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2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Greenville, South Carolina
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
                                                                 Understanding vehicle dynamics is one of the critical issues in the design of all vehicles, including heavy trucks. This seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of heavy truck dynamics. It covers all of the critical subsystems that must be considered by designers and decision makers in determining the effect of various components on heavy truck dynamics. This seminar begins where the tires meet the ground, progressing up through the various components and bringing together the theory and practice of heavy truck dynamics.
2015-08-17 ...
  • August 17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Rosemont, Illinois
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides an introduction to several critical aspects of heavy truck dynamics. The comprehensive presentation and discussion will begin with the mechanics and dynamics of heavy truck tires, followed by steering dynamics, and finally moves participants into suspension kinematics and dynamics. Starting at the ground and moving up, this seminar explores the important dynamic aspects of each subsystem and how each is related to the overall truck dynamics.
2015-06-22
Event
This session includes papers regarding vehicle exterior or interior tire/pavement noise.
2015-06-16 ...
  • June 16, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
One of the most important safety critical components on cars, trucks, and aircraft is the pneumatic tire. Vehicle tires primarily control stopping distances on wet and dry roads or runways and strongly influence over-steer/under-steer behavior in handling maneuvers of cars and trucks. The inflated tire-wheel assembly also acts as a pressure vessel that releases a large amount of energy when catastrophically deflated. The tire can also serve as a fulcrum, both directly and indirectly, in contributing to vehicle rollover. This seminar covers these facets of tire safety phenomena.
2015-06-15 ...
  • June 15, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The principal functions of the pneumatic tire are to generate driving, braking, and cornering forces while safely carrying the vehicle load and providing adequate levels of ride comfort. This seminar explains how tire forces and moments are generated under different operating and service conditions and, in turn, demonstrates how these forces and moments influence various vehicle responses such as braking, handling, ride, and high-speed performance. The content focuses on the fundamentals of tire behavior in automobiles, trucks, and farm tractors, but also includes experimental and empirical results, when necessary.
2015-04-22
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2015-04-22
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2015-04-22
Event
Focusing on tire and terrain mechanics modeling for load simulations, tire model development, parameters identification, and sensitivity analyses, tire test development, road profile characterization, effective road profile development, and interactions between tire, suspension/steering/brake systems, and different terrains, spindle loads/travel variation characteristics from proving ground test on deterministic and rough roads, terramechanics, tire noise, rolling resistance and correlation studies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1516
Mohammed K Billal
The component level wheel crush test will help to predict the wheel crush load under static condition. In passenger car, the frontal wheel has to absorb the energy during the crush and it should not intrude more in to the occupant compartment. Using virtual tools, the wheel crush load can able to predict for the new designs and the new design changes can be made quickly to meet the requirement. During the wheel crush, the crack will initiate and propagate, then the major failure will occur. In virtually, this failure can be achieved using progressive damage and failure material model. This material model is having the capability to predict the damage initiation due to the ductile and shear failure. After damage initiation, the material stiffness is degraded progressively according to the specified damage evolution response. The progressive damage models allow for a smooth degradation of the material stiffness, in both quasi-static and dynamic situations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1517
David Stalnaker, Ke-Jun Xie, Terence Wei
Tire manufacturers need to perform various types of testing to determine tire performance under representative vehicle load conditions. However, test results are influenced by a number of external variables other than tire construction. Vehicle load distribution and suspension properties are some of those external variables which can have a significant effect on tire wear rate and durability. Therefore, in order to measure tire performance in a controlled and repeatable manner, a representative vehicle and associated tire load conditions are needed. Laboratory or indoor tire testing offers many advantages over vehicle fleet testing. It provides a well-defined test environment and repeatable results without influence from external factors. Indoor testing has been largely developed around the process of simulating tire wear performance on a specific reference vehicle, including its specific weight distribution, suspension characteristics, and alignment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1512
Sairom Yoo, Md Salah Uddin, Hyeonu Heo, Jaehyung Ju, Doo Man Kim, Seok-Ju Choi
In an effort to develop tires with low rolling resistance, nonpneumatic tires (NPTs) with low viscoelastic energy loss materials are receiving more attention. For better design of NPTs for better fuel efficiency, one may need to analyze rolling energy loss of NPTs at a component level. The objective of this study is to develop a tool to quantify rolling energy loss and thermal dissipation of NPTs at a component level. For varying vehicle loads and rolling speeds, we suggest a thermo-mechanical model of an NPT with hexagonal cellular spokes to investigate temperature distribution of the NPT caused by hysteresis and convection loss into air. Using a hyper-viscoelastic model developed from a uniaxial (tensile and compression) testing and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), a thermo-mechanical model is developed by combining longitudinal shear deformation induced hysteresis and cooling to air.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1510
Edoardo Sabbioni, Davide Ivone, Francesco braghin, Federico Cheli
Estimation of friction coefficient and sideslip angle represents a key-point for improving control systems for vehicle safety, e.g. ESP (Electronic Stability Control), VDC (Vehicle Dynamics Control), etc. A model-based approach (state observer or Kalman filter) is generally used on purpose. Benefits induced by in-tyre sensors on sideslip angle and friction coefficient estimation are investigated in this paper. Thus tyre cornering force measurements are added to the ones usually present on-board vehicle (steer angle, lateral acceleration and yaw rate) and used to implement an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based on a single-track vehicle model. Tyre-road contact forces are assumed to be provided once per wheel turn by a smart tyre constituted of two tri-axial accelerometers glued on the tyre inner liner. Performance of the proposed observer is evaluated on a series of handling maneuvers and its robustness to road bank angle and tyre/vehicle parameters variation is discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1523
Takahiro Uesaka, Tatsuya Suma
Simulating road noise while a vehicle is operating shortens the development period and reduces the number of prototypes, which lowers development costs. Realizing road noise simulation identifies the force transmitted to the suspension through the tires and wheels from vibration between the road surface and the tires. There are significant variations between static state characteristics and vibration characteristics of tires in motion, which are challenging to measure. The effects of reduction of the elastic modulus of the rubber in the tires due to repeated loads accompanying contact with the ground, and of Coriolis and centrifugal forces resulting from the rolling motion are known. Detailed analysis of the eigenvalue fluctuations produced by Coriolis force based on measurements taken using sensors installed inside the tires has recently been reported. Knowledge is still lacking in areas such as the specifics of how the input from the tires changes due to these fluctuations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1518
Emmanuel O. Bolarinwa, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Three-dimensional (3D) Finite element (FE) tyre models have been widely used for tyre design, vehicle design and dynamic investigations. Such tyre models have the inherent advantage of covering a wide range of tyre modelling issues such as the detailed tyre geometry and material composition, in addition to an extensive coverage of tyre operational conditions such as the static preload, inflation pressure and driving speed. Although tyre vibration behaviour, in different frequency ranges are of general interest, both for the vehicle interior and exterior noise, the present study is limited to a frequency of 100 Hz which is prevalent in most road induced NVH ride and handling problems. This study investigates tyre vibration behaviour using a propriety FE code. Such investigation plays an important role in the study of vehicle dynamics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0624
Mustafa Arat, Emmanuel O. Bolarinwa
The increasing demand of energy use in transportation systems combined with the limited supply of fossil hydrocarbons to support conventional engines has led to a strong resurgence in interest for electric vehicles (EVs). Although EVs offer the possibility of decoupling the issue of energy source from the primary torque generator in an automobile, the current technology is yet to match the well-developed internal combustion (IC) systems, especially in terms of energy capacity and travel range. In this study, the influence of rolling-resistance on the energy efficiency and road holding of electric vehicles is described. Rolling resistance is taken in the context of energy loss (e.g. the mechanical energy converted into other sources of energy) for a unit distance traveled by the tire.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1524
Ping Chen, Nan Xu, Konghui Guo, Rongsheng Liu
Tire lateral force is essential to vehicle handling and stability under cornering. However, it is difficult for engineers to get tire lateral force under high loading condition due to the loading ability limitation of most tire test machine in the world. Widely used semi-empirical tire lateral force models are obtained by curve-fitting experiments data and don’t possess load prediction ability. The objective of this paper is to predict the tire lateral force model under high-load condition based on low-load tire data. The nonlinear characteristic of tire cornering stiffness vary with load is greatly affected by tire carcass compliance. In this paper, a theoretical tire lateral model was built by considering carcass complex deformation. Combined with the relationship between half-length of tire contact patch and load, the non-linear characteristic of tire cornering stiffness vary with load was obtained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1513
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Kevin Kefauver
Indoor laboratory tire testing on flat belt machines and tire testing on the actual road yield different results. Testing on the machine offers the advantage of repeatability of test conditions, control of the environmental condition, and performance evaluation at extreme conditions. However, certain aspects of the road cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. It is thus essential to understand the connection between the machine and the road, as tires spend all their life on the road. This research, investigates the reasons for differences in tire performance on the test machine and the road. The first part of the paper presents a review on the differences between tire testing in the lab and on the road, and existing methods to account for differences in test surfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1520
Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Federico Ballo, Giorgio Previati
A wheel able to measure the generalized forces at the hub of a race motorcycle has been developed and used. The wheel has a very limited weight (about 2 kg). It is made from magnesium with a special structure to sense the forces and provide the required level of stiffness. The wheel has been tested both indoor for preliminary approval according to internal standards and on the track. The three forces and the three moments at the hub can be measured with a resolution of respectively 1N and 0.3Nm. Twelve strain gauges are positioned at relevant locations to sense the generalized forces. Utilizing an encoder (angle resolution 0.06°), a simultaneous ADC sampling is performed on the six strain gauges bridges outputs while coupling the force/torque output with the absolute wheel angular position. The sincronous sampling allows seamless real-time measurements at vehicle speed up to 400 km/h.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0625
Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein, Michael Roller
The tire plays a fundamental role in the generation of acoustically perceptible driving noise and also in the generation of vibrations inside the vehicle. Drivers and passengers will perceive vibrations inside the vehicle as interference of their physical comfort. An essential part of these vibrations will be induced by the road excitation and be transferred via the tire into the vehicle. There are 2 basic ways to study the NVH behavior of a tire or a full vehicle including a tire: • Transient simulation scenario • Frequency based or modal simulation scenario In the first case the tire or full vehicle will be simulated using a transient dynamic simulation method. The vehicle or tire is driving over an arbitrary digitized road profile. There is no need for a stationary driving state or for the necessity of a constant driving velocity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1521
Kanwar Bharat Singh, Srikanth Sivaramakrishnan
Tread depth, inflation pressure, tire temperature, and road surface condition are among the most notable factors that have a noticeable effect on the tire force and moment characteristics. They can vary significantly during the operation of a tire and can effectively modify tire (and thus vehicle) performance. This study presents details of an adaptive magic formula (MF) tire model capable of coping with changes to the tire operating condition. More specifically, extensions have been made to the magic formula expressions for tire cornering stiffness and peak grip level, to account for variations in the tire inflation pressure, load, tread-depth and temperature. As a next step, the benefits of using an adaptive tire model for vehicle control system applications is demonstrated through simulation studies for enhanced vehicle control systems using an adaptive tire model in comparison to traditional control systems based on a non-adaptive tire model with fixed model parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1522
Takahiro Yokoyama, Koji Hiratsuka, Shinya Notomi
Users drive at relatively high speeds during the winter season, and maneuvering on snow-covered roads is a key performance for drivers. Demands are increasing for tires with lower rolling resistance. Tire patterns were developed similar to summer tires with reduced grooving and tire patterns with shallower grooves. This required techniques that predict maneuverability on snow-covered roads. This study treated maneuverability on snow-covered roads as maneuverability in the grip region, and verified the correlation between subjective evaluation using vehicles and tire stand-alone characteristics. Indexes were clarified for the tire contact patch and the physical properties of the tread rubber, which are prerequisites for securing grip in the normal-use. Typical index values for indexes were investigated using the surface pressure distribution obtained by a tire contact and surface pressure measuring system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0626
Adam C. Reid, Moustafa El-Gindy, Fredrik Oijer, David Philipps
The purpose of this research paper is to outline the methodology and procedure used for the development of a wide base rigid ring tire model. A rigid ring model is a mechanical representation of a tire model in which its in-plane and out-of-plane characteristics and behaviour can be captured. The FEA construction of the tire model is first completed to match all known information regarding the physical dimensions and material properties of the tire. For information that is unknown, an optimization-based parameter tuning algorithm is then run in order to solve for said parameters while matching any experimental data that is supplied. A series of virtual experiments are then conducted which replicate laboratory tests as well as some high speed maneuvers in order to isolate for specific tire dynamic parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0627
Xiaoguang Yang, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
The development of intelligent tyre technology from concept to application covers multi-disciplinary fields. During its development course, computational method has a significant effect on understanding tyre behaviour, assisting design of intelligent tyre prototype system and developing tyre parameters estimation algorithm, etc. In this paper, finite element tyre model was adopted for developing strain-based intelligent tyre system. The finite element tyre model was created considering tyre composite structure and nonlinear material properties, which was also validated by fundamental test. It is used to study tyre strain characteristics by steady state simulation for straight line rolling, traction and braking, and cornering rolling. Tyre loading conditions were estimated by feature extraction and data fitting. This process forms the fundamentals for identifying tyre loadings from strain information on potential sensor locations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1511
Srikanth Sivaramakrishnan, Kanwar Bharat Singh, Peter Lee
Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) is a critical safety component and its performance is crucial for every vehicle manufacturer. The tire plays an important role during an ABS braking maneuver as it is the component that connects the vehicle to the ground and is responsible for generating braking force. The steady-state and transient properties of the tire affect the operation of the vehicle’s ABS system. The main objective of this study is to investigate how tire design changes influence its interaction with the ABS and its eventual effect on stopping distance. This was conducted through an experimental study where tires were built with three levels of variation in carcass stiffness, tread stiffness and tread compound. Following this, ABS braking maneuvers were performed on instrumented vehicles with regular ABS and high-performance ABS using these tires on all four wheels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1515
Kwangwon Kim, Hyeonu Heo, Md Salah Uddin, Jaehyung Ju, Doo-Man Kim
Due to the relatively high freedom of selection of materials associated with a simple manufacturing method, a nonpneumatic tire (NPT) can be manufactured with a low viscoelastic energy loss material. A highly increasing demand to reduce greenhouse gases drives engineers to explore NPTs. NPTs consisting of flexible spokes and the shear band are still at an early stage of research and development. An optimization study of geometry of NPTs needs to be conducted, which is the objective of this paper. Parametric studies, design of experiments (DOE), and sensitivity analyses are conducted with a hyper-viscoelastic finite element (FE) model to determine the effects of three design variables on rolling resistance; the thickness of cellular spokes, the cell angle, and the shear band thickness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0628
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, Yunqing Zhang, James Yang
As one of the most important components of a vehicle, a tire is essential for vehicle handling, ride comfort as well as durability. Although several decade efforts have been dedicated to tire modeling, there is still room to improve its performance. Currently tire models cannot accurately predict the longitudinal spindle force under severe road conditions. In order to improve the prediction results, a detailed in-plane flexible ring tire model is proposed based on multi body dynamic (MBD) approach in this paper. In this model, we discretize the belt into different belt segments, and each belt segment is considered as a rigid body and attached to a number of parallel tread blocks. This model is able to describe the tire behavior for the transformation among static condition, quasi-static rolling, as well as dynamic rolling conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1514
Deepak Tiwari, Japveer Arora
A typical wheel development process involves designing a wheel based on a defined set of criteria and parameters followed by verification on CAE. The virtual testing is followed by bench level and vehicle level testing post which the design is finalized for the wheel. This paper aims to establish the learnings which were accomplished for one such development processes. The entire wheel development process had to be analyzed from scratch to arrive at a countermeasure for the problem. This paper will not only establish the detailed analysis employed to determine the countermeasure but also highlight its significance for the future development proposals. The paper first establishes the failure which is followed by the detailed analysis to determine the type of failure, impact levels and the basic underlying conditions. This leads to a systematic approach of verification which encompasses the manufacturing process as well as the test methodology.
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