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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3883
2016-10-26
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Separate sub-sessions cover zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing, boosting, and acoustics; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; numerical modeling of gas dynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2227
Nik Muhammad Hafiz, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Masahiro Shioji
Abstract Hydrogen fuel is a potential energy source for vehicles in the future. The emission of this fuel complies with the stringent policies issued by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Researchers have nominated the hydrogen compression ignition engine in an argon atmosphere as one of the ways to enhance power output and volumetric efficiency in the midst of pre-ignition and knock problems. Since this type of research is still in the initial stage, numerical studies have become the best method for researchers to obtain data on hydrogen fuel combustion in an argon-oxygen atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to validate the simulation results with the experimental data, investigate the combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuel in an argon-oxygen atmosphere, and to study the effects of the initial temperature and injection pressure on the combustion process. In this research, CONVERGE CFD software was used for the simulation process.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2231
Aras Mirfendreski, Andreas Schmid, Michael Grill, Michael Bargende
Abstract Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8024
Saurabh Gupta, Gopichand Vunnava
Abstract In search of higher productivity, farmers are taking more than two crops in a year. In this farming pattern they don’t have much time for field preparation due to which rear mounted plough have become longer and heavier, necessitating the use of additional front-end weights and assister rams on the hydraulic lift. As plough length increases, the evenness of working depth over the full length of the implement deteriorates. To complete the farm work in one or two passes by utilizing maximum tractor power in order to save the fuel as well as time. The usage of front hitch and front PTO system on tractor forms a gateway for farmers to control the traffic on farm fields which is responsible for the soil compaction and emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by reducing the number of passes in agricultural field operations.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8025
Jesse Paldan, Vladimir V. Vantsevich
Abstract This paper presents an analysis of coupled longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a 4×4 hybrid-electric off-road vehicle (HEV) with two passive driveline systems, including drivelines with (i) an interaxle open symmetrical differential in the transfer case and (ii) a locked transfer case, i.e., positive engagement of two axles. The axle differentials are open. As the study proved, lateral dynamics of the 4×4 HEV, characterized by the tire side forces, vehicle lateral acceleration, yaw rate and tire gripping factors can be impacted by the tire longitudinal forces, whose magnitudes and directions (positive-negative) strongly depend on the driveline characteristics. At the same time, the tire side forces impact the relation between the longitudinal forces and tire slippages.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8041
Richard A. Romano, George D. Park, Victor Paul, R. Wade Allen
Abstract Motion cueing algorithms can improve the perceived realism of a driving simulator, however, data on the effects on driver performance and simulator sickness remain scarce. Two novel motion cueing algorithms varying in concept and complexity were developed for a limited maneuvering workspace, hexapod/Stuart type motion platform. The RideCue algorithm uses a simple swing motion concept while OverTilt Track algorithm uses optimal pre-positioning to account for maneuver characteristics for coordinating tilt adjustments. An experiment was conducted on the US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) platform comparing the two novel motion cueing algorithms to a pre-existing algorithm and a no-motion condition.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8079
Zhiwei Zhang, Gangfeng Tan, Mengying Yang, Zhongjie Yang, Mengzuo Han
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device. With merits such as its high braking torque, smooth braking, low noise, long service life and small size, it is widely used on modern commercial vehicles. Transmission fluid of traditional hydraulic retarder is cooled by engine cooling system, which exhausts the heat directly and need additional energy consumption for the thermal management component. On account of the working characteristics of hydraulic retarder, this study designs a set of waste heat recovery system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Under the premise of ensuring stable performance of hydraulic retarder, waste heat energy in transmission fluid is recycled to supplement energy requirements for cooling system. First of all, a principle model, which is scaled down according to D300 retarder`s thermal power generation ration of 1:100, is established.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8071
Igor Gritsuk, Vladimir Volkov, Yurii Gutarevych, Vasyl Mateichyk, Valeriy Verbovskiy
Abstract The article discusses the use of the combined heating system with phase-transitional thermal accumulator. The peculiarity of the presented system is that it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, coolant and motor oil, and emissions of the internal combustion engine during its operation to accumulate the thermal energy. The results of experimental studies of the combined heating system are shown. A system and methods for pre-start and after-start heating of the vehicular engine in the investigated system are developed. The structure of the "combined heating” system to study the impact of its structural and adjustment parameters on the performance of thermal development of the vehicular engine is described. The use of the combined heating system within phase-transitional thermal accumulators is compared with the use of standard systems for a truck engine 8FS 9.2 / 8. It reduces the time of coolant and motor oil thermal development by 22.9-57.5% and 25-57% accordingly.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2046
Neno Novakovic
Abstract A Landing Gear Control and Actuation System (LGCAS) is one of the most complex aircraft systems. Due to the large landing gear masses and high performance requirements, aircraft hydraulic power with multiple hydraulic actuators and valves is used to provide system dynamic. LGCAS also requires a electrical source of energy for the electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic control unit. For many years, correct fault isolation in a complex kinematic system, such as an aircraft landing gear actuation system, has been a great challenge with limited success. The fault isolation design challenge rests on the fact that landing gear control and actuation system has many so called “passive” components, whose basic function cannot be continuously monitored without additional sensors, transducers, and designated health monitoring equipment.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2033
Rudolf Neydorf, Ivan Chernogorov, Victor Polyakh, Orkhan Yarakhmedov, Julia Goncharova, Anna Neydorf
Abstract Mathematical modeling of technical objects is most frequently connected with mathematical processing of experimental data. The obtained pointlike dependencies of output variables on input ones are often strongly nonlinear, piecewise, and sometimes discontinuous. Approximation of these dependencies using polynomial resolution and spline-functions is problematic and may cause low accuracy. A radically new solution to this problem was suggested in a number of previous works. The method is based on partitioning of experimental dependencies into patches, approximation of each patch by analytic functions, multiplicative cutting of fragments from each function along the patch border and additive gluing of the fragments into a single function -- namely the model of approximated dependence. The analytic properties of this approximating glued function appear to be the major distinguishing feature and advantage of the method.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2035
Rudolf Neydorf, Anna Neydorf
Abstract The main difficulties of the mathematical models vehicles creation are defined by strongly nonlinearity of dependences which connect various variables their states and conditions of the movement environment. Most it belongs to aircrafts as aerodynamic interactions are characterized by essential nonlinearity up to discontinuity of variables and their derivatives. Creation process of these models is complicated by high-dimensionality, characteristic for the mechanical movement laws. Experimental creation of the mathematical models (MM) of such dependences is carried out by various mathematical methods of approximation of data. Universal remedies of the solution of the formulated task don't exist. Each of it possesses both benefits, and considerable shortcomings. In this regard the possibilities of a method creation of high-precision analytical approximations of the strongly nonlinear dependences using the analytical functions have been investigated.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-2030
Jon Zumberge, Michael Boyd, Raul Ordonez
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to become highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits of those complex controls and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop plant models and determine the uncertainty of those models to predict performance and stability of the control algorithms. A process of model and control algorithm validation for a dc-dc boost converter circuit based on acceptance sampling is presented here. The validation process described in this paper is based on MIL-STD 3022 with emphasis on requirements settings and the testing process. The key contribution of this paper is the process for model and control algorithm validation, specifically a method for decomposing the problem into model and control algorithm validation stages.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1935
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Gangfeng Tan, Ming Chen, Bo Huang, Longjie Xiao
Abstract With the continuous increasing requirements of commercial vehicle weight and speed on highway transportation, conventional friction brake is difficult to meet the braking performance. To ensure the driving safety of the vehicle in the hilly region, the eddy current retarder (ECR) has been widely used due to its fast response, lower prices and convenient installation. ECR brakes the vehicle through the electromagnetic force generated by the current, and converted vehicle mechanical energy into heat through magnetic field. Air cooling structure is often used in the traditional ECR and cooling performance is limited, which causes low braking torque, thermal recession, and low reliability and so on. The water jacket has been equipped outside the eddy current region in this study, and the electric ECR is cooled through the water circulating in the circuit, which prolongs its working time.
2016-06-17
Journal Article
2016-01-9141
Vinod Saini, Sanchit Singh, Shivaram NV, Himanshu Jain
Abstract In this paper, an optimization method is proposed to improve the efficiency of a transmission equipped electric vehicle (EV) by optimizing gear shift strategy. The idea behind using a transmission for EV is to downsize the motor size and decrease overall energy consumption. The efficiency of an electric motor varies with its operating region (speed/torque) and this plays a crucial role in deciding overall energy consumption of EVs. A lot of work has been done to optimize gear shift strategy of internal combustion engines (ICE) based automatic transmission (AT), and automatic-manual transmissions (AMT), but for EVs this is still a new area. In case of EVs, we have an advantage of regeneration which makes it different from the ICE based vehicles. In order to maximize the efficiency, a heuristic search based algorithm - Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used.
2016-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9148
Saeed Asgari, Shailendra Kaushik
Abstract A linear parameter varying (LPV) reduced order model (ROM) is used to approximate the volume-averaged temperature of battery cells in one of the modules of the battery pack with varying mass flow rate of cooling fluid using uniform heat source as inputs. The ROM runs orders of magnitude faster than the original CFD model. To reduce the time it takes to generate training data, used in building LPV ROM, a divide-and-conquer approach is introduced. This is done by dividing the battery module into a series of mid-cell and end-cell units. A mid-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between two half -cells. A half-cell has half as much heat capacity as a full-cell. An end-cell unit is composed of a cooling channel sandwiched in between full-cell and a half-cell. A mass flow rate distribution look-up-table is generated from a set of steady-state simulations obtained by running the full CFD model at different inlet manifold mass flow rate samples.
2016-04-11
Journal Article
2016-01-9016
Mohammad Gerami Tehrani, Juuso Kelkka, Jussi Sopanen, Aki Mikkola, Kimmo Kerkkänen
Abstract The feasibility of improving the energy efficiency of Electric Vehicles (EV) by manipulating operation points by means of a variable transmission is investigated with an efficient mathematical model of power losses in all driveline components. Introduced model can be solved in real-time making it possible to embed it to a control scheme of EV. Empirical test results are employed to derive the efficiency of the power electronics and electric motor at operation points while the mechanical power losses are predicted by a comprehensive and generic formulation for efficiency analysis. The simulation model used comprises electrical component efficiency, drivetrain inertias, gearbox efficiency, regenerative braking, and gear ratio selection. Three different transmission types are studied in this work; a single reduction gear, a five-step gearbox and an Infinitely Variable Transmission.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0900
Sijia Zheng, Wen Fan
Abstract About 40% of the fuel energy in an internal combustion engine is lost as exhaust heat. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can recover the heat energy in the exhaust gas, improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle and reducing emissions. In this study, a method of setting up TEG model using real testing data is proposed; model of a TEG-based vehicle power system is built; and the potential of the TEGs to improve the fuel efficiency of conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is examined by integrating the TEG into the vehicle power bus as a second generator. Firstly, output power model of one thermoelectric module is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink according to testing data, which is convenient and convincing. Then the model of TEG system is built using Matlab/Simulink software, taking the temperature distribution of the heat exchanger into consideration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0960
Arifumi Matsumoto, Kenji Furui, Makoto Ogiso, Toru Kidokoro
Abstract Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are a promising technology for helping to lower NOx emissions from diesel engines. These systems also require on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to detect malfunctioning catalysts. Conventional OBD methodology for a SCR catalyst involves the measurement of NOx concentration downstream of the catalyst. However, considering future OBD regulations, erroneous diagnostics may occur due to variations in the actual environment. Therefore, to enhance OBD accuracy, a new methodology was examined that utilizes NH3 slip as a new diagnostic parameter in addition to NOx. NH3 slip increases as the NOx reduction performance degrades, because both phenomena are based on deterioration in the capability of the SCR catalyst to adsorb NH3. Furthermore, NH3 can be measured by existing NOx sensors because NH3 is oxidized to NO internally. To make use of NH3 slip, an estimation model was developed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1037
Lars Eriksson, Vaheed Nezhadali, Conny Andersson
Modelbased systems engineering is becoming an important tool when meeting the challenges of developing the complex future vehicles that fulfill the customers and legislators ever increasing demands for reduced pollutants and fuel consumption. To be able to work systematically and efficiently it is desirable to have a library of components that can be adjusted and adapted to each new situation. Turbocharged engines are complex and the compressor model serves as an in-depth example of how a library can be designed, incorporating the basic physics and allowing fine tuning as more information becomes available. A major part of the paper is the summary and compilation of a set of rules of thumb for compressor map extrapolation. The considerations discussed are extrapolation to surge, extrapolation to restriction region, and extrapolation out to choking.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1384
Mengshi Deng, Jian Lan
Abstract Glass lifter is a key part of automobile door system. Guide rail is the carrier of glass lifter, and it bears various load cases when glass lifer works. Mass, stiffness and natural frequencies are the factors that influence the performance of glass lifter. In order to design a lighter and reasonable glass lifter, topology optimization methods are studied in this paper. In a rope-wheel glass lifter, design domain is determined by the mechanical structure and working conditions. Firstly, the single target continuum structure topology optimization mathematic models of guide rail are built in this paper, and analysis of multi-stiffness topology optimization are carried out accordingly in which volume fraction is set as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. These models are based on SIMP (Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization) theory.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1309
Yingping Lv, Yongchang Du, Yujian Wang
Abstract In this paper, analysis methods for brake squeal including substructure modal composition analysis and substructure modal parameters sensitivity analysis are presented. These methods are based on a new closed-loop coupling disc brake model, where the coupled nodal pairs in each coupling interface are connected tightly. This assumption is different from other existing models in literatures, where the interface nodes are coupled through assumed springs. Based on this new model, two analysis methods are derived: Substructure modal composition analysis indicates the contribution of modes of each substructure to the noise mode; Substructure modal parameters sensitivity analysis indicates the sensitivity of the real part of system’s eigenvalue to component’s modal frequency and shape. Finally, the presented analysis methods are applied to analyse a high frequency squeal problem of a squealing disc brake.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1622
Miroslav Mokry
Abstract Lagally’s theorem is used to evaluate the increments to aerodynamic forces on automotive models, tested in solid-wall wind tunnels. The strengths of the model-representing singularities, pre-requisite for the application of the theory, are obtained from experimental wall pressure data, using an influence matrix method. The technique is demonstrated on the drag force acting on full-size and half-size truck models, measured in the same test section.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1557
Francesco Castellani, Nicola Bartolini, Lorenzo Scappaticci, Davide Astolfi, Matteo Becchetti
Abstract Shock absorber is one of the most relevant sub-systems of the suspension system for a wide range of vehicles. Although a high level of development and tuning has been reached, in order to ensure high safety standards in almost every situation, some dynamic phenomena affecting vehicle handling or NHV (Noise Vibration Harshness) can appear. The aim of present work is to improve a mathematical model using experimental data from a prototype of monotube shock absorber developed for research purposes. The model takes into account all the main features affecting the global performance of the device, such as non-linear behaviour and the presence of hysteresis loops. Actually, the most important parameters are analyzed, such as flow and orifice coefficients of the valves, coefficients of mechanical compliance of the chambers and oil compressibility, dry and viscous friction coefficients.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1546
Dongpil Lee, Bongchoon Jang, Kyongsu Yi, Sehyun Chang, Byungrim Lee
Abstract This paper describes a reference steering feel tracking algorithm for Electric-Power-Steering (EPS) system. Development of the EPS system with intended steering feel has been time-consuming procedure, because the feedforward map-based method has been applied to the conventional EPS system. However, in this study, a three-dimensional reference steering feel surface, which is determined from current vehicle states, is proposed. In order to track the proposed reference steering feel surface, sliding mode approach is applied to second-order steering dynamics model considering a coulomb friction model. An adaptive technique is utilized for robustness against uncertainties. In order to validate the proposed EPS control algorithm, hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) has been conducted with respect to a typical steering test. It is shown that the reference steering feel is realized well by the proposed EPS control algorithm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1544
Dexin Wang, Frank Esser
Abstract Evaluation of electric steering (EPAS) system performance using vehicle specific load conditions is important for steering system design validation and vehicle steering performance tuning. Using real-time vehicle dynamics mathematical models is one approach for generating steering loads in steering hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. However achieving a good correlation of simplified mathematical models with real vehicle dynamics is a challenge. Using rack force models from measured steering tie rod forces or from simulations using a high-fidelity vehicle dynamics model is an effective data-driven modelling method for testing EPAS systems under vehicle specific load conditions. Rack force models are identified from physical measurements or validated vehicle simulations of selected steering test maneuvers. The rack force models have been applied in steering system performance evaluation, benchmarking, and steering model validation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1197
Zhengbin Wu, Rongcheng Weng, Zhiqun Zhang, Juan Li
Abstract An equivalent circuit model for lithium-ion battery including capacitor and inductor with complex parameters is proposed. The imaginary part of the complex-valued capacitor expresses diffusion processes instead of constant phase element, which leads to a higher computational efficiency by removing the exponential variant calculation. The inductor with the complex parameter, the imaginary part accounting for the frequency-dependent magnetic hysteresis loss of battery current collectors and cables, can accurately regenerate the impedance characteristics at high frequencies with various linear slope angles to the real axis in a Nyquist plot. The fitted electrochemical impedance spectrum of a lithium iron phosphate/graphite battery with this proposed model is compared to the measured data. The maximum relative error of the impedance magnitude is 4.94% at the frequencies between 0.01 Hz and 10 kHz.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1212
Yupu Chen, Miaohua Huang
Abstract Lithium-ion battery plays a key role in electric vehicles, which is critical to the system availability. One of the most important aspects in battery managements systems(BMS) in electric vehicles is the stage of health(SOH) estimation. The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. The classical approach of current integration(coulomb counting) can't get the accurate values because of accumulative error. In order to provide timely maintenance and replacements of electric vehicles, several estimation approaches have been proposed to develop a reliable and accurate battery state of health estimation. A common drawback of previous algorithm is that the computation quantity is huge and not quite accurate, that is updated partially in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1116
Branimir Škugor, Joško Deur, Vladimir Ivanović
Abstract The paper deals with the design of shift scheduling maps based on dynamic programing (DP) optimization algorithm. The recorded data related to a delivery vehicle fleet are used, along with a model of delivery truck equipped with a 12-gear automated manual transmission, for an analysis and reconstruction of the truck-implemented shift scheduling patterns. The same map reconstruction procedure has been applied to a set of DP optimization-based operating points. The cost function of DP optimization is extended by realistic clutch energy losses dissipated during shift transients, in order to implicitly introduce hysteresis in the shift scheduling maps for improved drivability. The different reconstructed shift scheduling maps are incorporated within the truck model and validated by computer simulations for different driving cycles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1113
Thorsten Arndt, Alex Tarasow, Christian Bohn, Guido Wachsmuth, Roland Serway
Abstract Higher demands on comfort and efficiency require a continuous improvement of the shift process. During the launch and shift process the clutch control is used to get a smooth and efficient behavior. In this short time of acting the shifting behavior can be rated. Many control concepts use a clutch characteristic to calculate the actuator signal based on the clutch torque. Therefore, a high quality of this characteristic is necessary. Because of the dynamic process during clutch engagement the clutch characteristic needs further information to reach a high accuracy for the control algorithm. In this paper an existing clutch torque characteristic is extended to a characteristic map where the clutch torque becomes a function of the current actuator signal of the clutch and the clutch slip. The extension of the torque characteristic describes the slip based dependencies, e.g. the friction coefficient.
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