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2015-05-04 ...
  • May 4-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 3-4, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engineers are taught to create designs that meet customer specifications. When creating these designs, the focus is usually on the nominal values rather than variation. Robustness refers to creating designs that are insensitive to variability in the inputs. Much of the literature on robustness is dedicated to experimental techniques, particularly Taguchi techniques, which advocate using experiments with replications to estimate variation. This course presents mathematical formulas based on derivatives to determine system variation based on input variation and knowledge of the engineering function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0608
Gang Tang, Hengjia Zhu, Yunqing Zhang, Ying Sun
The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the pneumatic system including the air spring, the leveling valve and the pipe is presented. The frequency dependency of the air spring’s stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiments and the simulation. The co-simulation method using ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the pneumatic system into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1729
Chenle Sun, Zhe Wang, Zhaolei Yin, Tong Zhang
The linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system is a generating unit with high power density, high efficiency and low emission for the range-extended electric vehicle, which directly transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into the electric energy. The integrated system starts with the linear generator, which shows the advantages of speed and efficiency, as well as the core technology for emission reduction during the starting process and the prerequisite to guarantee the steady operation of the system. This paper focuses on the starting process of the linear internal combustion engine-linear generator integrated system. Pursuant to the starting requirements of the linear internal combustion engine, the starting process that adopts the linear generator as a drive motor is analysed, obtaining the fewest driving cycle and the energy pipeline.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1109
Yulong Lei, Ke Liu, Yao Fu, Ge Lin, Bin Song
This investigation presents a methodology to develop and optimize shift process control strategy to improve shift quality as perceived by drivers during power-on upshift events for Dual Cultch Transmission (DCT) vehicles. As part of the first study, the main factors affecting shift quality during shifting process under typical working conditions are analyzed. And taking the power-on upshift as example, dynamic model of DCT shifting process is build. An Integrated control strategy is proposed for power on upshift, which during torque phase slipping revolving speed controller is adapted to harmonically control two clutches power switching process, and during Inertial phase engine torque is regulated to synchronize with target gear while holding the oncoming clutch pressure. Oncoming oil pressure gradient in torque phase and engine torque reducing target quantity in inertial phase are chosen as controlled quantity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Bushing model development is always necessary for dynamic simulation regarding vehicle durability, as its accuracy will directly affect the quality of the result. By considering nonlinearity, asymmetry, and hysteresis, this paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, providing users fast and stable fitting and application process in the time domain. A total number of 9 parameters make ABM relatively straight-forward and less redundant compared with some existing bushing models. The additional capability with proper transfer function makes ABM possible to reflect the frequency dependency of some special-made bushings, such as hydraulic engine mounts. Comparisons between tested and simulated result show that ABM is capable of reproducing accurate force out of a given bushing, under some common situation faced in durability simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0620
Manoj Mahala, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Idealized mathematical models, also known as lumped parameter models (LPMs), are widely used in analyzing vehicles for ride comfort and driving attributes. However, the limitations of some of these LPMs are sometimes not apparent and a rigorous comparative study of common LPMs is necessary in ascertaining their suitability for various dynamic situations. In the present study, the mathematical descriptions of three common LPMs, viz. quarter, half and full car models, are systematically presented and solved for the appropriate response parameters such as body acceleration, body displacement, and, pitch and roll angles using representative passive suspension system properties. By carrying out a comparison of the three stated LPMs for hump-type road profiles, important quantitative insights, not previously reported in the literature, are generated into their behaviors so that their applications can be judicious and efficient.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1182
Mehrdad Mastali Majdabadi Kohneh, Ehsan Samadani, Siamak Farhad, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
The lithium-ion batteries generate significant amount of heat during the high discharge rates which can lessen the battery life and even cause some safety issues like battery explosion. Therefore, the batteries have to satisfy performance, safety, and long-term durability requirements of the vehicle energy storage systems. In order to achieve this goal, thermal management of the battery pack is necessary to prevent overheating and uneven heating across the entire pack during the charging and discharging. Mathematical modeling of the batteries is an efficient way to study the thermal behavior of batteries in different working situations. However, because of the complicated nature of the electrochemical models, thermal models mostly exclude the electrochemical details of the batteries. As a result, simple relations for the heat generation of the batteries have been considered which are mainly based on the experimental data or Ohmic heating.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0190
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Ibrahim El-Faramawy, Mohamed Elmawazini
Estimating the real-time (RT) behavior of software architecture in embedded system is very difficult and critical. Most of the current approaches rely on engineering judgment or actual measurements performed during integration testing. Both approaches are not error proof and can yield to RT constraints violations discovered during simulation of RT architectural design or during product validation. Impact on project could even be a CPU change. In this work, OS process execution time (ET) is used as the basic element of RT architectural design. First, OS process ET is predicted using machine learning (ML) algorithms, based on previous SW releases. Different types of features (e.g. number of static architecture requirements, hardware factor, seniority index), are proposed as inputs (feature vectors) to multiple ML classifiers in order to predict processes ET. Multiple ML techniques (e.g.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1629
Himadri Bushan Das, Simos A Evangelou, Samraj Jabez Dhinagar
The objective of this paper is to estimate characteristics parameters of two wheeler powertrain with simulated vehicle model. The evaluation is applied to define required characteristics for future motor integrated powertrain. The main parameters for the characteristics matrix are Fuel consumption, Exhaust gas emission and Drivability. In the 1st phase of work, a mathematical model for the complete powertrain is developed using suitable modelling approach for different sub-modules of the complete system. The objectives of the model is to simulate dynamic power-flow from the engine to wheel, simulate exhaust gas emission and simulate drivability of the vehicle .The powertrain model consists of a carburetted spark ignition (S.I) engine and gear transmission system. The S. I engine model is capable of simulating dynamic torque output of engine as well as the exhaust gas emission. The model is experimentally validated with a production ready engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1412
Xuan Zhou, Walter Niewoehner
The presentation and paper will explain a new algorithm-based approach to fasten future advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with simultaneously increasing the reliability. In the past the TTC (time to collision) was used to calculate and forecast traffic situations leading to a collision with an obstacle moving in front of the own vehicle in the same direction or coming towards it. Situations with the trajectories of the involved parties not being in-line (e.g. crossing, lane changing manoeuvres), parties changing the direction of movement, or parties changing the speed are more complex to calculate. The new method developed bases on an algorithm using the data from the area under sensor surveillance (e.g. by radar) to calculate a so-called collision tube. The collision tube describes the relative trajectories of the own vehicle and those of other traffic participants or obstacles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1146
Matthew Barr, Krishnaswamy Srinivasan
In this paper, a new algorithm for the off-line estimation of wet clutch friction parameters is proposed for automotive transmissions, motivated by the usefulness of such an algorithm for diagnosing the condition of the clutch and transmission fluid in service. We assume that clutch pressure is measured, which is the case in dual clutch transmissions (DCT). The estimation algorithm uses measured rotational speeds and estimated accelerations at the input and output sides of a clutch to calculate clutch friction torque during a gear shift. Assuming for the purpose of estimation a static relationship between friction torque, clutch fluid film thickness, and clutch pressure, the viscous and contact components of clutch friction torque are estimated. From the contact friction torque, coefficient of friction data is generated. A Stribeck friction model is fit to the data, and parameters in the model are then calculated by applying linear least squares estimation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1119
Guangqiang Wu, Lijun Wang
The traditional automotive hydrodynamic torque converter (TC) is equipped with single-blade stator, at the suction side of which there is apparent boundary layer separation at stalling condition because of its large impending angle. Separation flow behind the suction side of stator blade will create large area of low-energy flow which blocks the effective flow passage area, produces more energy losses, and decreases impeller torque capacity and transmission efficiency. It is found be effective to separate the stator original single-blade into primary and secondary part, or use dual-blade one, which guide high-energy flow at the pressurized side of the primary blade to the suction side of the secondary blade and suppress the boundary layer separation effectively so that impeller torque capacity and torque ratio at low-speed ratio increase tremendously at the cost of little drop of maximum efficiency.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0152
Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Marta Kolasa, Pawel Skruch, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Mateusz Orlowski, Maciej Różewicz, Anna Ryszka, Dominik Sasin, Tomasz Talaska
Modern safety algorithms in automotive industry have to be fast enough to assure an appropriate safety level in systems that feature high dynamics. On the other hand, such algorithms more and more frequently must be realizable in hardware with limited computation resources. Usually there is a trade-off between those two aspects and thus both new system level and new hardware level solutions have to be pursued. One of the key blocks in any signal processing paths are filters used, for example, to remove the noise in order to enhance input data in following step processed by the safety algorithms. Looking from this point of view filters facilitate the work of such algorithms that potentially can be simplified in this way. During the design process of any filter, various trade-offs exist between such parameters as group delay that results from the filter length, steepness of the transient band, attenuation in the stopband, etc.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0155
Sami H. Karaki, Rafika Dinnawi, Rabih Jabr, Riad Chedid, Ferdinand Panik
This paper develops an optimal design methodology for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) based on ordinal optimization (OO) and dynamic programming; the optimal design aims to determine the appropriate sizes of the different units – hydrogen tank, fuel cell, battery, and motor – for the purpose of minimizing the investment and operational cost given some specification of the car range, the road type and its gradeability. The dynamic programming simulates the operation of the vehicle for a set of specified components’ sizes on given driving cycles and provides the total vehicle cost per year. The OO method offers an efficient approach for simulation optimization by focusing on ranking and selecting a finite set of good alternatives through two models: a simple model and an accurate model. The OO program uses the specified sizes of the components to sample the search space using the simple but fast model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0480
Santosh Tiwari, Don Jones, Simon Xu
Abstract Response Surface Models are often used as a surrogate for expensive black-box functions during optimization to reduce computational cost. Often, the CAE analysis models are highly nonlinear and multi-modal. A response surface approximation of such analysis as a result is highly multi-modal; i.e. it contains multiple local optima. A gradient-based optimizer working with such a response surface will often converge to the nearest local optimum. There does not exist any method to guarantee a global optima for non-convex multi-modal functions. For such problems, we propose an efficient algorithm to find as many distinct local optima as possible. The proposed method is specifically designed to work in large dimensions (about 100 ∼ 1000 design variables and similar number of constraints) and can identify most of the locally optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0479
Hongyi Xu, Ching-Hung Chuang, Ren-Jye Yang
One of the major challenges in multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is the long computational time required in evaluating the new designs’ performances. To shorten the cycle time of product design, a data mining-based strategy is developed to improve the efficiency of heuristic optimization algorithms. Based on the historical information of the optimization process, clustering and classification techniques are employed to identify and eliminate the low quality and repetitive designs before operating the time-consuming design evaluations. The proposed method improves design performances within the same computation budget. Two case studies, one mathematical benchmark problem and one vehicle side impact design problem, are conducted as demonstration.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0029
Dongjin Lee
Abstract Accuracy of clutch torque model which converts target torque to target stroke is essential to control the dry clutch system. Continuous Adaptation algorithm requires micro slip control during in-gear driving. Clutch judder during micro slip control can cause detrimental effect on the output of controller as slip speed is calculated by deviation of engine speed and clutch speed. Conventional approach to avoid clutch judder is using low pass filter to the input of controller which is slip speed. But this affect to the overall response time of slip controller. In this paper, signal processing algorithm is design and tested for the clutch speed(Input shaft speed). With low pass filter in clutch speed, clutch judder signal is decreased but overall time delay creates static error during acceleration. Several phase advance algorithm is designed to overcome the static error during acceleration without disadvantage of decreasing clutch judder signal.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0022
Rakesh Mulik, Sushil S Ramdasi
Abstract In the pursuit of design and development of efficient, reliable and durable system and components for modern engines, there is a need to understand complications involved in building mathematical models for simulation. Valve train and timing drive systems are having higher rankings for addressing these attributes. Hence, a new comprehensive multi body dynamics model is built and equations are solved by state-variable approach. Model developed is validated and in order to probe into details of Hydraulic Lash Adjuster (HLA) behavior and coupled analysis of timing chain drive systems for valve train system, simulation is carried out to freeze design options. Engine timing drives used in engines are one of the most critical systems. Timing chains are preferred widely in modern high speed engines as compared to timing belts and gear drives. In spite of advantages of chain drive systems, their complex dynamic behavior is not well researched.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0043
Rajesh Kashyap, Vamsidhar Sunkari, Prakash Verma
Abstract Regular service of the vehicle is to be done with high precision service equipment, to ensure the factory performance of the vehicle over the entire life of product usage. However, complex nature of the physical processes involved in the service of the vehicle subsystems makes it costly for optimizing the service equipment performance for entire range of operation. Air-conditioning service (ACS) equipment is one such product in the diagnostics domain which deals with compressible, transient and two phase flow in open loop systems. Development of control system for the service equipment to perform optimally over the entire operational range requires accurate mathematical model of the system under study. Application of mathematical model based approach requires calculation of geometrical details, environment information and fluid properties during the process for estimating the process behavior.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0082
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Vaibhav Aswar, Vipin Sharma
Abstract Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2861
Shahnawaz Ahmed Khan, Snehal Dhongde
Abstract A small single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine varying capacity from 100cc to 500cc generally used for two wheelers has a wide range of load conditions. Such variation in load on engine demands variation in Transmission ratio at different vehicle speeds for optimum performance, drivability and Economy. A scooter has continuously variable transmission called as CVT which is generally centrifugally controlled with respect to engine speed as against that of series of manual gears used in motor cycle. The work aims at creating a mathematical model for controlling variation in transmission ratio of CVT by converting the generally centrifugally controlled CVT by electronic control. The objective is to implement the mathematical model with a novel electronic controlled CVT in a two wheeler engine for the improvement in performance. The mathematical model done through geometric calculations and modeling is discussed in details.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2822
Achinta Varna, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Alexander Spiteri, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Yuri M. Wright
Simulations for a pressure-assisted multi-stream injector designed for urea-dosing in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas system have been carried out and compared to measurements taken in an optically accessible high-fidelity flow test rig. The experimental data comprises four different combinations of mass flow rate and temperature for the gas stream with unchanged injection parameters for the spray. First, a parametric study is carried out to determine the importance of various spray sub-models, including atomization, spray-wall interaction, buoyancy as well as droplet coalescence. Optimal parameters are determined using experimental data for one reference operating condition.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2814
Andrew Pedlow, Geoffrey McCullough, Alexandre Goguet, Ken Hansen
Abstract Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, and so mathematical models of aftertreatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions. Automotive catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2134
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida
Abstract The paper formulated and solved the problem of investigating the traction and power characteristics of air-screw propulsor for airships. The study is performed by constructing a mathematical model relating the steady-state values of the shaft power and traction on the axis of the screw with the velocity of rotation and the actual velocity of the aircraft. Proved design scheme selection of computer simulation of aero-and thermodynamic processes occurring during rotation of the airscrew. Describes plan developed under the experimental task, providing variation in the basic parameters of the airscrew, motion parameters and flight environment The results of computer modeling of the interaction of the airflow with the airscrew at various combinations of these parameters. Results are shown in tabular and graphical form and as a mathematical model of the studied airscrew.
2014-05-09
Journal Article
2014-01-9023
Francisco Soriano, Jesus Alvarez-Florez, Manuel Moreno-Eguilaz
This paper presents a novel methodology to develop and validate fuel consumption models of Refuse Collecting Vehicles (RCVs). The model development is based on the improvement of the classic approach. The validation methodology is based on recording vehicle drive cycles by the use of a low cost data acquisition system and post processing them by the use of GPS and map data. The corrected data are used to feed the mathematical energy models and the fuel consumption is estimated. In order to validate the proposed system, the fuel consumption estimated from these models is compared with real filling station refueling records. This comparison shows that these models are accurate to within 5%.
2014-05-05
Journal Article
2014-01-9046
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa
Feed-forward low-throughput models have been developed to predict MFB50 and to control SOI in order to achieve a specific MFB50 target for diesel engines. The models have been assessed on a GMPT-E Euro 5 diesel engine, installed at the dynamic test bench at ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino) and applied to both steady state and transient engine operating conditions. MFB50 indicates the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned, and is currently used extensively in control algorithms to optimize combustion phasing in diesel engines in real-time. MFB50 is generally used in closed-loop combustion control applications, where it is calculated by the engine control unit, cycle-by-cycle and cylinder by-cylinder, on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure trace, and is adjusted in order to reduce the fuel consumption, combustion noise and engine-out emissions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1781
Siddhesh Sakhalkar, Parveen Dhillon, Soovadeep Bakshi, Pranay Kumar, Puneet Singh Arora
Abstract This paper presents a mathematical model of an electric driveline consisting of one battery pack, two independent Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) motors and motor-controllers and two fixed-ratio planetary gearboxes, all located inside the rear frame of the vehicle. The proposed analysis has been performed with the objective of: (i) Determination of acceleration run time for a straight patch of 75 meters; (ii) Determination of lap times and energy consumption for endurance track of 23 laps. A model of a PMDC motor and motor controller has been developed based on response analysis by conducting experiments on a jig setup. The motor controllers are compared for two control modes- Speed mode and Torque mode. A simplified race car model for longitudinal vehicle dynamics is derived from forces acting on the car including the effect of losses due to drag forces, rolling resistance, transmission inefficiency and inertial losses due to rotary elements.
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