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2015-05-04 ...
  • May 4-5, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • December 3-4, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engineers are taught to create designs that meet customer specifications. When creating these designs, the focus is usually on the nominal values rather than variation. Robustness refers to creating designs that are insensitive to variability in the inputs. Much of the literature on robustness is dedicated to experimental techniques, particularly Taguchi techniques, which advocate using experiments with replications to estimate variation. This course presents mathematical formulas based on derivatives to determine system variation based on input variation and knowledge of the engineering function.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0608
Gang Tang, Hengjia Zhu, Yunqing Zhang, Ying Sun
The vehicle ride comfort behavior is closely associated with the vibration isolation system such as the primary suspension system, the engine mounting system, the cab suspension system and the seat suspension system. Air spring is widely used in the cab suspension system for its low vibration transmissibility, variable spring rate and inexpensive automatic leveling. The mathematical model of the pneumatic system including the air spring, the leveling valve and the pipe is presented. The frequency dependency of the air spring’s stiffness characteristic is highlighted. The air spring dynamic model is validated by comparing the results of the experiments and the simulation. The co-simulation method using ADAMS and AMESim is applied to integrate the pneumatic system into the cab multi-body dynamic model. The simulation and ride comfort test results under random excitation are compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0152
Rafal Tomasz Dlugosz, Michał Szulc, Marta Kolasa PhD, Pawel Skruch, Krzysztof Kogut, Paweł Markiewicz, Mateusz Orlowski, Maciej Różewicz, Anna Ryszka, Dominik Sasin, Tomasz Talaska
Modern safety algorithms in automotive industry have to be fast enough to assure an appropriate safety level in systems that feature high dynamics. On the other hand, such algorithms more and more frequently must be realizable in hardware with limited computation resources. Usually there is a trade-off between those two aspects and thus both new system level and new hardware level solutions have to be pursued. One of the key blocks in any signal processing paths are filters used, for example, to remove the noise in order to enhance input data in following step processed by the safety algorithms. Looking from this point of view filters facilitate the work of such algorithms that potentially can be simplified in this way. During the design process of any filter, various trade-offs exist between such parameters as group delay that results from the filter length, steepness of the transient band, attenuation in the stopband, etc.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1629
Himadri Bushan Das, Simos A Evangelou, Samraj Jabez Dhinagar
The objective of this paper is to estimate characteristics parameters of two wheeler powertrain with simulated vehicle model. The evaluation is applied to define required characteristics for future motor integrated powertrain. The main parameters for the characteristics matrix are Fuel consumption, Exhaust gas emission and Drivability. In the 1st phase of work, a mathematical model for the complete powertrain is developed using suitable modelling approach for different sub-modules of the complete system. The objectives of the model is to simulate dynamic power-flow from the engine to wheel, simulate exhaust gas emission and simulate drivability of the vehicle .The powertrain model consists of a carburetted spark ignition (S.I) engine and gear transmission system. The S. I engine model is capable of simulating dynamic torque output of engine as well as the exhaust gas emission. The model is experimentally validated with a production ready engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0155
Sami H. Karaki, Rafika Dinnawi, Rabih Jabr, Riad Chedid, Ferdinand Panik
This paper develops an optimal design methodology for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) based on ordinal optimization (OO) and dynamic programming; the optimal design aims to determine the appropriate sizes of the different units – hydrogen tank, fuel cell, battery, and motor – for the purpose of minimizing the investment and operational cost given some specification of the car range, the road type and its gradeability. The dynamic programming simulates the operation of the vehicle for a set of specified components’ sizes on given driving cycles and provides the total vehicle cost per year. The OO method offers an efficient approach for simulation optimization by focusing on ranking and selecting a finite set of good alternatives through two models: a simple model and an accurate model. The OO program uses the specified sizes of the components to sample the search space using the simple but fast model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0190
Mostafa Anwar Taie, Ibrahim El-Faramawy, Mohamed ELMAWAZINI
Estimating the real-time (RT) behavior of software architecture in embedded system is very difficult and critical. Most of the current approaches rely on engineering judgment or actual measurements performed during integration testing. Both approaches are not error proof and can yield to RT constraints violations discovered during simulation of RT architectural design or during product validation. Impact on project could even be a CPU change. In this work, OS process execution time (ET) is used as the basic element of RT architectural design. First, OS process ET is predicted using machine learning (ML) algorithms, based on previous SW releases. Different types of features (e.g. number of static architecture requirements, hardware factor, seniority index), are proposed as inputs (feature vectors) to multiple ML classifiers in order to predict processes ET. Multiple ML techniques (e.g.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Bushing model development is always necessary for dynamic simulation regarding vehicle durability, as its accuracy will directly affect the quality of the result. By considering nonlinearity, asymmetry, and hysteresis, this paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, providing users fast and stable fitting and application process in the time domain. A total number of 9 parameters make ABM relatively straight-forward and less redundant compared with some existing bushing models. The additional capability with proper transfer function makes ABM possible to reflect the frequency dependency of some special-made bushings, such as hydraulic engine mounts. Comparisons between tested and simulated result show that ABM is capable of reproducing accurate force out of a given bushing, under some common situation faced in durability simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1119
Guangqiang Wu, Lijun Wang
The traditional automotive hydrodynamic torque converter (TC) is equipped with single-blade stator, at the suction side of which there is apparent boundary layer separation at stalling condition because of its large impending angle. Separation flow behind the suction side of stator blade will create large area of low-energy flow which blocks the effective flow passage area, produces more energy losses, and decreases impeller torque capacity and transmission efficiency. It is found be effective to separate the stator original single-blade into primary and secondary part, or use dual-blade one, which guide high-energy flow at the pressurized side of the primary blade to the suction side of the secondary blade and suppress the boundary layer separation effectively so that impeller torque capacity and torque ratio at low-speed ratio increase tremendously at the cost of little drop of maximum efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0479
Hongyi Xu, Ching-Hung Chuang, Ren-Jye Yang
One of the major challenges in multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is the long computational time required in evaluating the new designs’ performances. To shorten the cycle time of product design, a data mining-based strategy is developed to improve the efficiency of heuristic optimization algorithms. Based on the historical information of the optimization process, clustering and classification techniques are employed to identify and eliminate the low quality and repetitive designs before operating the time-consuming design evaluations. The proposed method improves design performances within the same computation budget. Two case studies, one mathematical benchmark problem and one vehicle side impact design problem, are conducted as demonstration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0022
Rakesh Mulik, Sushil S Ramdasi
Abstract In the pursuit of design and development of efficient, reliable and durable system and components for modern engines, there is a need to understand complications involved in building mathematical models for simulation. Valve train and timing drive systems are having higher rankings for addressing these attributes. Hence, a new comprehensive multi body dynamics model is built and equations are solved by state-variable approach. Model developed is validated and in order to probe into details of Hydraulic Lash Adjuster (HLA) behavior and coupled analysis of timing chain drive systems for valve train system, simulation is carried out to freeze design options. Engine timing drives used in engines are one of the most critical systems. Timing chains are preferred widely in modern high speed engines as compared to timing belts and gear drives. In spite of advantages of chain drive systems, their complex dynamic behavior is not well researched.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0043
Rajesh Kashyap, Vamsidhar Sunkari, Prakash Verma
Abstract Regular service of the vehicle is to be done with high precision service equipment, to ensure the factory performance of the vehicle over the entire life of product usage. However, complex nature of the physical processes involved in the service of the vehicle subsystems makes it costly for optimizing the service equipment performance for entire range of operation. Air-conditioning service (ACS) equipment is one such product in the diagnostics domain which deals with compressible, transient and two phase flow in open loop systems. Development of control system for the service equipment to perform optimally over the entire operational range requires accurate mathematical model of the system under study. Application of mathematical model based approach requires calculation of geometrical details, environment information and fluid properties during the process for estimating the process behavior.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0082
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Vaibhav Aswar, Vipin Sharma
Abstract Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2861
Shahnawaz Ahmed Khan, Snehal Dhongde
Abstract A small single cylinder 4 stroke gasoline engine varying capacity from 100cc to 500cc generally used for two wheelers has a wide range of load conditions. Such variation in load on engine demands variation in Transmission ratio at different vehicle speeds for optimum performance, drivability and Economy. A scooter has continuously variable transmission called as CVT which is generally centrifugally controlled with respect to engine speed as against that of series of manual gears used in motor cycle. The work aims at creating a mathematical model for controlling variation in transmission ratio of CVT by converting the generally centrifugally controlled CVT by electronic control. The objective is to implement the mathematical model with a novel electronic controlled CVT in a two wheeler engine for the improvement in performance. The mathematical model done through geometric calculations and modeling is discussed in details.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2814
Andrew Pedlow, Geoffrey McCullough, Alexandre Goguet, Ken Hansen
Abstract Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, and so mathematical models of aftertreatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions. Automotive catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2822
Achinta Varna, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Alexander Spiteri, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Yuri M. Wright
Simulations for a pressure-assisted multi-stream injector designed for urea-dosing in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust gas system have been carried out and compared to measurements taken in an optically accessible high-fidelity flow test rig. The experimental data comprises four different combinations of mass flow rate and temperature for the gas stream with unchanged injection parameters for the spray. First, a parametric study is carried out to determine the importance of various spray sub-models, including atomization, spray-wall interaction, buoyancy as well as droplet coalescence. Optimal parameters are determined using experimental data for one reference operating condition.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2134
Rudolf Neydorf, Youriy Sigida
Abstract The paper formulated and solved the problem of investigating the traction and power characteristics of air-screw propulsor for airships. The study is performed by constructing a mathematical model relating the steady-state values of the shaft power and traction on the axis of the screw with the velocity of rotation and the actual velocity of the aircraft. Proved design scheme selection of computer simulation of aero-and thermodynamic processes occurring during rotation of the airscrew. Describes plan developed under the experimental task, providing variation in the basic parameters of the airscrew, motion parameters and flight environment The results of computer modeling of the interaction of the airflow with the airscrew at various combinations of these parameters. Results are shown in tabular and graphical form and as a mathematical model of the studied airscrew.
2014-05-09
Journal Article
2014-01-9023
Francisco Soriano, Jesus Alvarez-Florez, Manuel Moreno-Eguilaz
This paper presents a novel methodology to develop and validate fuel consumption models of Refuse Collecting Vehicles (RCVs). The model development is based on the improvement of the classic approach. The validation methodology is based on recording vehicle drive cycles by the use of a low cost data acquisition system and post processing them by the use of GPS and map data. The corrected data are used to feed the mathematical energy models and the fuel consumption is estimated. In order to validate the proposed system, the fuel consumption estimated from these models is compared with real filling station refueling records. This comparison shows that these models are accurate to within 5%.
2014-05-05
Journal Article
2014-01-9046
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa
Feed-forward low-throughput models have been developed to predict MFB50 and to control SOI in order to achieve a specific MFB50 target for diesel engines. The models have been assessed on a GMPT-E Euro 5 diesel engine, installed at the dynamic test bench at ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engine Advanced Laboratory at the Politecnico di Torino) and applied to both steady state and transient engine operating conditions. MFB50 indicates the crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned, and is currently used extensively in control algorithms to optimize combustion phasing in diesel engines in real-time. MFB50 is generally used in closed-loop combustion control applications, where it is calculated by the engine control unit, cycle-by-cycle and cylinder by-cylinder, on the basis of the measured in-cylinder pressure trace, and is adjusted in order to reduce the fuel consumption, combustion noise and engine-out emissions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1781
Siddhesh Sakhalkar, Parveen Dhillon, Soovadeep Bakshi, Pranay Kumar, Puneet Singh Arora
Abstract This paper presents a mathematical model of an electric driveline consisting of one battery pack, two independent Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) motors and motor-controllers and two fixed-ratio planetary gearboxes, all located inside the rear frame of the vehicle. The proposed analysis has been performed with the objective of: (i) Determination of acceleration run time for a straight patch of 75 meters; (ii) Determination of lap times and energy consumption for endurance track of 23 laps. A model of a PMDC motor and motor controller has been developed based on response analysis by conducting experiments on a jig setup. The motor controllers are compared for two control modes- Speed mode and Torque mode. A simplified race car model for longitudinal vehicle dynamics is derived from forces acting on the car including the effect of losses due to drag forces, rolling resistance, transmission inefficiency and inertial losses due to rotary elements.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1815
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1752
Ewan Pritchard, Richard Gould, Richard Johnson
Abstract The introduction of parallel post transmission hybrid electric vehicles has demonstrated a limitation of previous mathematical models of the hydraulic torque converter. Earlier models developed by Hrovat and Tobler (2) and Kotwicki (4) in the 1980's only covered the cases of the below coupled and coupled states without anticipating the need to analyze the converter in the overrunning case. This study develops the relations for the overrunning case, allowing the reader to establish accurate predictions or computer simulations of the flow, torque, and speeds that will be result in the case of a post transmission hybrid system. Without additional measures, these post transmission hybrid systems will generate large fluid losses in the torque converter.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0651
Zun Wang, Jaehoon Han, Devadatta Mukutmoni
Abstract At the onset of soak, air and surface temperatures in an engine bay enclosure are elevated since temperature of heat sources are high while convective cooling is sharply reduced as a result of airflow being shut off from the inlet grilles of the vehicle leading to temperature spikes. Accurate simulation of this important thermal and flow regime that is natural convection driven, highly transient and complex is therefore very important. In this investigation, we simulate flow in the engine bay at the onset of soak with fixed thermal boundary conditions where the geometries representing the engine bay and components are simplified. Good agreement was observed with detailed experimental data available in references for both velocities and temperatures.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1112
Hong Liu, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract The numerical models presented in this study are established based on discrete phase model (DPM) of spray dispersion and evaporation considering the cold wall operating condition of port injection system. All the models were implemented into the CFD software FLUENT. Gas flow and film flow and spray are coupled by mass, momentum and energy transfer due to spray impingement, film evaporation and surface shear stress. Influences of impact parameters including injection height, injection duration and injection angle on the formation and evaporation of wall-film are discussed. The results show that, with the increase of injection height, the maximum film thickness and wall film ratio decrease, and fuel vapor mass ratio increases. The reductions of film thickness and wall film ratio are not obvious as the increasing of injection height. Extending the injection duration could add the maximum film thickness and film area.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1894
Wang Jun, Qingnian Wang, Pengyu Wang, Biao Han
Abstract The traditional vehicle design methods of hybrid electric vehicles are based on the rule-based control strategy, which often adopt the trial and error methods and the model-based numerical optimization methods. But these methods require a large number of repeated tests and a longer-term development cycle. In this paper, approximately the global optimization algorithm was used in control parameters designing through rational design of the penalty weights of objective function. But the optimized parameters apply only to vehicles that operating in the special drive cycle to get better fuel economy. Therefore, a drive cycle recognition algorithm was proposed to identify types of drive cycles in real-time, then an off-line genetic algorithm was adopted to acquire the optimization of control parameters under the various drive cycles, through drive cycle recognition results to choose the best control parameters.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0400
Hongyi Xu, Monica T. Majcher, Ching-Hung Chuang, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Abstract Response Surface Model (RSM)-based optimization is widely used in engineering design. The major strength of RSM-based optimization is its short computational time. The expensive real simulation models are replaced with fast surrogate models. However, this method may have some difficulties to reach the full potential due to the errors between RSM and the real simulations. RSM's accuracy is limited by the insufficient number of Design of Experiments (DOE) points and the inherent randomness of DOE. With recent developments in advanced optimization algorithms and High Performance Computing (HPC) capability, Direct Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (DMDO) receives more attention as a promising future optimization strategy. Advanced optimization algorithm reduces the number of function evaluations, and HPC cut down the computational turnaround time of function evaluations through fully utilizing parallel computation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0664
Manuel Lorenz, Dusan Fiala, Markus Spinnler, Thomas Sattelmayer
Abstract Cabin heating and cooling loads of modern vehicles, notably electrically driven, represent a major portion of the overall vehicle energy consumption. Various concepts to reduce these loads have thus been proposed but quantitative experimental analysis or numerical predictions are scarcely available. Conventional 1D or zonal cabin models do not account adequately for strongly inhomogeneous cabin climate conditions. In this paper a new cabin model is presented, which delivers both temporally and spatially resolved data. The model uses a dynamic coupling algorithm including a CFD simulation of the cabin airflow, a model of the cabin structure and the detailed passenger Fiala Physiological Comfort (FPC) model.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1211
Ryo Kusakabe, Motoyuki Abe, Hideharu Ehara, Tohru Ishikawa, Takuya Mayuzumi, Takao Miyake
We have achieved injection quantity range enhancement by using the current waveform control technique for direct injection (DI) gasoline injectors. In this study, we developed an injection quantity simulator to find out the mechanism of non-linear characteristics. We clarified the non-linear production mechanism by using the simulator. This simulator is a one-dimensional simulator that incorporates calculation results from both unsteady electromagnetic field analysis and hydraulic flow analysis into the motion equation of this simulation code. We investigated the relation between armature and the injection quantity by using the simulator. As a result, we clarified that the non-linearity was produced by the bounce of the armature in the opening action. Thus, we found that it is effective to reduce the armature bounce to improve the linearity of the injection quantity characteristics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0590
Daniel Wood, Martin A. Passmore, Anna-Kristina Perry
The use of simulation tools by vehicle manufacturers to design, optimize and validate their vehicles is essential if they are to respond to the demands of their customers, to meet legislative requirements and deliver new vehicles ever more quickly. The use of such tools in the aerodynamics community is already widespread, but they remain some way from replacing physical testing completely. Further advances in simulation capabilities depend on the availability of high quality validation data so that simulation code developers can ensure that they are capturing the physics of the problems in all the important areas of the flow-field. This paper reports on an experimental program to generate such high quality validation data for a SAE 20 degree backlight angle notchback reference model.
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