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2017-04-04
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2017-04-04
Event
Focusing on tire and terrain mechanics modeling for load simulations, tire model development, parameters identification, and sensitivity analyses, tire test development, road profile characterization, effective road profile development, and interactions between tire, suspension/steering/brake systems, and different terrains, spindle loads/travel variation characteristics from deterministic and rough roads, terramechanics, tire noise, rolling resistance and correlation studies.
2016-12-05 ...
  • December 5, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This seminar provides an introduction to several critical aspects of heavy truck dynamics. The comprehensive presentation and discussion will begin with the mechanics and dynamics of heavy truck tires, followed by steering dynamics, and finally moves participants into suspension kinematics and dynamics. Starting at the ground and moving up, this seminar explores the important dynamic aspects of each subsystem and how each is related to the overall truck dynamics.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8028
Chao Yang, Nan Xu, Konghui Guo
This paper focuses on the modeling process of incorporating inflation pressure into the UniTire tire model for pure cornering. Via observing and manipulating the tire experimental data, the effects of inflation pressure on the tire cornering property are analyzed in detail, including the impacts on cornering stiffness, the peak friction coefficient, the curvature of transition region and the pneumatic trail. And the brief mechanism explanations are also given for some of those impacts. The results show that some effects of inflation pressure are similar to that of vertical load on the non-dimensional tire cornering property, and also have strong interactive effects between the two operating conditions. Therefore, in order to obtain concise expressions, the inflation pressure is incorporated into the UniTire tire model by analogy with the expressions for vertical load, and the interactive effects are also taken into account.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8037
Nan Xu, Konghui Guo, Yiyang Yang
The tire mechanics characteristics are essential for analysis and control of vehicle dynamics. Basically, the effects of sideslip, longitudinal slip, camber angle and vertical load are able to be represented accurately by current existing tire models. However, the research of velocity effects for tire forces and moments are still insufficient. Some experiments have demonstrated that the tire properties actually vary with the traveling velocity especially when the force and moment are nearly saturated. This paper develops an enhanced brush tire model and the UniTire semi-physical model for tire forces and moments under different traveling velocities for raising need of advanced tire model. The primary effects of velocity on tire performances are the rubber friction distribution characteristics at the tire-road interface.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8027
Stefan Steidel, Thomas Halfmann, Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein
Rolling resistance and tread wear of tires do particularly influence the maintenance costs of commercial vehicles. Although the tire labeling is established in Europe, it is meanwhile well-known that, due to the respective test procedures, these labels do not hold in realistic application scenarios in the field. This circumstance arises from the development phase of tires, where the respective performance properties are mainly evaluated in tire/wheel standalone scenarios in which the wide range of usage variability of commercial vehicles cannot be considered adequately. Within this article we address a method to predict indicators for rolling resistance and tread wear of tires in realistic application scenarios considering application-based factors of influence like specific customers, operation circumstances, regional dependencies, fleet specific characteristics etc. Moreover, the prescribed methodology may also be transferred to the prediction of fuel consumption and emission.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8039
Rui He, Emilio Jimenez, Dzmitry Savitski, Corina Sandu, Valentin Ivanov
Tire modeling plays an important role in the development of an Active Vehicle Safety System. As part of a larger project that aims at developing an integrated chassis control system, this study investigates the performance of a 19” all-season tire on ice for a sport utility vehicle . A design of experiment has been formulated to quantify the effect of operational parameters, specifically: wheel slip, normal load, and inflation pressure on the tire tractive performance. The experimental work was conducted on the Terramechanics Rig in the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory at Virginia Tech. The tire performance data collected has then been used to parameterize a Dugoff Tire Model. Compared to existing solutions, this model is attractive in terms of its simplicity, low number of parameters and easy implementation for real-time applications. The curves correlating tire forces and slip ratio were identified by applying zero-phase filtering techniques to the raw test data.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8029
Chrysostomos-Alexandros Bekakos, George Papazafeiropoulos, Dan J. O'Boy, Jan Prins, George Mavros
Significant research has been made regarding the interaction of off-road vehicles with deformable terrains, such as snow and sand. The driving response of the tire during travelling on off-road surfaces is crucial for the driving behavior of off-road vehicles. The majority of existing models developed so far are mainly based on empirical or semi-empirical relationships, the pressure-sinkage equation developed by Bekker being the most known. The latter relationship is developed based on certain assumptions, such as invariant soil parameters and a uniform pressure distribution along the width of the tire. These assumptions entail weaknesses in the formulation of the model, which in most cases lead to inadequate validation. In this study, an analytical model of a tire interacting with various types of soils has been developed.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1827
Giorgio Bartolozzi, Marco Danti, Andrea Camia, Davide Vige
Abstract The time to market in the automotive industry is constantly decreasing pushing the carmaker companies to increase the efforts in numerical simulations and to decrease the number of prototypes. In the NVH field, this time constraint reflects in moving the well-established finite element simulations towards the so called “full-vehicle simulations”. Specifically, the CAE techniques should be able to predict the complete behavior of the vehicles in mission conditions, so to reproduce some usual tests, such as the “coast down” test on different roads. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology to improve rolling noise simulations exploiting an integrated full-vehicle approach. An accurate modeling of all the subsystems is needed, with particular attention to the wheels and the suspension systems. Therefore, the paper firstly covers the modeling approach used to obtain the FE models of tires and suspension system.
2016-05-18
WIP Standard
J1204
This SAE Recommended Practice provides uniform procedures and minimum performance requirements for fatigue testing ferrous and aluminum wheels intended for normal highway use on travel, camping, and boat and light utility trailers drawn by passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles. (See Figures 1 and 2.) For procedures and minimum performance requirements for wheels used on trucks, see SAE J267, and for wheels used on passenger cars, see SAE J328. For the application of passenger car and light ruck wheels [inset less than 0.10 m (0.33 ft)] to this trailer service, use this procedure. For the application of heavier truck wheels [inset 0.10 m (0.33 ft) or mre] use SAE J267. Mobile home service is outside the scope of this document. There are two basic test procedures described, a cornering fatigue test and radial fatigue test. The cornering test is directed at the wheel disc; whereas the radial test also examines the rim and attachment portion of the wheel.
2016-05-13
Standard
J1982_201605
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform engineering nomenclature for the most common wheel constructions, and their components used on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles. These wheel constructions are welded “Disc Wheels”, “Cast Wheels” and “Forged Wheels”. This nomenclature and the accompanying drawings are intended to define fundamental wheel terms rather than to provide a comprehensive tabulation of all wheel design types.
2016-05-13
WIP Standard
J1102M
This SAE Standard covers the chemical, metallurgical, and mechanical requirements for two types of passenger car and truck wheel bolts, as follows: a. Nonserrated shank bolts which are heat treated b. Serrated shank bolts which are case hardened
2016-05-13
WIP Standard
J1102
This SAE Standard covers the chemical, metallurgical and mechanical requirements for two types of passenger car and truck wheel bolts, as follows: (a) Nonserrated shank bolts which are heat treated and (b) Serrated shank bolts which are case hardened.
2016-04-14
Event
Focusing on tire and terrain mechanics modeling for load simulations, tire model development, parameters identification, and sensitivity analyses, tire test development, road profile characterization, effective road profile development, and interactions between tire, suspension/steering/brake systems, and different terrains, spindle loads/travel variation characteristics from deterministic and rough roads, terramechanics, tire noise, rolling resistance and correlation studies.
2016-04-12
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2016-04-12
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2016-04-07
Magazine
Defying the disruptors and driving innovation Four top engineering executives discuss how their "traditional" companies are finding new technology opportunities and business growth amid the start-ups-and are even doing some disrupting themselves. Preparing for a 48-volt revival The quest to improve fuel economy is not waning, nor is the desire to achieve higher mpg through the use of just the right lightweight material for the right vehicle application. Additive manufacturing enhances GTDI pistons Selective Laser Melting may help manufacture future gasoline-engine pistons with enhanced heat-transfer properties and reduced weight.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1667
Long Chen, Shuwei Zhang, Mingyuan Bian, Yugong Luo, Keqiang Li
Abstract As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1565
Joydeep Banerjee, John McPhee
Abstract Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1480
Jakub Zebala, Wojciech Wach, Piotr Ciępka, Robert Janczur
Abstract This article presents the results of an analysis of the yaw marks left by a car with normal pressure in all tires and then normal pressure in three tires and zero in one rear tire. The analysis is a continuation of research on influence of reduced tire pressure on car lateral dynamics in a passing maneuver, discussed in the SAE paper No. 2014-01-0466. Preliminary analysis of yaw marks has shown, that a wheel with zero pressure deposits a yaw mark whose geometry differs from the yaw mark made by a wheel with normal pressure based on which we could calculate: critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. The aim of the presented research was to analyze the yaw marks left by car with zero pressure in one rear wheel in order to check the possibility of determining the vehicle critical speed, slip angle and longitudinal wheel slip. It was reached by performing bench and road tests during which the vehicle motion parameters were recorded using GPS Data Logging System.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1308
Kristian Lee Lardner, Moustafa El-Gindy, Fredrik Oijer, Inge Johansson, David Philipps
Abstract The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of tire operating conditions, such as the tire inflation pressure, speed, and load on the change of the first mode of vibration. A wide base FEA tire (445/50R22.5) is virtually tested on a 2.5m diameter circular drum with a 10mm cleat using PAM-Crash code. The varying parameters are altered separately and are as follows: inflation pressure, varying from 50 psi to 165 psi, rotational speed, changing from 20 km/h to 100 km/h, and the applied load will fluctuate from 1,500 lbs. to 9000 lbs. Through a comparison of previous literature, the PAM-Crash FFT algorithmic results have been validated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1652
Jungmin Na, Gibin Gil
Abstract This paper presents a new method to find the tire cornering characteristics that satisfy the required handling performance of a vehicle in the early tire development process. The tire cornering characteristics should be considered in the sense of not only absolute levels but also balance between front and rear tires in order to satisfy handling performance of a vehicle. As a result, it is difficult to find the appropriate tire characteristics when trial-and-error approach is used. In this study, the virtual optimization technique is applied to find the required tire cornering characteristics in more efficient way. The optimization framework consists of a vehicle dynamic simulation tool to predict the handling performance of a vehicle and an optimization tool to find the optimal solution. The objective function and the constraints are defined in terms of vehicle handling objective parameters associated with the subjective assessment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0460
Salem A. Haggag, Abraham Mansouri
Abstract The control of automotive braking systems performance and wheel slip is a challenging problem due to the nonlinear of the braking process, vehicle body dynamics during braking and the tire-road interaction. When the wheel slip is not between the optimal limits during braking, the desired tire-friction force cannot be achieved, which influences the braking distance, the loss in steerability and maneuverability of the vehicle. A simple and at the same time realistic vehicle longitudinal braking model is essential for such challenging problem. In this paper, a new longitudinal rolling/braking lumped-vehicle model that takes vehicle aerodynamic forces in consideration is presented. The proposed model takes the rolling resistance force, the braking force and the aerodynamic lift and drag forces in consideration and investigates their impact on the vehicle longitudinal dynamics especially vehicle braking distance and time.
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