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2016-12-05 ...
  • December 5, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides an introduction to several critical aspects of heavy truck dynamics. The comprehensive presentation and discussion will begin with the mechanics and dynamics of heavy truck tires, followed by steering dynamics, and finally moves participants into suspension kinematics and dynamics. Starting at the ground and moving up, this seminar explores the important dynamic aspects of each subsystem and how each is related to the overall truck dynamics.
2016-05-23 ...
  • May 23-25, 2016 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
  • November 14-16, 2016 (8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.) - Greer, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
While a variety of new engineering methods are becoming available to assist in creating optimal vehicle designs, subjective evaluation of vehicle behavior is still a vital tool to deliver desired braking, handling, and other dynamic response characteristics. In order to better prepare today’s engineer for this task, this course offers twelve modules devoted to key the fundamental principles associated with longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics.
2016-05-09 ...
  • May 9-11, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • November 21-23, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Just as the chassis and suspension system provides an ideal framework for the automobile, this popular SAE seminar provides an informative framework for those involved in the design of these important systems. Emphasizing the fundamental principles that underlie rational development and design of suspension components and structures, this course covers the concepts, theories, designs and applications of automotive suspension systems.
2016-04-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-9020
Emre Sert, Pinar Boyraz
Abstract Studies have shown that the number of road accidents caused by rollover both in Europe and in Turkey is increasing [1]. Therefore, rollover related accidents became the new target of the studies in the field of vehicle dynamics research aiming for both active and passive safety systems. This paper presents a method for optimizing the rear suspension geometry using design of experiment and multibody simulation in order to reduce the risk of rollover. One of the major differences of this study from previous work is that it includes statistical Taguchi method in order to increase the safety margin. Other difference of this study from literature is that it includes all design tools such as model validation, optimization and full vehicle handling and ride comfort tests. Rollover angle of the vehicle was selected as the cost function in the optimization algorithm that also contains roll stiffness and height of the roll center.
2016-04-13
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2016-04-13
Event
The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for presentations on steering and suspension related topics as it applies to ground vehicles. Papers for this session should address new approaches as well as advances in application of steering, suspension related technologies.
2016-04-11 ...
  • April 11-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • August 10-12, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 12-14, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar will present an introduction to Vehicle Dynamics from a vehicle system perspective. The theory and applications are associated with the interaction and performance balance between the powertrain, brakes, steering, suspensions and wheel and tire vehicle subsystems. The role that vehicle dynamics can and should play in effective automotive chassis development and the information and technology flow from vehicle system to subsystem to piece-part is integrated into the presentation. Governing equations of motion are developed and solved for both steady and transient conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0431
Guangqiang Wu, Huwei WU, Xiang Chen
During the process of vehicle creeping, severe vibro-impacts of unloaded or lightly loaded gear pairs in a manual transmission may occur in the powertrain system due to some nonlinear characteristics. Multi-staged stiffness clutch damper, as a main nonlinear component, could have a great influence on powertrain system torsional vibration performance. So a mass-production passenger sedan is taken as the research subject and the nonlinear characteristics impact of multi-staged stiffness clutch damper for vehicle creeping vibration is investigated by using lumped-parameter modeling method. Firstly, a quasi-transient model of an inline four-cylinder and four-stroke engine, based on measured data of cylinder gas pressure versus crankshaft angle, is derived. Effective output torque is achieved and as the input excitation to the driveline. Secondly, a 12 DOFs (Degrees of Freedom) nonlinear and branched torsional vibration model is established.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1559
Francesco Vinattieri, Tim Wright, Renzo Capitani, Claudio Annicchiarico, Giacomo Danisi
Nowadays, the common steering systems are no more able to satisfy the customers’ requirements and this has caused the spread of electrical controlled steering systems. Their application is possible only after a proper tuning of the control system, which is essential to guarantee the desired functioning; but to fulfil this purpose an appropriate knowledge of all the influencing factors of steering torque feedback is necessary. The limited repeatability of vehicle tests, as well as their high cost, are the main drawbacks of vehicle tests and lead to using specific test rigs. On account of that, in the present work a test bench for steering feeling simulation, which combines a static driving simulator with a physical EPS assisted steering rack, has been designed. The end goal is to more accurately reproduce the tactile feedback to the driver by including a physical hardware in lieu of complicated and difficult to obtain software models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1063
George Nerubenko
Up to 30% of engine noise is delivered by front end pulley combined with torsional vibration damper, and technically it is the main contributor to recorded engine noise level. So the novel solutions in terms of improving the design and performance of torsional vibration damper would help to reduce radically this component of engine noise. The results of dynamical study of patented torsional vibration damper combined with pulley are presented. Design and structure of torsional vibration damper is based on author’s US Patent 7,438,165 having the self-tuning control system for all frequencies in running engine in all operational regimes. Mathematical model has been used for the analysis of the emitting noise of engine having proposed torsional vibration damper. Attention is paid to mitigation of the sound power levels contributing by engine subsystem “end of crankshaft - torsional vibration damper – pulley”.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1562
Hongyu Zheng, Jinghuan hu, Jidong Lv
There is no mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheel in vehicle Steer by Wire. The advantages of steer by wire system such as its modular structure and variable steering ratio provide wide development prospect for vehicle performance. Accurate, stable coupling between modules is the basis of its normal operation, the property of variable steering ratio influences vehicle handling stability directly, they are all the core component of Steer-by-Wire system control method. In steering angle ratio and road feeling control algorithm of steer by wire system, the parameters of steering system and electrical machine have important influence on control algorithm. Therefore, establishing steer by wire vehicle simulation platform and steer by wire experimental verification platform should be arranged at first.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1554
Cheng Gu, Xinbo Chen, Jun Yin
A novel geared electromagnetic active suspension was proposed in this paper, recycling the vibration energy and without hydraulic lines group. A rocker arm and a push rod were introduced to transfer the suspension vertical motion to the rotational motion of the motor, utilizing the high power density of rotational motor. Comparing with the common ball-screw active suspension, it owned advantages of simple structure and easy manufacturing. As the state variables of the suspension system could not all obtained, an output feedback LQR optimal controller was adopted, in which, the vehicle body acceleration, suspension deformation, tyre displacement and active force were weighted as the performance evaluations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1375
Masahiro Ueda, Satoshi Ito, Daichi Suzuki
Good ride comfort performance, which is represented by noise, vibration, harshness, has high solicitation power for customers. These phenomena are a result of vibration caused at the engine/powertrain or from road surfaces, transmitted to cabin. Therefore, for reduction of these vibrations, a large number of rubber parts are used at the attachment point of cabin, such as engine mounting and suspension bushing. In the vehicle development, demands to examine the vehicle performance including rubber parts using CAE, before prototype evaluation, is increasing. For that reason, a rubber material model which can represent dynamic characteristics (amplitude dependence, frequency dependence, etc.) of the rubber parts with high precision is necessary, but it is difficult to perform amplitude dependence and frequency dependence at the same time using the rubber material model implemented by commercial structure analysis solver.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0443
Han Zhang, Gang Li, Yu Wang, Yuchuan Gu, Xiang Wang, Xuexun Guo
A vehicular hydraulic electrical energy regenerative semi-active suspension(HEERSS) was presented, and its working principle and performance were analyzed. Firstly, configuration and working principle of the HEERSS were described; Secondly, kinetic equation of HEERSS was deduced, and a skyhook controller was designed for HEERSS. The traditional skyhook control strategy should be changed for the characteristic of HEERSS, because the damping force during extension stroke could be controlled, but not in compression stroke. Thirdly, the performance of HEERSS was compared with passive suspension(PS), traditional semi-active suspension(TSS). The simulation results showed that in the vehicle body resonance frequency and tire resonance frequency, the amplitude of suspension index parameters ranked in a descend order were PS, HEERSS and TSS; but in the transition frequency band, the amplitude of suspension index parameters ranked in a descend order were. TSS, HEERSS and PS.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0441
Aref M. A. Soliman
ABSTRACT An active suspension system has better performance than a passive suspension. However, it requires a significant amount of energy and is constructed from high cost components. To solve the problem of the power required, a switchable damper suspension system has been studied. In this paper, control strategies for the switchable damper suspension system and passive are compared in terms of their relative ride performance capabilities. Practical limitations involving switching time delay and threshold delay values are modeled and their effect on the ride performance are evaluated. The four setting switchable damper is compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers. The control strategies are used to maintain suspension working space level within design limit and to minimize body acceleration level. The results showed that the four setting switchable damper gives better ride improvements compared with the two and three setting switchable dampers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0430
Joel Metz, Xin Zhang, Xiao Yu
The Front Lower Control Arm (FLCA) is a key part of the automotive suspension for performance and safety. Most FLCA designs attach to the front subframe using rubber handling and riding bushings, which determine the vehicle dynamics and comfort. In this paper, a design for a compliance bushing using a metal pin structure is discussed. The inner portion of the compliance bushing is a hollow metal collar with a layer of rubber, and the FLCA pin structure is pressed into the rubber. For safety requirements, the bushings must meet a pin push-in and push-out force requirement. During the development of the bushing design, different test groups conducted tests to determine if manufactured parts meet the push-out force specification. Each group tested at a different load rate and generated different maximum push out force values. The push-in/out speed was found to have a strong influence on the generated maximum load.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1555
Jack Ekchian, William Graves, Zackary Anderson, Marco Giovanardi, Olivia Godwin
Autonomous vehicles can offer increased productivity by freeing occupants from the responsibility of driving. This enables all passengers to safely perform tasks such as reading, writing and using a computer or tablet. However, studies show that the incidence of motion sickness in autonomous vehicles is expected to increase compared to human driven vehicles.[1] Motion sickness is believed to be caused by head motion between 0.1 Hz and 0.5 Hz that is uncorrelated with visual anticipatory cues. This head motion may be induced by movement in the vertical and lateral directions caused by an uneven road surface or steering/acceleration inputs of the vehicle. Because passengers in such vehicles are more disconnected from road events they cannot anticipate how their bodies are going to move. Occupants of autonomous vehicles are also more prone to shift focus from the road to other activities compared to conventionally driven vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1547
Jun Yin, Xinbo Chen, Lixin Wu, Jianqin Li
Traditional active suspension which is equipped with hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator features slow response and high power consumption. However, electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits quick response and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. To design a novel active and energy regenerative suspension utilized electromagnetic actuator, this paper analyze the benchmark cars available on the market, and concludes the target cars which are possible to be equipped with electromagnetic actuated active suspension in the future. And the suspension structure of the target cars are analyzed. Compared the linear type and rotary type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), the rotary type is selected to construct the actuator of the active suspension. And the traditional mechanisms to transfer the linear motion of the suspension to the rotation motion of the rotary type PMSM are analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0428
Ruochen Wang, Renkai Ding, Qing Ye
In order to coordinate the ride comfort and driving safety significantly, “inerter-spring-damper” (ISD) system is proposed in this paper, then “spring-adjustable damper” is adapted to connect with ISD in series, and then, a new type of semi-active suspension system will be established. For the verification of system rationality, ISD semi-active suspension model and the road input and robust controller model are established respectively in the AMESim and MATLAB/Simulink environment based on two degrees of freedom suspension model. Then, ISD robust control semi-active suspension co-simulation is analyzed. Compared with the conventional ISD suspension, the results show that the ISD robust control semi-active suspension can significantly reduce the body vertical vibration, restrain tire resonance and enhance the tire grounding performance, that is, this system can coordinate conflicts between vehicle ride comfort and driving safety.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1561
Xinxin Shao, Haiping Du, Fazel Naghdy
Significant steering and braking maneuvers in vehicles generally induce significant amount of roll and pitch rotations, which have adverse effect on the directional stability and handling of the vehicle. Furthermore, the excessive pitch motions of the vehicle could adversely affect the driver’s perception of the path and preview ability. Hence, it is crucial to control vehicle attitude (roll and pitch rotations) in response to directional maneuvers and excitations arising from road. Development of a passive anti-pitch anti-roll hydraulically interconnected suspension (AAHIS) with the advantage of improving the directional stability and handling quality of a vehicle is presented. A 7 degrees-of-freedom full car model and a 20 degrees-of-freedom anti-pitch anti-roll hydraulically interconnected suspension model dynamically coupled together through boundary conditions, are developed and used to evaluate vehicle handing dynamic responses under steering/braking maneuvers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1557
Francesco Castellani, Nicola Bartolini, Lorenzo Scappaticci, Davide Astolfi, Matteo Becchetti
Shock absorber is one of the most relevant sub-systems of the suspension system for a wide range of vehicles. Although a high level of development and tuning has been reached, in order to ensure high safety standards in almost every situation, some dynamic phenomena affecting vehicle handling or NHV can appear. The aim of present work is to improve a mathematical model using experimental data from a prototype of monotube shock absorber developed for research purposes. The model takes into account all the main features affecting the global performance of the device, such as non-linear behaviour and the presence of hysteresis loops. Actually, the most important parameters are analyzed, as flow and orifice coefficients of the valves, coefficients of mechanical compliance of the chambers and oil compressibility, dry and viscous friction coefficients.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1549
Nicola Bartolini, Lorenzo Scappaticci, Francesco Castellani, Alberto Garinei
The knocking noise is a transient structural noise triggered by the shock absorber's piston rod vibrations that excites the vibration of chassis components. Piston rod vibrations can be caused by valves motion (opening and closing) and dry friction during stroke inversions. This study investigates the shock absorber knocking noise on a twintube gas-filled automotive shock absorber and the aim is to define an acceptance criterion (threshold level) for a sample check of the component. If infact the damper derives from a large mass production, may happen that small differences in the assembly might lead to different behaviours resulting in higher or lower levels of knocking noise. To achieve the goal, experimental tests were carried out at various excitation frequencies and amplitudes. Test were performed using a oleodynamic test bench monitoring displacement and force; accelerometers were placed in proximity of the rebound valve, on the body of the damper and on the piston rod.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1556
Lalitkumar Maikulal Jugulkar
Semi-active suspension systems have shown a significant improvement over the passive systems. Due to this fact, semi-active dampers have been designed and made commercially available; the control strategies have been adopted and implemented to offer superior ride quality to passenger vehicles. However, the technology is still an emerging one, and elaboration and more research work on different theoretical and practical aspects are required. This work is an attempt to design an understanding of some of those aspects, such as the effect of the semi-active dampers response-time on the performance of the control strategies through analytical and numerical methods. On the other hand, the technology has not yet been adopted for SUV vehicles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0429
Paul Augustine, Timothy Hunter, Nathan Sievers, Xiaoru Guo
The performance of a structural design depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. The theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. These errors in estimating design load will lead to more weight or less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to understand the real world loading of structures. A limitation of load cells is that the structure needs to be modified to accept the load cell and not all desired loading can be measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1059
Huyao Wu, Fei Huo
In this paper, as the common principle of some engineering applications, a compound pendulum consists of two bodies and relevant force elements, of springs and dampers is considered, whose governing equations are created as Newton’s Second Law, which is the ordinary differential equations (ODES) with the periodic time-variant coefficients and non-autonomous system. Further combine the engineering cases based on the G. Floquet Theory, the numeric analysis whose different types of solutions are examined, the stability problem for the time variant ODES on the zero-solutions is discussed. Relevant stability diagram and various responses are provided for different kinds of excitations, kinetic and dynamic parameters. Finally discuss the application of principles and phenomenon in automotive field.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1550
Ming Peng, Xuexun Guo, Junyi Zou, Chengcai Zhang
This paper presents a novel concept of the application of the hydraulic electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) into the commercial vehicle suspension system and the vehicle road performances are simulated by the evaluating indexes (e.g. the root-mean-square values of vertical acceleration of sprung mass, dynamic tire-ground contact force, suspension deflection and harvested power). Firstly, the configuration and working principle of the HESA are introduced. Then, the damping characteristics of the HESA and the seven-degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics were modeled respectively before derive the dynamic characteristics of a vehicle equipped with the HESA. The control current is fixed at 7A to match the similar damping effect of traditional linear damper on the basis of the energy conversion method of nonlinear shock absorber.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1301
Shishuo Sun, David W. Herrin, John Baker
One of the more useful metrics to characterize an isolator is insertion loss. Insertion loss is defined as the difference in transmitted vibration in decibels between the unisolated and isolated cases. Insertion loss is superior to transmissibility in that effects of source and receiver compliance are also included. In this work, the transfer matrix of a spring isolator is determined using finite element simulation and the insertion loss is then determined using assumed values for the compliance on the source and receiver sides. Following this, the effect of different spring parameters such as the number of turns, wire diameter, spring diameter, and damping are investigated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0469
Hyunkoo Kang, Wooyong Jung, Choon Lee
This paper presents payload estimation based on experimental friction coefficients identification. To estimate exact payload mass, dynamic mathematical model such as actuator dynamics and front linkage dynamics is derived by using Newton-Euler method. From the dynamic equation, nonlinear terms are analyzed and transformed. And a friction model is derived from the experiments with various conditions which have three states; boom joint angle, head and rod chamber pressures. It can identify friction coefficients and compensate friction forces. In addition, the accuracy of payload estimation system is verified through the field test.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1552
Renato Galluzzi, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Gabriele Curcuruto, Piero Conti, Giordano Greco, Andrea Nepote
The development of suspension systems has seen substantial improvements in the last years due to the use of variable dampers. In such solutions, the characteristic of active or semi-active devices is modified to meet desired constraints, such as comfort and road holding. Furthermore, the persisting goal of improving the efficiency of subsystems within the automotive chassis has favored the use of regenerative solutions, in which electric machines can be employed as generators to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated as heat during cyclic excitation. Although linear electric actuators seem a straight-forward choice in vehicle vibration damping, their limited force density leads to the implementation of rotary machines together with additional transmission mechanisms to convert angular displacements into linear ones and vice versa. Regenerative suspensions present different issues that limit their efficiency, being inertial stiffening and friction the most challenging ones.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0420
Frank Anthony Cuccia, James Pineault, Mohammed Belassel, Michael Brauss
It is well known that manufacturing operations produce material conditions that can either enhance or debit the fatigue life of production components. One of the most critical aspects of material condition that can have a significant impact on fatigue life is residual stress (RS) [1,2]. When springs are manufactured, the spring stock may undergo several operations during production. Additional operations may also be introduced for the purpose of imparting the spring with beneficial surface RS to extend its fatigue life and increase its ability to execute the task it was designed to perform. The resultant RS present in production springs as a result of the various fabrication and processing operations applied can be predicted and modeled, however, RS measurements must be performed in order to quantify the RS state with precision.
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