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2016-04-05 ...
  • April 5-6, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
This course provides a detailed description of tire failure modes, their potential causes, identification, and the sometimes subtle nuances that go along with determination of tire failure. In addition, proper inspection techniques of tires will be discussed and samples will be available to reinforce the concepts learned. The book, Tire Forensic Investigation, authored by the instructor, is included with the course materials. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 13 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2015-12-14 ...
  • December 14-17, 2015 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
  • June 20-23, 2016 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
  • November 14-18, 2016 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Design Review Based on Failure Modes (DRBFM) is a methodology focused on change management and continuous improvement. It centers on early prevention and engineering knowledge, eliminating time spent debating ranking systems, waiting for lead engineers to document and list their concerns, identifying what types of concerns are open for discussion and resolution, and brainstorming without any actionable closure. This web seminar will explain all phases of the DRBFM methodology and provide details on how to accomplish the specific steps.
2015-10-22 ...
  • October 22-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • March 16-17, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 29-30, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Engines can and do experience failures in the field in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
2015-10-19 ...
  • October 19-30, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • May 23-June 3, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 5-16, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2736
Harikrishna TE, Murali P, Mufti MD
Vehicle handling is an important attribute that is directly related to vehicle safety. The rapid development of road infrastructure has resulted in a greater focus on safety and stability. Commercial vehicle stability and safety assumes higher significance because of high center of gravity (CG) and heavier loads. A gamut of parameters influence vehicle handling directly and indirectly. However, it is quite difficult to gauge through physical testing, the extent of each parameter’s influence on handling. Therefore, this paper examines vehicle handling by way of a sensitivity analysis through numerical simulation. A prototype vehicle is also instrumented and tested to confirm and validate the results of the suspension.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2869
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep sharma, Umashanker Gupta, Ravi Joshi, shailesh pawar
Buses are one of the main and favorite sources of public transit in India. Thousands of people die or injure severely every year due to Bus accidents. Passenger injury in Bus accidents can be due to high stiff seat structures. Most of the occupants seated in the second row or further back were injured by hitting the seat back in the row in front of them. AIS023 (AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY STANDARDS) is one of the several mandatory standards from CMVR (CENTRAL MOTOR VEHICLES RULES) to ensure the safety during crash. As per AIS-023 passenger seat of bus should not cause injury because of high stiffness, on the other hand seat should also be able to carry the passenger force during accidents. With this mechanism AIS023 specifies minimum and maximum range deformations of seat back to minimize the passenger injury. This study includes the FE (Finite Element) analysis and design of Bus seat as per AIS023 test setup with LS-Dyna explicit tool.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2873
Sumit Sharma, Sandeep sharma, Sanjay Tiwari, Umashanker Gupta
Years ago the main purpose of heavy duty truck is to carrying the loads, in the current scenario cabin comfort and safety is also equally important. With the improved infrastructure quality the average speed of these types of vehicle has also been increased. With the higher average speed, the chances of getting crash have also been increased. In order to provide safety to the driver, all the safety parameters should be considered in advance at the time of design and development of cabin. Sufficient survival space must be present at the time of crash. In order to provide optimum ride comfort, fully suspended cab was designed. The main aim of this study is to develop detailed 3D finite element (FE) model of fully suspended heavy duty truck cabin with detailed suspensions system and simulate crash test scenario presented in regulation ECE-R29 using LS-Dyna explicit solver.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization. DivgiWarner has not only designed and developed but has also been practicing unique processes of cost-reduction utilizing various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost-reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed Costs 7.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2742
Linlin Wang, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong, Yuchao Chen
Combining with the practical development of heavy duty vehicle, it is playing a more and more crucial role in the transportation industry due to its high fleet efficiency and fuel economy. The heavy duty vehicle’s mass varies significantly from trip to trip. The mass nonlinear fluctuation would worsen the brake performance, as the same brake pedal stroke produces larger and smaller acceleration than the ideal value, making it difficult for the unexperienced drivers to manipulate vehicles especially on the critical maneuver such as sideslip, rollover and swing etc. Accurate mass information is instrumental when designing electronic brake system controller to optimize the relevant braking force distribution. Directing at the above arguments, the paper proposes two approaches to estimate vehicle mass. One is estimating vehicle mass during braking process, the other is estimating the vehicle mass during acceleration.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2761
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov, Vitalii Stepnov, Anna Klimachkova
An electro-hydraulic servo system makes the basis for a mechatronic locomotion module (LM) and for a complex comprising an LM and an undercarriage of a vehicle. The servo system of the wheel module/LM complex is a combination of the information and power channels of the electro-hydraulic wheel drive within the steering system. A combination of the servo systems makes up a complex of servo systems of the steering system of the multi axis wheel mover of the vehicle. Theoretical and experimental studies of the functioning all wheel steering were aimed on substantiation the rational algorithmic maintenance of the automatic control system. The results of the study allowed formulating the basic principles of designing and calculating the functionality algorithms for the steering system of the complex of mechatronic modules of the multi axis vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2804
Travis Lee Walters, Phillip Shaw, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Joshua Hoop
Drivability and powertrain refinement continue to gain importance in the assessment of overall vehicle quality. This notion has transcended its light duty origins and is beginning to gain considerable traction in the medium and heavy duty markets. However, with drivability assessment and refinement also comes the high costs associated with vehicle testing, including items such as test facilities, prototype component evaluation, fuel and human resources. Taking all of this into account, any and all measures must be used to reduce the cost of drivability evaluation and powertrain refinement. This paper describes an analysis based co-simulation methodology, where sophisticated powertrain simulation and objective drivability evaluation tools can be used to predict vehicle drivability. A fast running GT power engine model combined with simplified controls representation in Matlab/Simulink was used to predict engine transients and responses.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2673
Toshikazu Okamura
Brake judder is one of the most serious problems in automotive-brake systems and brake discs play a significant role in judder. There are two types of brake judder: cold and hot. Hot judder is caused by the thermo-mechanical deformation of a disc rotor due to high-speed brakings. There are several causes and shapes of disc’s thermo-mechanical deformation, e.g. coning and wave-like shapes. The circumferential wave-like shapes of brake discs are typically found as a butterfly shape in the second order of the rotational speed and corrugation (or heat spots) around tenth order of that. They are caused by thermo-mechanical buckling and are the significant cause of hot judder. The author focuses on the effects of material and dimensional homogeneity on the transient and permanent deformation of ventilated discs in the low orders of the rotational speed during repetitive high-speed brakings.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2661
Amir Reza Daei, Nima Davoudzadeh, Peter Filip
Brake linings have complex microstructure and consist of different components. Fast growing automotive industry requires new brake lining materials to be developed at considerably shorter time periods. The purpose of this research was to generate the knowledge for optimizing of brake friction materials formula with mathematical methods which can result in minimizing the number of experiments/test, saving development time and costs with optimal friction performance of brakes. A combination of processing methods, raw materials and testing supported with the Artificial Neural Network allowed achieving excellent results in a very short time period. Friction performance and wear data from a series of FAST and full scale dynamometer tests, information about the process applied, and relevant data characterizing the friction layers developed for particular performance characteristics were used to train an artificial neural network, which was used to optimize the formulations.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2689
Katsuhiro Uchiyama, Yuji Shishido
Last year we presented the FEA simulation of  “spring - mass (Pad’s shape) model” from stick-slip phenomenon for improvement of creep groan. Creep groan is one of representative groan noise on automobile brake system.    As a result of parameter study with various pad shape (chamfer, slot, etc.…), we showed that brake pad with radial slot angle has a range which increases creep groan performance.   This year we would like to present our study for advantageous direction for reduction of creep groan which will focus on friction material Mu vs. Velocity (M-V) property, friction material physical properties and relative velocity between brake pads and rotor by advanced brake assembly FEM model which considers torsional stiffness of suspension.
2015-09-22
Book
Ian K. Jennions, Samir Khan, Paul Phillips, Chris Hockley
Today, we are all strongly dependent on the correct functioning of technical systems. They fail, and we become vulnerable. Disruptions due to degradation or anomalous behavior can negatively impact safety, operations, and brand name, reducing the profitability of all elements of the value chain. This can be tolerated if the link between cause and effect is understood and remedied. Anomalous behavior, which indicates systems or subsystems not acting in accordance with design intent, is a much more serious problem. It includes unwanted system responses and faults whose root cause can’t be properly diagnosed, leading to costly, and sometimes unnecessary, component replacements. The title No Fault Found: The Search for the Root Cause was developed to propose solutions to this technical and business challenge, which has become less and less acceptable to the commercial aviation industry globally.
2015-09-16 ...
  • September 16-October 2, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • February 17-March 4, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • August 3-19, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an integral part of product design activity applicable to any type of product or service. It is a quantitative and quantitative step-by-step approach for identifying and analyzing all actual and potential points of failure in a design, product or service. A successful team-based FMEA activity can use their collective experience with similar products to dramatically improve not only product performance but also reduce manufacturing issues at both a component and system and processing level. This web seminar introduces the five basic types of FMEAs with emphasis on constructing a Design FMEA.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2441
Ahmet Oztekin
Air Traffic Control System (ATCS) provides organizational, operational, and technical infrastructure necessary to maintain air traffic separation and prevent collision between aircraft operating within civil airspace. Current aviation safety research focuses mainly on aircraft and human vs. machine interactions. There is a gap in literature regarding research that explores ATCS’s potential impact on aviation safety. For complex systems, such as ATCS, safety is primarily a product of potential interactions among its various sub-systems. For example, over the phases of flight, separation of air traffic is maintained by different types of air traffic control (ATC) facilities. This paper outlines an analytical framework to perform a data-driven, risk-based assessment of ATC facilities. Safety associated with an ATC facility is modeled as an influence network using a set of risk factors.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2460
Melissa Arras, Giuliano Coppotelli, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Antonio Simone Mezzapesa
In this paper the finite element model of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is updated by using experimental data coming from a standard ground vibration test in order to improve the numerical-experimental correlation. A sensitivity-based updating methodology that iteratively minimizes a residual vector defined on the modal parameters, that is natural frequencies and mode shapes, is considered to identify the unknown values of the updating parameters. The structure under investigation is the Clarkson University Golden Eagle UAV. The preliminary numerical model of the structure is obtained by assembling the updated individual components (wings, fuselage, horizontal tail, vertical tails and tail booms), in order to focus the updating on the joints that could not be modeled accurately.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2481
Rudolf Neydorf
Synthesis of Time Quasi-Optimal Asymptotically Stable Control Laws Rudolf Neydorf The solution of the both synthesis and implementation problems of high-rapid rates control laws is extremely important for the development of automatic control systems of the aircraft. This is due to the high speed of such vehicles. Along with this, it is imperative that control laws provide that system is asymptotically stable, as the basis for the reliability of their controlled motion. Another important objective of the method of synthesis of control laws for aircraft is compulsory compliance with strict limitations on the values of control inputs at the actuation devices. It is equally important that the control laws provides limitations on the state variables of aircraft, such as velocity, acceleration, etc. Pontryagin's maximum principle is aimed at solving such a time-optimal problem with the limited command variable.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2593
Jonathan L. Geisheimer, Michael Wabs, Carlos Carvalho
Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) has been used for many years to find cable breaks and measure fluid levels in industrial processes. The technology uses picosecond level pulses and the associated reflection off of the fluid level surface in a time of flight measurement to determine fluid height. However, TDR signals have additional information that can be processed and exploited for IVHM applications. For example, when water collects in the fuel tank, TDR is capable of identifying and measuring the amount of water. This can allow for water sumps to be drained on condition instead of on a schedule. In addition, electromagnetic properties of the fluid can be determined, such as the dielectric constant and conductivity, which can be used to identify mis-fueling situations, contaminants in the fluid, and potentially other properties of fluid health.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft’s large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all these parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on an aircraft door assembly case study monitoring the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft OEM and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line or plant performance in real time, in addition to automating standardized reporting. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2596
Uli Burger, Ludovic Rochat
Lightweight structures are one key issue for all future mobility concepts. Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) play an important role in these disciplines due to their outstanding mechanical performance regarding to their weight. Therefore, CRFP structures have been widely used since decades in aerospace industry resulting in improvements in payload, fuel consumption and range. The Airbus A350, Boeing B787 in civil airplane industry as well as military products like the NH90 transport helicopter are examples of this development towards “all composite”-aircrafts with nearly all structural parts made out of composite materials. A main difference of CFRP-structures towards metallic ones is the behavior regarding damage tolerance and fatigue. For helicopter composite structures this issue is newly defined in §573 of the relevant certification specifications (CS for EU, FAR for US) valid since December 2012.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2436
Anapathur V. Ramesh
Fault-tolerance in commercial aircraft applications is typically achieved by redundancy. Dual or triple redundancy is common, and higher redundancy aircraft systems exist. This is also true for the Military, Defense and Space vehicles. In many cases the backups are provided for safety, and are used only to provide functionality when the primary fails. In such systems the primary component is checked before the start of a flight to see if it operates correctly. The aircraft will not take off unless the primary is functioning. Usually backup components are checked at intervals that span multiple flights. The first backup may be checked more frequently than the second or higher levels. This leads to flights where the system could have latent faults in the backup components. The probability of failure in such cases varies from flight to flight due to the different exposure times for components in the system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2525
Dave Duncan
The verification of Robustness is conceptually simple, once the reasonable set of “abnormal operating conditions” has been established. During testing those conditions are created and the FPGA/CEH response is noted. The FPGA/CEH response need not be “to work normally” but should at a minimum return to normal operation once normal conditions are reestablished. Part of the analysis is to establish acceptable FPGA/CEH responses to the “abnormal operating conditions”. Some of the acceptable responses may actually affect the LRU/CCA or Software for the system, thus timely identification will limit risks. The implementation of this testing is treated no differently than any other. The key here is to know the scope of the tests and plan accordingly. The understanding that the test environment will need to be capable of generating these “abnormal operating conditions” is key to properly planning for and establishing the infrastructure needed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2425
Michele Trancossi
This paper focuses on the calculation methodology of the thrust of a ACHEON propulsion system, which is based on Coanda effect deflection of thrust. It defines a calculation methodology based on integral equations. The proposed methodology allows an effective calculation of the performances and the force applied on the airplane by such a propulsion system . It will also allow an effective design of the nozzle system and will implement also internal elements with an accurate definition of frictional losses. Outstanding results have been obtained together with general rules for implanting ACHEON propulsion inside an aircraft.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2389
William W. Ni, Michael Cass, Daniel Bartholme
Cavitation erosion in aircraft engine and control systems is a major concern in hydrodynamic power units. In developing turbulent flow of low pressure and high velocities, a certain amount of cavitation erosion is not unusual. Cavitation can occur with the presence of fuel vapor or air bubbles dissolved in the fuel tank that are transported through the system. The cavitation erosion is caused by the collapse of the bubble which occurs violently and creates a shock wave of fluid. Striking a solid surface, the shock wave can cause progressive damage if it persists. A dimensional cavitation power rate has been developed to make meaningful comparisons of observed cavitation erosion rate in theory and with laboratory experiments. Theoretically, we manipulate parameters such as bubble size and collapse velocity for a given fuel system design, finding variation within each component to the system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2403
Jennifer C. Shaw, Steven Fletcher, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
A number of concepts have been proposed to meet future aircraft performance goals as championed by NASA. One such aircraft concept under consideration is Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP). This features a large number of thrust-producing superconducting motors powered by two superconducting generators placed on each turbofan engine and connected through a DC distribution network. A key aspect in any design concept is the ability to prove that the system will exhibit a satisfactory reliability for all intended operating conditions. To be completed in full, this requires extensive safety and failure analysis from the architectural down to the component level. The purpose of this paper is to support this safety and failure analysis by performing a high level architectural failure analysis of the electrical propulsion network of a TeDP aircraft to help determine how faults and failures may influence its operation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2549
Marc-André Léonard, Jean-François Boland, Christophe Jégo, Claude Thibeault
Nowadays, growing complexity in digital systems forces electronic hardware designers to adopt Electronic System Level (ESL) design and verification approach from a high-level perspective. To assess the reliability of a digital hardware design towards cosmic rays effects, this paper proposes a verification methodology based on high abstraction level fault injection simulation using a library of primitives characterized at lower levels. Once created, the designer can reuse this library in order to obtain a reliability report. The novelty of this research resides in the capacity of using an accurate fault injection model in a highly abstracted system description. Combining this accuracy with the use of error pattern classification at low-level, brings a new perspective to the simulation-based fault injection field.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2558
Jörg Brauer, Markus Dahlweid, Jan Peleska
The DO-178C requires data and control coupling (DC/CC) analysis to be performed as part of the validation activities. Here, “data coupling” between software components is defined as the dependence of a component on data that is not exclusively under the control of that component. Likewise, “control coupling” is defined as the degree by which one component influences the execution of another component. The intent of DC/CC analysis is then to provide assurance of the correctness of the interactions between different components, which can for example be achieved by integration tests. Unfortunately, DC/CC analysis has often been misunderstood as a review activity to ensure that the code correctly implements the design, whilst its de-facto purpose is to validate the verification activities.
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