydraulic suspensions which interconnect four wheels (for two-axis vehicles) can further decouple warp mode from other modes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1497
Hideaki Shibue, Devesh Srivastava
Torsion beam suspensions are lightweight and low-cost, and they are therefore frequently used for the rear of small front-wheel drive vehicles. The configuration of the suspension is simple and it comparatively consists of fewer components. However, it is difficult to predict their characteristics and satisfy the target of the performance in the early stages of development in particular, because it should realize the various performance elements demanded of a suspension in a single part. A great deal of research has been conducted on the cross-sectional shape of the beam section, but up to the present there has been almost no discussion of the effect of property of the trailing arms on suspension characteristics. This paper discusses tests conducted to study the effect of the rigidity of the trailing arms, and considers the mechanism of that effect.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Honda developed the right and left independent toe-angle control system (first-generation P-AWS) in the Acura RLX in 2013 and announced it as the first in the world. As indicated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has realized an excellent balance between the fun of handling that is at the driver’s will (INOMAMA) and driving performance with a sense of stability. This first-generation P-AWS is designed to be optimal to the vehicle specifications (suspension axial force, steering gear ratio, etc.) of the Acura RLX. Honda is due to widely adapt P-AWS to other models from now on. Following this, we developed the next-generation P-AWS system (second-generation P-AWS) in order to reconcile system performance and low cost wherever possible, in order to be adaptable for all ACURA models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1498
Yuyao Jiang, Weiwen Deng, Sumin Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Qingrong Zhao, Bakhtiar Litkouhi
Driver steering torque feedback is one of the critically important factors in the consideration and measurement both on vehicle design and performance, and on model accuracy of vehicle dynamics. On the one hand, driver steering torque feedback is one of the key measures on human-machine interface for drivers’ comfort and intuitive road feel, such as return-to-center capability, on-center feel and ease of steering effort, etc. This mainly involves the design of vehicle dynamics as a whole, but in particular, vehicle steering system. On the other hand, it is also the most determining factor to the quality of drivers’ interaction with or driver-in-loop simulation of vehicle dynamics models, such as driver simulator, etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1501
Ryusuke Hirao, Kentaro Kasuya, Nobuyuki Ichimaru
Many electronic control components have been introduced into vehicles with the aims of improving their safety and comfort, and saving energy. Various suspension systems have been developed, to reconcile ride feeling with control stability at a high level. Development efforts have been particularly active in the field of semi-active suspension, prompted by its superior energy-saving and cost performance. Algorithm which is based on skyhook control has been applied mostly to the ride comfort control of semi-active suspension system of vehicle. Also, at the time of steering, control for enhancing damping force are commonly used as handling control to restrain transitional roll angle. Therefore, in this development we developed new ride comfort control and new handling control, and constructed a system which uses only vehicle height sensor as dedicated sensor and uses damping force variable damper of pressure control type.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1504
WeiNing Bao
A ball screw regenerative shock absorber was designed for the relief of the vehicle vibration and the energy recovery of the vehicle vibration. The effect of its main parameters on the suspension system was numerically analyzed. According to the principle of the ball screw regenerative suspension system, a mathematical model of the ball screw regenerative shock absorber was established regarding the ball screw rotational inertia, the motor rotational inertia, the screw lead and the radius of the screw nut. A suspension dynamic model based on the ball screw regenerative shock absorber was developed combining the road model and the two-degrees-of-freedom suspension dynamic model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1502
Liangyao Yu, Wenwei Xuan, Liangxu Ma, Jian Song, Xianmin Zhu, Shuai Cheng
Energy saving is one of the most popular and significant motifs of contemporary and future vehicles. A relatively large amount of concern is concentrated on the power steering system as over 70% of the fuel consumed by conventional HPS system is unnecessary and avoidable, so the application of advance power steering systems like EPS and EHPS can help a lot on saving energy. Although the EHPS system has been widely used among passenger cars, SUV, Pickup trucks and Vans, it is now still infeasible on the conventional heavy duty vehicles because of the contradiction between the limitation of the 24V electric power system and the power demand of the electric motor of the general EHPS system. As a solution for this problem, a new type of EHPS system was investigated, which can decrease the demand of the motor power significantly, so that it can be applied to heavy duty vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1495
Qiushi Wang, Shenjin Zhu, Yuping He
Articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) exhibit poor directional performance that is attributed to the high accident rate of these vehicles. Many control strategies have been proposed to increase the safety of AHVs. Optimal controllers based on the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) technique have been explored to enhance the lateral stability of AHVs; these controllers are designed under the assumption that the vehicle model parameters and operating conditions are given and they remain as constants. However, in reality, the vehicle system parameters and operating conditions may vary. For example, the payload of trailer may vary within a huge range. To address the vehicle model parametric variation issue, this paper proposes a model reference adaptive controller for active trailer steering of AHVs. The adaptive controller is designed based on a tractor-semitrailer model with three degrees of freedom; to ensure the convergence of the controller, Lyapunov theory is applied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0613
Donghong Ning, James Coyte, Hai Huang, Haiping Du, Weihua Li
Heavy duty vehicles suffer from detrimental vibrations which have significant influence to the operator’s comfort, health and safety. Especially, long term exposures to vibration with a frequency range between 0.5 and 10Hz will severely damage the driver’s backbone. Tires, chassis suspension and seat suspension are three traditional methods to isolate vehicles vibration, but it is generally difficult to modify the parameters of tires and chassis suspension, even many approaches are proposed for the performance of chassis suspension. On the other hand, the seat suspension system is easy to modify and optimize. Therefore, seat suspension has been employed as a simple and effective method to isolate vehicle vibration transmitted to the driver’s body. Studying the vibration characteristics of seat suspension is one important step for seat suspension design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0614
Ye Zhao, Liangmo Wang, Xiangli Yang, Liukai Yuan, Zunzhi Zhang
Abstract: In most cases, researches on the ride performance of air suspension system are based on simplified mathematical models which could be too theoretical or not be able to consider the coupling relationship between the various components so that they behave far away from the actual vehicle system. This paper represents the study on the ride performance of an air suspension vehicle based on the complex whole vehicle model which was established though ADAMS and Matlab. The applying of flexible components helped to improve the model accuracy and the tensile and compression tests of the air spring were used to establish the interconnected four-gasbag air suspension system. The vehicle ride performance was studied through the co-simulation between ADAMS and Matlab. The accuracy of the results were verified by the vehicle test results, which demonstrated the reliability of the whole model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0617
Jie Zhang, Xiao Chen, Bangji Zhang, Lifu Wang, Shengzhao Chen, Nong Zhang
Well-deigned suspension system plays an important role in improving ride comfort. Underground mining vehicles which work in harsh conditions commonly employ leaf spring suspension to provide large stiffness and damping while be compact in size. Another characteristic of the mining vehicle is that its sprung mass varies significantly when loaded/unloaded. The leaf spring suspension has to be designed very stiff to meet the full-loaded requirement, therefore when the vehicle is unloaded, the stiff leaf spring damage the ride quality and expose the passengers to noise, vibration and harshness. Since the hydraulic suspension systems can provide better ride comfort, the paper proposes a design of adding an interconnected hydraulic system to resist bounce motions to share the vertical load with the leaf spring, which therefore can be designed softer. Furthermore, The hydraulic system also increases the suspension stiffness in the pitch mode to prevent vehicle from large pitch motions.
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