Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 3913
2017-07-17 ...
  • July 17-18, 2017 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engineers are taught to create designs that meet customer specifications. When creating these designs, the focus is usually on the nominal values rather than variation. Robustness refers to creating designs that are insensitive to variability in the inputs. Much of the literature on robustness is dedicated to experimental techniques, particularly Taguchi techniques, which advocate using experiments with replications to estimate variation. This course presents mathematical formulas based on derivatives to determine system variation based on input variation and knowledge of the engineering function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0975
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is used for emissions control in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1326
Santhoji Katare, Ravichandran S, Gokul Ram, Giri Nammalwar
Model based computer aided processes offer an economical and accelerated alternative to traditional build-and-test Edisonian approaches to engineering design. Typically a CAE based design problem is formulated in two parts, viz. (1) the inverse problem which involves identification of the appropriate product geometry given desired property requirements, and (2) the forward problem which is the computation or prediction of product performance measures from the product geometry. Solution to the forward problem requires development of an accurate model that is correlated to physical data. This validated model could then be used for virtual verification and design of engineering systems efficiently. This paper demonstrates the rigorous process of model development, model calibration, model validation, and use of the calibrated model in the design process with practical examples from automotive suspension, brakes and powertrain systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0623
Zun Wang, Yi Zhang, Christophe lenormand, Mohammed Ansari, Manuel Henner
Radiator thermal cycle test is a test method to check out the robustness of a radiator. During the test, the radiator is going through transient cycles that includes high and low temperature spikes. These spikes could lead to component failure and transient temperature map is the key to predict high thermal strain and failure locations. In this investigation, an accurate and efficient way of building a numerical model to simulate the transient thermal performance of the radiator is introduced. A good correlation with physical test result is observed on temperature values at various locations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0544
Philipp Mayr, Gerhard Pirker, Andreas Wimmer, Markus Krenn
It is critical for gas and dual fuel engines to have improved transient characteristics in order for them to be able to compete with diesel engines. Testing of transient behavior as well as of different control strategies for the multicylinder engine (MCE) should already be done on the single cylinder engine (SCE) test bed during the development process. This paper presents tools and algorithms that transfer transient MCE behavior to the SCE test bed. A methodology is developed for a two-stage turbocharged gas engine and includes both simulation and measurements. Simple and fast models and algorithms are created that are able to provide the boundary conditions (e.g., boost pressure and exhaust back pressure) of a multicylinder engine in transient operation in real time for use on the SCE test bed. The main models of the methodology are discussed in detail.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1219
Steven G. Rinaldo, Zhihong Jin, Perry Wyatt
Validating the state-of-function (SOF) algorithm is critical for battery management as it is responsible for battery power utilization as well as safety protection and life. The SOF accomplishes this optimization task by communicating battery level operational limits related to power, current, voltage and temperature. Ultimately these operational limits are predicted via parameters derived from component models. Correspondingly, any errors within the component models will propagate into the reported SOF limits. Developing an efficient SOF validation methodology will facilitate the understanding of SOF performance gaps. In this work, we developed a methodology that consists of simulating the cell model response and SOF output for a set of current pulse events that span operational boundaries defined by temperature, initial state-of-charge, pulse time and current magnitude.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1205
Letao Zhu, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai, Zechang Sun
To monitor and guarantee batteries of electric vehicles in normal operation, battery models should be established primarily for the further application in battery management system such as parameter identification and state estimation including state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), state of power (SOP) and so on. In this paper, an improved battery modeling method is proposed which is based on recursive least square algorithm employing an optimized objective function. The proposed modified objective function not only includes the normal sum of voltage error squares between measured voltage and model output voltage but also introduces a new variable representing the sum of first order difference error squares for both kinds of voltages. This specialty can undoubtedly guarantee better agreement for the measured output and the model output. The battery model used in this paper is selected to be the conventional second order equivalent circuit model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0266
Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard miller, John R. Wagner, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin, Katherine Sebeck
Designing an efficient cooling system with low power consumption is of high interest in the automotive engineering community. Heat generated due to the propulsion system and the on-board electronics in ground vehicles must be dissipated to avoid peak component heat loads. In addition, proper thermal management will offer improved system durability and efficiency while providing a flexible, modular, and reduced weight structure. Traditional cooling systems are effective but they typically require high energy consumption which provides motivation for a paradigm shift. This study will examine the integration of passive heat rejection pathways in ground vehicle cooling systems using a thermal bus. Potential solutions include heat pipes and composite fibers with high thermal properties and light weight properties to move heat from the source to ambient surroundings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1560
Wei Liu, Lu Xiong, Bo Leng, Haolan Meng, Renxie Zhang
In this paper, a novel method based on the sideslip angle-yaw rate phase plane is proposed to establish the vehicle stability criterion for vehicle stability control. Firstly, a nonlinear two degrees of freedom vehicle dynamic model is established by adopting the Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model. Then, an equilibrium point solution approach is introduced. Next, according to the model in MATLAB/Simulink, the sideslip angle-yaw rate phase plane is gained. Emphatically, the effects of different driving conditions (the front wheel angle, road friction coefficient and vehicle speed) on the stability boundary on the phase plane are analyzed. According to the topological analysis based on the equilibrium point, the stability regions under different driving conditions can be divided into two types: curve type and diamond type. The judgment method for the type of stability region to which the phase plane corresponds is put forward according to real-time driving conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1169
Ahmed M. Ali, Alhossein Mostafa sharaf, Hesham Kamel, Shawky Hegazy
This paper presents an integrated experimental and simulation investigation which is conducted on a series hybrid electric vehicle. The mathematical model is simulated in two distinct environments; MATLAB/Simulink and GT-Suite. An experimental test rig is prepared to measure the vehicle performance including wheeled-chassis dynamometer. Components consumed powers, vehicle speed, engine revolution, fuel consumption and consumed energies are all measured in real time and the results are used to verify the numerical modelling work. For optimizing the performance of the vehicle, a rule based control algorithm is proposed and applied to the model using stateflow toolbox. Rules are coded to operate the internal combustions engine at its most fuel efficient modes. An in-house auto-driver is developed in order to implement the proposed rule-based algorithm through Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation during different standard drive cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1562
Junyu Zhou, Chao Liu, Jan Kubenz, Günther Prokop
This Paper describes a new hybrid algorithm for multi-body Dynamics in vehicle system dynamics which exploits the advantages of both embedding technique algorithm and augmented formulation algorithm. A vehicle dynamic modeling based on the hybrid algorithm is presented. Embedding technique has a relatively small number of equations of motion. Using embedding technique an enhanced parametric vehicle dynamics model can be built, in which the kinematic and compliance characteristics of suspension are represented by characteristic curves. Because of small number of equations the vehicle dynamics model can be simulated very efficiently. Compare to embedding technique a main benefit of augmented formulation is relatively simple for computer programming. With the help of the augmented formulation the structure of the vehicle dynamic model can easily be extended. Advantages of both embedding technique and augmented formulation can be utilized by hybridizing them.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1230
Cyrille Goldstein, Joel Hetrick
Mechanical losses in electric machines can contribute significantly to overall system losses in an electric drive. With an Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) machine, measuring mechanical losses is difficult without an un-magnetized rotor. Even with an un-magnetized rotor, physical testing can be time consuming and expensive. This paper presents a theoretical model of mechanical drag in an electric machine. The model was built using calculations for bearing, seal, and windage drag. This model was compared to experimental results and a sensitivity study was completed to understand inaccuracies in the model. Based on this information, the model was modified to better represent the physical system. The goal of this work is to understand the contributors to mechanical drag, to be able to estimate mechanical losses without physical testing, and to evaluate design choices that could reduce mechanical losses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1140
Yang Xu, Yuji Fujii, Edward Dai, James McCallum, Gregory Pietron, Guang Wu, Hong Jiang
A transmission system model is developed at various complexities in order to capture the transient behaviors in drivability and fuel economy simulations. A large number of model parameters bring more degree of freedom to correlate with vehicular test data. However, in practice, it often takes extensive time and effort to tune the parameters to satisfy the model performance requirements. Among the transmission model, a hydraulic clutch actuator plays a critical role in transient shift simulations. It is particularly difficult to tune the actuator model when it is over-parameterized. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a hydraulic actuator model that is easy to adjust while retaining sufficient complexity for replicating realistic transient behaviors. This paper describes a systematic approach for reducing the hydraulic actuator model into a piecewise 1st order representation based on piston movement.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0085
Wanyang XIA, Yahui Wu, Gangfeng Tan, Xianyao Ping, Benlong Liu
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the highway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more responsible time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The highway exit speed limit sigh (ESLS) is an effect reminder for the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the Color Variable ESLS system, whose installation point is placed considering the vehicle dynamic difference, the traffic condition and the highway geometric design. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit requirement in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change between the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0126
Joshua W. Finn, John R. Wagner
Hybrid vehicle embedded systems and payloads require progressively more accurate and versatile thermal control mechanisms and strategies capable of withstanding harsh environments and increasing power density. The division of the cargo and passenger compartments into convective thermal zones which are independently managed can lead to a manageable temperature control problem. This study investigates the performance of a Peltier-effect thermoelectric zone cooling system to regulate the temperature of target objects (e.g., electronic controllers, auxiliary computer equipment) within ground vehicles. Multiple thermoelectric cooling modules (TEC) are integrated with convective cooling fans to provide chilled air for convective heat transfer from a robust, compact, and solid state device. A series of control strategies have been designed and evaluated to track a prescribed time varying temperature profile while minimizing power consumption.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1214
Jujun Xia, Haifeng Dai, Zechang Sun, Massimo Venturi
Lithium-ion batteries have been applied in the new energy vehicles more and more widely. The inconsistency of battery cells imposes a lot of difficulties in parameter and state estimations. This paper proposes a new algorithm which can online identify the parameters of each individual battery cell accurately with limited increase of computational cost. An equivalent circuit battery model is founded and based on the RLS (recursive least squares) algorithm, an optimization algorithm with the construction of weight vectors is proposed which can identify the parameters of lithium battery pack considering inconsistency of single battery cell. Firstly, the average value of the parameters of the battery pack is identified with the traditional RLS algorithm. Then the ratios between the parameters of each battery cell can be deduced by using the mathematical model of battery. These ratios are used to determine the weight vector of each parameter of individual battery cells.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1563
Abhijeet Behera, Murugan Sivalingam
Two and three wheeler vehicles are largely used in many developing and under developing countries because of its lower cost, better fuel economy and easy to handle. Although, the construction of them is simpler than the four wheeler vehicle, they pose some problems related to instability. Wobble is the main cause of instabilities in two wheeler and three wheeler vehicles. In this study, a mathematical model was proposed and developed to determine wobble instability of a two wheeler. Nonlinear equations were formulated by using kinematics and d’Alembert’s principle with the help of multi body formalism. The non-linear equations found above were linearized with respect to rectilinear and upright motion, considering no rolling. It led to formation of matrix. The real part of Eigen value of the matrix was found to be negative, implication of whose was an asymptotic stable motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1634
Hui Sung Lee
When customers use a tailgate(or trunk), some systems such as power tailgate and smart tailgate have been introduced and implemented for improving convenience. However, they still have some problems in some use cases. Some people have to search for the outside button to open the tailgate, or they should take out the key and push a button. In some cases, they should move their leg or wait a few seconds which makes some people feel that it is a long time. In addition, they have to push the small button which is located on the inner trim in order to close the tailgate. This paper proposes a new tailgate control technology and systems based on acoustic patterns in order to solve some inconvenience. An acoustic user interaction (AUI) is a technology which responds to human's rubbing and tapping on a specific part analyzing the acoustic patterns. The AUI has been recently spotlighted in the automotive industry as well as home appliances, mobile devices, musical instruments, etc.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1237
Ahmad Arshan Khan, Michael J. Kress
For high performance motor controls applications such as electric vehicles, accurate motor parameter knowledge is required. Motor parameters like inductances, resistance and permanent magnet flux linkage are difficult to obtain and measure directly. These parameters vary considerably depending on operating conditions. Various methods are available in literature to obtain motor parameters offline. Usually motor designers use finite element analysis to calculate inductance estimate. Normally motor data necessary to come up with finite element model is unavailable and not provided by manufacturers. Even if provided, simulation results rarely match experimental results. Other methods commonly used in industry are locked rotor test and no-load test. However, parameters obtained by using such tests differ from parameters in real operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1441
Heungseok Chae, Kyong Chan Min, Kyongsu Yi
This paper describes design and evaluation of a driving mode decision and lane change control algorithm of automated vehicle in merge situations on highway intersection. For the development of a highly automated driving control algorithm in merge situation, driving mode change from lane keeping to lane change is necessary to merge appropriately. In a merge situation, the driving objective is slightly different to general driving situation. Unlike general situation, the lane change should be completed in a limited travel distance in a merge situation. Merge mode decision is determined based on surrounding vehicles states and remained merge lane length. In merge mode decision algorithm, merge availability and desired merge position are decided to change lane safely and quickly. Merge availability and desired merge position are based on the safety distance that considers relative velocity and relative position of subject and surrounding vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0621
Sanjin Saric, Andreas Ennemoser, Branislav Basara, Heinz Petutschnig, Christoph Irrenfried, Helfried Steiner, Günter Brenn
RANS computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+<5) [1]. As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region [2].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1148
Toumadher Barhoumi, Hyunjun Kim, Dongsuk Kum
Finding optimal split hybrid configurations through exhaustive search is almost intractable, mainly due to the huge design space, e.g. 252 compound split configurations using two planetary gear sets (PG). Thus, a systematic comprehensive design methodology is required. Most of the prior studies in this matter proposed methodologies that assess the performance within the physical design space, i.e. based on the powertrain configurations. However, this paper proposes a compound lever-based comprehensive design methodology, which aims to find optimal compound split configurations in terms of both fuel economy and acceleration performance starting from the compound (virtual) lever design space rather than the physical design space, i.e. powertrain configurations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1141
Bashar Alzuwayer, Robert Prucka, Imtiaz Haque, Paul Venhovens
The objective of the research reported in this paper was to develop and utilize a high fidelity and computationally efficient model for an advanced 9-speed automatic transmission that features an innovative combination of positive clutches (interlocking dog clutches) and conventional wet clutches. The interlocking dog clutches utilization in automatic transmissions is a challenging task due to the need for seamless engagement of the clutches (avoiding clash) and the behavior of slip-less power transmission (shifts). This publication starts with in depth review of the literature related to transmissions equipped with interlocking dog clutches. Appropriate simulation models for the torque converter, the lockup clutch, transmission gearing system, interlocking dog clutches, wet clutches, hydraulic control valves and circuits were developed and integrated with a 1-D vehicle road load model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0625
Yen-Chung Liu, Brian Sangeorzan, Alex Alkidas
The purpose of this research was to measure and correlate the area-average heat transfer coefficients for free, circular upward-impinging oil-jets onto two automotive pistons having different undercrown shapes and different diameters. For the piston heat transfer studies, two empirical area-average Nusselt number correlations were developed. One was based on the whole piston undercrown surface area with the Nusselt number based on the nozzle diameter, and the other was based on the oil-jet impingement area with the Nusselt number based on the oil-jet effective impingement diameter. The correlations can predict the 95% and 94% of the experimental measurements within 30% error, respectively. The first correlation is simpler to use and can be employed for cases in which the oil jet wets the whole piston undercrown. The latter may be more useful for larger pistons or higher Prandtl number conditions in which the oil jet wets only a portion of the undercrown.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0338
Jeong Kyun Hong, Andrew Cox
Even under uniaxial loading, seemingly simple welded joint types can develop multi-axial stress states, which must be considered when evaluating both the fatigue strength and failure location. Two well established examples of this are a hollow tube through a flat plate and a flat plate with an angled attachment plate. The stress distribution at these weld failure locations show significant in-plane shear stress in addition to the usual normal stress. Previously the author noted that when only the normal structural stress is considered for these joints the predictions of both the fatigue failure location and the fatigue life using the master S-N curve approach are inaccurate because the in-plane shear stress plays a significant role in the development of the crack.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0256
Xianhe Wu, Yudong Fang, Zhenfei Zhan, Xu Liu, Gang Guo
Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the most crucial problems in the automotive industry. Increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, such as fuel economy and environmental protection, must be met. The lightweight design needs to consider various vehicle attributes, including crashworthiness and stiffness. Therefore, the essence of vehicle weight reduction is a typical Multidisciplinary Design Optimization problem. To improve the computational efficiency, meta-models have been widely used as the surrogate of FE model in the multidisciplinary optimization of large structures. However, these surrogate models introduce additional sources of uncertainty, such as model uncertainty, which may lead to the poor accuracy in prediction. In this paper, a method of corrected Surrogate model based multidisciplinary design optimization under uncertainty is proposed to incorporate both of the uncertainties introduced by meta-models and design variables.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0009
Abhinab Mohanty, Rajasekar Ramaraj, Prashant Dhage, Alok Kumar Ray
Abstract Today’s automotive world has moved towards an age where safety of a vehicle is given the topmost priority. Many stringent crash norms and testing methodology has been defined in order to evaluate the safety of a vehicle prior to its launch in a particular market. If the vehicle fails to meet any of these criteria then it is debarred from that particular market. With such stringent norms and regulations in place it becomes quite important on the engineer’s part to define the structural requirements and protect the space to meet the same. If the concept level platform definition is done properly it becomes very easy to achieve the crash targets with less cost and weight impact.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0079
Soumyo Das, Prashantkumar B. Vora
Abstract The tracking of objects for an autonomous vehicle requires sufficiently reliable data processing and association. In this paper, the signal data processing of sensed LIDAR and the multiple target track management algorithm of a maneuvering vehicle are presented. The algorithm is employed for 2D LIDAR sensor mounted in a moving vehicle and navigating in a high-way. The adaptive segmentation, feature creation from point cloud, data association and prediction modelling are the key features of track management. Initialization of the track has been developed based on constant velocity model hypothesis in order to facilitate target management in a high-way crowded environment. The multiple target tracking are associated with feature identification of the targets and also prediction modelling of moving occluded object. The prediction model of moving vehicles and pedestrians are the focus area of this research.
CURRENT
2017-01-10
Standard
J2969_201701
This SAE Recommended Practice provides guidelines for procedures and practices used to obtain and record measurements and to analyze the results of the critical speed method. It is for use at accident sites using manual or electronic measurements. The method allows for many unique factors and the recommended procedure will permit a consistent use of the method in order to reduce errors and uncertainty in the results. The results from the critical speed formula should always, when possible, be compared to other accident reconstruction methodologies. When different accident reconstruction methods are used, the uncertainty of each method should be analyzed and presented.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0252
Sahil Garg, Sujit Bhide, Shashank Gupta
Abstract Vehicle Ergonomics is one of the most vital factor to be considered in vehicle design and development, as the customer wants a comfortable and performance oriented vehicle. An uncomfortable driving posture can lead to painful driving experiences for longer hauls. The control pedals viz. Accelerator, Brake and clutch pedal (ABC Pedals), are the most frequently used parts in the vehicle, their proper positioning with respect to human anthropology is of prime importance, from driver comfort viewpoint. The methodology currently used for optimizing ergonomics with respect to the positioning of pedals in a vehicle included; measuring anthropometric angles manually with the help of H-Point Machine, subjective jury analysis and through software like RAMSIS, JACK, etc. Manual measurement doesn’t give the flexibility of iterations for optimization. The subjective analysis is based on insinuations thereby, cannot be standardized.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 3913

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: