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2017-09-29 ...
  • September 29, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Orlando, Florida
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
One of the most important safety critical components on cars, trucks, and aircraft is the pneumatic tire. Vehicle tires primarily control stopping distances on wet and dry roads or runways and strongly influence over-steer/under-steer behavior in handling maneuvers of cars and trucks. The inflated tire-wheel assembly also acts as a pressure vessel that releases a large amount of energy when catastrophically deflated. The tire can also serve as a fulcrum, both directly and indirectly, in contributing to vehicle rollover. This seminar covers these facets of tire safety phenomena.
2017-09-28 ...
  • September 28, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Orlando, Florida
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The principal functions of the pneumatic tire are to generate driving, braking, and cornering forces while safely carrying the vehicle load and providing adequate levels of ride comfort. This seminar explains how tire forces and moments are generated under different operating and service conditions and, in turn, demonstrates how these forces and moments influence various vehicle responses such as braking, handling, ride, and high-speed performance. The content focuses on the fundamentals of tire behavior in automobiles, trucks, and farm tractors, but also includes experimental and empirical results, when necessary.
2017-04-25 ...
  • April 25-26, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This course provides a detailed description of tire failure modes, their potential causes, identification, and the sometimes subtle nuances that go along with determination of tire failure. In addition, proper inspection techniques of tires will be discussed and samples will be available to reinforce the concepts learned. The book, Tire Forensic Investigation, authored by the instructor, is included with the course materials. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 13 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2017-04-24 ...
  • April 24, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This course provides an introduction to basic tire mechanics, including materials, sidewall stampings, pressure, tread patterns, tire inspection and basic tire failure identification of passenger and light truck tires. Practical in nature and supplemented with samples and hands-on activities, the course will provide you with information that you can use immediately on-the-job and apply to your own vehicle. It serves as a good primer for the in-depth SAE Tire Forensic Analysis course. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 7 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2017-04-05
Event
Characterizing the forces and moments that tires apply to vehicles has been an important activity in automotive engineering since it began. These forces were the reason behind both inventions of the pneumatic tire.
2017-04-05
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2017-04-05
Event
The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum to bring together researchers do discuss and disseminate the research on tire and wheel technology. Examples of topics to this symposium include (but are not limited to) nonlinear behavior of tires and wheels, static/dynamic stress analysis, nonlinear material modeling, contact stress, impact, noise, vibration, traction, hydroplaning, effect of tires on vehicle performance, rolling resistance, and durability.
2017-04-04
Event
Focusing on tire and terrain mechanics modeling for load simulations, tire model development, parameters identification, and sensitivity analyses, tire test development, road profile characterization, effective road profile development, and interactions between tire, suspension/steering/brake systems, and different terrains, spindle loads/travel variation characteristics from deterministic and rough roads, terramechanics, tire noise, rolling resistance and correlation studies.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0413
Mustafa Ali Arat, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
Most ground vehicles related accidents occur when the friction demand to perform a maneuver with a certain vehicle and tires exceeds the coefficient of friction of the pavement surface. As generally known, the forces and moments acting on the vehicle body are mainly generated by tire forces which highly depend on this surface friction coefficient. The common characteristics of tire forces on any surface include a linear region where the forces vary linearly with respect to the relative slip values; and a nonlinear region where the forces saturate and may even start decreasing. The experience of most of the daily drivers on the roads is limited within this linear region where the dynamic behavior of the vehicle remains proportional to the driver’s inputs. Therefore, an unexpected change in tire or surface characteristics (due to a change in surface friction, large driver inputs, etc.) may easily cause the driver to panic and/or to lose his/her ability to maintain a stable vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1505
Andreas Hackl, Wolfgang Hirschberg, Cornelia Lex, Georg Rill
With increasing level of complexity and automation in the area of automotive engineering, the simulation of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (DAS) leads to increasing accuracy demands in the description of tyre contact forces. This includes the consideration of dynamic effects, such as the delayed reaction in longitudinal and lateral tyre forces to dynamic changes of slip in the tyre road contact patch. Often, this behaviour is characterized by a first-order differential equation which describes the deflection of particles in the tire’s tread by considering a spring and a damper element in parallel, also known as Kelvin-Voigt model. Based on previous investigations the proposed article deals with the experimental validation of the first-order Kelvin-Voigt model based on measurement data from an industrial flat track test bench. First investigations showed that for selected operational points, these simple models show good compliance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1427
Daniel Koch, Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost
Tire disablement events can cause a drag force that slows a vehicle’s speed. In this study, the magnitude of the deceleration was measured in 29 high speed tread separation and air loss tests. The tires tested were circumferentially cut to create partial and full tread separations, or prepared to lose air rapidly. The deceleration rates were corrected for the slope of the road, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance of each vehicle tested. These deceleration rates can assist in reconstructing the speed of a vehicle involved in an accident following a tire disablement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0414
Bin Li, Xiaobo Yang, James Yang, Yunqing Zhang, Zeyu Ma
In this paper, a detailed 3D tire model is first proposed which includes a rigid rim with thickness, different layers of discretized belt points and a number of tread blocks attached on the area formatted by the neighboring belt points. The parameters of the proposed 3D tire model can be divided into two parts: the stiffness and damping values which only involve the in-plane motion and the stiffness and damping values which involve the out-of-plane motion, i.e. the lateral direction. In this paper, the relations between the in-plane parameters of the 3D tire model and the 2D tire model are given. Based on this relation, it is shown that the 3D tire model can generate exactly the same prediction results as the 2D tire model for tire straight line driving dynamics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0436
Tianjun Zhu, Bin Li
A new extending planar model for multi-axles articulated vehicle with nonlinear tire model is presented. This nonlinear multi-axles articulated vehicle model is specifically intended for improving the model performance in operating regimes where tire lateral force is near the point of saturation, and it has the potential to be applied to extend the specific axles model to any representative configuration of articulated vehicles model. At the same time, the extending nonlinear vehicle model can reduce the model's sensitivity to the tire cornering coefficients. Firstly A nonlinear tire model is used in conjunction with the 6-axle planar articulated vehicle model to extend the ranges of the original linear model into the nonlinear regimes of operation. Secondly the performance analysis of proposed nonlinear vehicle model is verified through the double lane change maneuver on different road adhesion coefficient using Trucksim software.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1503
Jared Johan Engelbrecht, Tony Russell Martin, Piyush M. Gulve, Nagarjun Chandrashekar, Amol Dwivedi, Peter Thomas Tkacik, Zachary Merrill
Most commercial heavy-duty truck trailers are equipped with either a two sensor, one modulator (2S1M) or four sensor, two modulator (4S2M) anti-lock braking system (ABS). Previous research has been performed comparing the performance of different ABS modules, in areas such as longitudinal and lateral stability, and stopping distance. This study focuses on relating ABS module type, and wheel speed sensor placement to trailer wheel lock-up and subsequent impact to tire wear for tandem axle trailers with the nationally common Hendrickson air-ride suspension. Prior to tire wear inspection, functionality of the ABS system was tested electronically using a scan tool communicating with the SAE J560 plug access port on the trailer. Observations were documented on trailers using the 2S1M system with the wheel speed sensor placed on either the front or rear axle of a tandem pair.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1509
L. Daniel Metz
We examine some characteristics, physical properties and idealized delamination and rupture failure modes of pneumatic tires. After measurement of some typical tire properties, calculations regarding stresses resulting from various tire failure and rupture scenarios are developed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1506
Johannes Wiessalla, Yiqin Mao, Frank Esser
Stability control systems like the ESC (Electronic Stability Control) are triggered when the vehicle extends the thresholds controllable by an average driver. This happens more probable on slippery surfaces, e.g. snow, ice and wet roads. Testing of stability systems on dry asphalt can be done almost any time of the year. Testing on slippery surfaces however is more restricted by weather and proving grounds. Another drawback in testing is the reproducibility of the measurements, since the surface condition changes during the tests and the vehicle behaviour gets more sensitive on low surface. Therefore, simulation enables a good pre-assessment of the stability systems independent from testing conditions. Essential for this is a good knowledge about the contact between road and surface, meaning a good tyre model and a reasonable set of tyre model parameters. Getting these parameters for snow and ice was described in two papers of the authors published before.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1502
Madeline Harper, Janice Tardiff, Daniel Haakenson, Maria Joandrea, Matthew Knych
Tire manufacturers have long grappled with the challenge of balancing the conflicting tire attributes of traction, rolling resistance, and treadwear. Improvements to one of these “magic triangle” attributes often comes at the expense of the other attributes. Recent regulations have further increased the pressure on manufacturers to produce optimized tires with minimal performance compromises. In order to meet this challenge, the tire industry is looking to new material systems beyond the traditional tire tread components. Polymeric materials beyond the base elastomers and processing oils used in tread provide opportunities to modify the physical and viscoelastic properties of tread. In this study, various polymeric materials were evaluated as additives in a model tire tread formulation. Hydrocarbon resin, high styrene resin, and thermoplastic styrene elastomers were added to the model formulation at various loading levels and through various addition strategies.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1507
Prashanta Gautam, Yousof Azizi, Abhilash Chandy
The tire noise is caused due to the complex interactions between the rotating tire and the road surface at the tire/road interface. It is usually caused due to a combination of individually complex noise generation mechanisms, which can be either structural or air related. The influence of each of these noise generation mechanisms may vary, depending on various conditions such as tire design, road surface and operating conditions. Due to the many variables that affect the many noise generation mechanisms in tires, it is usually a very complex task to isolate and categorize those that are present in the overall tire/road noise spectrum. Various approaches are used to categorize noise generation mechanisms in tires. In this paper, a statistical model is used, under the assumption that the tire noise acoustic pressure at a specific frequency band is related to the vehicle speed, in order to study tire noise at different speeds.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1558
Jose Velazquez Alcantar, Francis Assadian, Ming Kuang
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) offer improved fuel efficiency compared to their conventional counterparts at the expense of adding complexity and at times, reduced total power. As a result, HEV generally lack the dynamic performance that customers enjoy. To address this issue, the paper presents a HEV with eAWD capabilities via the use of a torque vectoring electric rear axle drive (TVeRAD) unit to power the rear axle. The addition of TVeRAD to a front wheel drive HEV improves the total power output. To further improve the handling characteristics of the vehicle, the TVeRAD unit allows for wheel torque vectoring at the rear axle. The proposed TVeRAD design uses a main traction motor to provide traction force to the wheels and a small torque vectoring motor which can distribute torque from one side to the other depending on the direction of the torque vectoring motor torque. Bond graphs are used to develop a dynamic model of the proposed drivetrain architecture.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1504
Peter Tkacik, Zachary Carpenter, Aaron Gholston, Benjamin James Cobb, Sam Kennedy, Ethan Blankenship, Mesbah Uddin, Surya Phani Krishna Nukala
Wind tunnel aerodynamic testing involving rolling road tire conditions can be expensive and complex to set up. Low cost rolling road testing can be implemented in a 0.3m2 Eiffel wind tunnel by modifying a horizontal belt sander to function as a moving road. This sander is equipped with steel supports to hold a steel plate against the bottom of the wind tunnel to stabilize the entire test section. These supports are bolted directly into the cast iron sander frame to ensure minimal vibrational losses or errors during testing. The wind tunnel design at the beginning of the project was encased in a wooden box which was removed to allow easier access to the test section for installation of the rolling road assembly. The tunnel was also modified to allow observers to view the testing process from various angles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1551
Charlie Lew, Nath Gopalaswamy, Richard Shock, Bradley Duncan, James Hoch
Accurate, efficient, and insightful computational simulations for aerodynamics are now a fundamental requirement for the digital vehicle development process. Using detailed aerodynamics simulations of the full vehicle geometry including accurate engine bay, underbody components, suspension, brakes, and wheels, every aspect of aerodynamic design can be explored. One area that is particularly challenging for simulation methods is the rotation of the tire treads and wheels due to their close proximity and often intersection with the ground plane. Treaded tires have unique aerodynamic characteristics due to the small-scale separations and pressure gradients created by the passage of tread features past the approaching airstream. The tread can significantly affect the flow into the wheel and brake regions, affect the downstream size and direction of the wheel wake, and in turn affect the aerodynamic drag of the entire vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgement about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) of individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic features and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it needs to be changed or rotated. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainty such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear. The estimated ERR are further processed to compute the unloaded tire radius (UTR).
CURRENT
2017-02-13
Standard
J2611_201702
This SAE information report covers the basic guidelines concerning off-road tire conditions that warrant replacement, removal, or repair. This material can assist the tire user in establishing specific written procedures for each job site.
2017-01-31
WIP Standard
AIR6417
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information related to experience with carbon brake quality-assurance rejected takeoff tests, and considerations regarding test setup, test conditions, test frequency and cost considerations.
CURRENT
2017-01-12
Standard
ARP5429A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to fatigue testing of landing gear and landing gear components.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0342
Apoorva Radhakrishnan, Hem Rampal, Krishna Kumar Ramarathnam
Abstract Vehicle dynamic simulations demand tire models, which are computationally efficient and capable of reliably predicting the dynamics of the tire. Such simple steady state and transient reduced order models are also required by tire designers to make preliminary predictions concerning behavior and judge quantitatively the relative importance of each of the subcomponents. In the realm of three dimensional multi-body dynamics, most models used are semi-empirical, where the tire is characterized by a set of equations. While the highest hierarchy in the modeling regime is a full three dimensional finite element model, the ensuing deformable multi-body dynamics is not economical for simulation. In this paper we offer an exact methodology to extract tire physical properties in order to develop a reduced order model equivalent to a complete Finite Element tire.
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