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2016-05-23 ...
  • May 23-June 3, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 5-16, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2016-05-09 ...
  • May 9-20, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 17-28, 2016 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is used by design engineers as a tool during the product development process. Design engineers analyze their own designs while they are still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models to allow for quick turnaround times and to ensure prompt implementation of analysis results in the design process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1381
Jiaqi Li, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi
Sealing system is an important subsystem of modern high-performance engine. Sealing system reliability directly affects the engine operating conditions. Cylinder head gaskets(CHG) sealing system is of the most importance to the engine sealing system, which is not only responsible for sealing chamber, the cooling fluid and lubricating oil passage, for preventing gas leakage, water leakage and oil leakage, but also for force transferring between cylinder head and cylinder body. Basing on nonlinear solution method, the sealing performance of multi-layer-steel cylinder head gaskets to a gasoline engine is studied with the finite element software ABAQUS. The deformations of the cylinder liners and engine block are also considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1358
Jerry Lai, Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
During the planetary gear assembly, staking is a widely-used method for affixing pinion shafts into the position. A reliable staking process not only prevents the movement of the shaft during transmission operation, but also minimizes the distortion of the assembly due to the staking process. The quality of staking operations is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the staking tool geometry. It would be extremely time-consuming and tedious to evaluate these factors empirically; not to mention the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program. A Non-linear Finite Element methodology has been developed to simulate the complete staking process including shaft press in, staking, and after staking tool release. The critical process parameters, such as staking force, staking length, shaft and holes interference amount, etc., are then evaluated systematically.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1535
Linli Tian, Yunkai Gao
Topology optimization is an effective tool to find the optimal structural layout in the concept design stage of the automotive industry. Mostly, topology optimization is carried out with linear finite element analysis because of its simplicity. However, in the real world, structural problems always involve various nonlinear and dynamic responses. Thus, there is a growing requirement to consider crashworthiness performance in the topology optimization process of the automotive development. In current study, a topology optimization method based on equivalent static loads method (ESL) is proposed to optimize an automotive body in white (BIW) subjected to representative crash loads. The chosen load conditions are frontal impact, side barrier impact, roof crush and high speed rear impact.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1575
Federico Ballo, ROBERTO FRIZZI, Gianpiero Mastinu, Donato Mastroberti, Giorgio Previati, Claudio Sorlini
Lightweight design and construction is (and has always been) a central task in vehicles design. Minimizing the overall mass of a vehicle means minimizing the mass of each single component. Together with mass minimization, acceptable structural performance and durability requirements have to be maintained, particularly for wheels. In this paper the lightweight design and construction of road vehicle aluminum wheels is dealt with. Dedicated experimental tests aimed at assessing the fatigue life behavior of the aluminum alloy A356 – T6 have been performed, namely, cylindrical specimens have been extracted from three different locations in the wheel. Fully reversed strain-controlled and load-controlled fatigue tests have been performed and the stress/strain-life curves on the three areas of the wheel have been computed and compared. The constant amplitude rotary bending fatigue test of the wheel has been simulated by means of Finite Element method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0393
Kevin P. Barbash, William V. Mars
We demonstrate here an accounting of damage accrual under road loads for a filled natural rubber bushing. The accounting is useful to developers who wish to avoid the typical risks in development programs: either the risk of premature failure, or of costly overdesign. The accounting begins with characterization of the elastomer to quantify governing behaviors: stress-strain response, fatigue crack growth rate, crack precursor size, and strain crystallization. Finite Element Analysis is used to construct a nonlinear mapping between loads and strain components within each element. Multiaxial, variable amplitude strain histories are computed from road loads. Damage accrues in this reckoning via the growth of cracks. Crack growth is calculated via integration of a rate law from an initial size to a size marking end-of-life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1067
Mohannad Hakeem, Gopichandra Surnilla, Christopher House, Michael Shelby, Jason Williams, William Ruona, Naginder Gogna
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in colder and dry climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience less-than-optimal engine combustion which results in reduced on-road fuel economy. Humidity has an EGR-equivalent effect, and measuring it will correct the spark timing, mainly at Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) and borderline conditions, and claim back some of those losses. This paper aims at quantifying the small fuel economy benefits associated with on-board humidity measurement for certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions. Dyno data was collected for a Ford 2.3L GTDI engine at three speed load points, and intake air humidity was varied between 20% and 80% relative humidity. The effect of humidity compensation on spark timing, combustion phasing, knock, and consequently on overall engine efficiency was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0430
Joel Metz, Xin Zhang, Xiao Yu
The Front Lower Control Arm (FLCA) is a key part of the automotive suspension for performance and safety. Most FLCA designs attach to the front subframe using rubber handling and riding bushings, which determine the vehicle dynamics and comfort. In this paper, a design for a compliance bushing using a metal pin structure is discussed. The inner portion of the compliance bushing is a hollow metal collar with a layer of rubber, and the FLCA pin structure is pressed into the rubber. For safety requirements, the bushings must meet a pin push-in and push-out force requirement. During the development of the bushing design, different test groups conducted tests to determine if manufactured parts meet the push-out force specification. Each group tested at a different load rate and generated different maximum push out force values. The push-in/out speed was found to have a strong influence on the generated maximum load.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1485
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Satoko Hirabayashi, Eiichi Tanaka
The reduction of higher brain dysfunction due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head rotational impact in traffic accidents is needed. However, the injury mechanism still remains unclear. Brain parenchyma of the head finite element (FE) model has been generally modeled as simple isotropic viscoelastic materials in past analyses. In this study, we developed a new constitutive model describing most of the mechanical properties in brain parenchyma such as anisotropy in white matter, strain rate dependency, and the characteristics in unloading process for further understanding of TBI mechanism. The validation of the constitutive model were performed against several material test data from the literature by using simple one element model. The model was also introduced into the human head FE model of THUMS v4.02 and then validated against post mortem human subjects (PMHS) test data about brain tissue displacements under rotational impacts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1491
Eunjoo Hwang, Jason Hallman, Katelyn Klein, Jonathan Rupp, Matthew Reed, Jingwen Hu
Finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) have been widely used to understand the injury mechanisms in the motor vehicle crashes. However, current HBMs generally only represent young and mid-size male occupants and therefore do not account for body shape and composition variations among the population. Because it generally takes several years to build a whole-body HBM, a method to rapidly develop HBMs with a wide range of human attributes (size, age, obesity level, etc.) is critically needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate skeleton and whole-body HBMs based on the statistical geometry targets developed previously. THUMS 4.01 mid-size male model jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs. was used in this study as the baseline HBM to be morphed. Radial basis function (RBF) was used to morph the baseline model into other geometries.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1486
Qi Zhang, Bronislaw Gepner, Jacek Toczyski, Jason Kerrigan
While over 30% of US occupant fatalities occur in rollover crashes, no dummy has been developed for such a condition. Currently, an efficient, cost-effective methodology is being implemented to develop a biofidelic rollover dummy. Instead of designing a rollover dummy from scratch, this methodology identifies a baseline dummy and modifies it to improve its response in rollover. Using computational models of the baseline dummy (both multibody and FE), the dummy’s structure was continually modified until its response was aligned (using BioRank metric) with biofidelity targets. A previous study (Part I) identified the THOR dummy as a suitable baseline dummy by comparing the kinematic responses of six existing dummies with PMHS response corridors through laboratory rollover testing. In this study (Part II), the whole-body kinematic response of THOR multibody and FE models were validated with responses of the physical THOR dummy in experiments that simulated rollover conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1136
Amedeo Tesi, Francesco Vinattieri, Renzo Capitani, Claudio Annicchiarico
The electro actuated limited slip differentials (e-LSD) can help increasing the dynamic features of the vehicles, but to implement a well designed control logic a deep knowledge of the actual friction torque built up by the differential clutch is necessary. In particular, an important aspect in the investigation of the clutch disks engagement behavior is the evolution of the friction torque with the natural increase of the wear, but its characterization often enquires complex experimental tests on dedicated test rigs. This work, which places itself in the design process of an e-LSD, presents an alternative method to carry out that study with remarkable benefits in terms of invested resources.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0384
Andrew Cox, Jeong Hong
Lightweight, optimized vehicle designs are paramount in helping the automotive industry meet reduced emissions standards. Self-piercing rivets are a promising new technology that may play a role in optimizing vehicle designs, due to their superior fatigue resistance compared with spot welds and ability to join dissimilar materials. This paper presents a procedure for applying the mesh-insensitive Battelle Structural Stress method to self-piercing riveted joints for fatigue life prediction. Additionally this paper also examines the development a design Master S-N curve for self-piercing rivets. The design Master S-N curve accounts for factors such as various combinations of similar and dissimilar metal sheets, various sheet thicknesses, stacking sequence, and load ratios. A large amount of published data was collapsed into a single Master S-N curve with reasonable data scattering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0379
Gilles Robert, Olivier Moulinjeune, Benoit Bidaine
Short glass fiber reinforced polyamides (SFRP) are a choice material for automotive industry, especially for parts under the bonnet. To develop their application field to more and more complex hydrothermal and mechanical environments, reliable or even predictive simulation technologies are necessary. Integrative simulation takes into account the forming process during final Finite Elements Analysis (F.E.A.). For SFRP, injection is taken into account by computing glass fibers orientation. It is further used to compute on each integration point of the FEA model a specific anisotropic constitutive model thanks to Digimat Software. A wide variety of models is now available. Integrative simulation using Digimat has been proved very efficient for static and dynamic loadings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1508
Gernot Pauer, Michal Kriska, Andreas Hirzer
In view of increasing safety requirements of vehicles, concerning the field of pedestrian safety, it is especially important to support these topics already from a very early stage of the development process, on a completely virtual basis, by CAE- and FE-methods. Especially if different requirements, e.g. for bumper stiffness, pedestrian safety and pedestrian detection may require conflicting structural solutions, design compromises have to be found against a background of an ever reducing number of real prototype testing possibilities, due to economical constraints. One way to overcome conflicting requirements in vehicle design is the usage of active bonnets to fulfill pedestrian head impact requirements. These systems allow increasing the deformation space towards the stiff parts in the engine compartment, but need an extra detection system for reliable activation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1534
Rudolf Reichert, Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan, Daniel Brown
A detailed finite element model of a 2012 Toyota Camry was developed by reverse engineering. The model consists of 2.3M elements representing the geometry, thicknesses, material characteristics, and connections of relevant structural, suspension, and interior components of the mid-size sedan. This paper describes the level of detail of the simulation model, the validation process, and how it performs in various crash configurations, when compared to full scale test results. Under contract with the National Highway Safety Administration and the Federal Highway Administration, the Center for Collision Safety at the George Mason University has developed a fleet of vehicle models which have been made publicly available. The updated model presented in this paper is the latest finite element vehicle model with a high level of detail using state of the art modeling techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0392
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Sai Boorgu, Chonghua Jiang
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60). The joint is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. This joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082. This paper is to develop fatigue life prediction methods for AIW using finite element (FE) techniques. First lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed to characterize the fatigue properties of AIW joint. In FE models of the specimen geometry, the AIW joint was represented with two different methods as area contact method (ACM) and with TIE contact method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0386
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Shyam Pittala, Chonghua Jiang, Brian Jordon
Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet. This paper is tried to predict fatigue life of FSLW using two different methods. Structural stress method is the first one and maximum principal stress based method is the second. FSLW is represented with 2D shell elements for the structural stress approach but is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress based method in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results and two stress approaches. These S-N curves were first used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of simple double lap-shear specimens. Then, the same S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of the front shock tower structures that were constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30 using FSLW.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0375
Sinan Eroglu, Ahmet Hamdi Guzel, Ipek Duman, Rifat Yilmaz
The exhaust manifold is one of the engine components which is used to collect the burned gases from the cylinder head and send it to the exhaust hot end aftertreatment system with low engine backpressure. The main purposes of the automotive exhaust manifolds are to provide a smooth flow field and to be able to endure thermo-mechanical loadings. The present paper explains the CAE analysis method to assess the design of exhaust manifold of a heavy duty diesel engine. Coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to the solve the flow field within the exhaust system and surface convection loading prediction at fluid-solid interface and obtain temperature distribution within the exhaust manifold domain. This temperature distribution is then provided to subsequent FE model to carry out the durability analysis of the structure.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1492
Ming Shen, Haojie Mao, Binhui Jiang, Feng Zhu, Xin Jin, Liqiang Dong, Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan, Clifford Chou, King Yang
To predict the injuries of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Currently, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) representing a pedestrian and an occupant postures with sufficient anatomic details and reasonable biofidelity. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). After the integration of the sub-models, the whole-body pedestrian model (standing) was assembled and a positioning procedure was then conducted to transform it into the occupant model (seated). The two FE models have shown reasonable responses in whole-body impact simulations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1520
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou
The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure of a passenger car meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, the goal of design would be to find an optimum solution that meets both the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1301
Shishuo Sun, David W. Herrin, John Baker
One of the more useful metrics to characterize an isolator is insertion loss. Insertion loss is defined as the difference in transmitted vibration in decibels between the unisolated and isolated cases. Insertion loss is superior to transmissibility in that effects of source and receiver compliance are also included. In this work, the transfer matrix of a spring isolator is determined using finite element simulation and the insertion loss is then determined using assumed values for the compliance on the source and receiver sides. Following this, the effect of different spring parameters such as the number of turns, wire diameter, spring diameter, and damping are investigated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1060
Arnab Ganguly, Niket Bhatia, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Ulhas Mohite
With ride comfort in a motorcycle gaining significance, it is important to minimize vibration levels at the customer touch points. The reciprocating piston imparts rotary motion to the crankshaft which in turn induce unbalance forces and produces vibration in the vehicle, thus influencing the ride quality. Generally, the primary inertial forces are balanced by a combination of balancer body and crank web. However, being a commuter bike, a balancer body could not be accommodated due to cost and space constraints. In such scenario, the primary unbalance forces cannot be completely eliminated but can only be redistributed by adding counterweight to the crankshaft. Proper distribution of these forces are required for optimum vibration levels at motorcycle touch sensitive points (TSP) such as handle bar, footrest etc.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0286
Changsheng Wang, Haijiang Liu, Tao Zhang, Zhiyong Zhu, Liang Liu
With the increasing development in automotive industry, finite element (FE) analysis with model bias prediction has been used more and more widely in the fields of chassis design, body weight reduction optimization and some components development, which reduced the development cycles and enhanced analysis accuracy significantly. However, in the simulation process of plastic fuel tank system, there is few study of model validation or verification, which results that non-risky design decisions cannot be enhanced due to too much consuming time. In this study, to correct the discrepancy and uncertainty of the simulated finite element model, Bayesian inference-based method is employed, to quantify model uncertainty and evaluate the simulated results based on collected data from real mechanical tests of plastic fuel tanks and FE simulations under the same boundary conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0032
Siddartha Khastgir, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Paul Jennings
The introduction of ISO 26262 has brought important changes in the software development process for automotive software. While making the process more robust by introducing various additional methods of verification and validation, there has been a substantial increase in the development time. Thus, test automation has become important to meet product timelines and quality. This paper explores ISO 26262 concepts for software testing at unit and component level, and proposes novel automated testing methods using Simulink Design Verifier™ (SLDV). The types of testing discussed here are Requirement Based testing and Boundary Value testing. The proposed method of automated boundary value testing differs from the traditional method and an argument is made as to why the traditional boundary value testing is not required when the proposed method is followed. For Requirement based testing, a requirement is modelled as a property using SLDV blocks and custom built library blocks in Simulink.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0424
Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Petr Michlik, Jwo Pan
In this paper, residual stress distributions in rectangular bars due to rolling or burnishing at very high rolling or burnishing loads are investigated by roll burnishing experiments and three-dimensional finite element analyses using ABAQUS. First, roll burnishing experiments on rectangular bars at two roller burnishing loads are presented. The results indicate the higher burnishing load induces lower residual stresses and the higher burnishing load does not improve fatigue lives. Next, in the corresponding finite element analyses, the roller is modeled as rigid and the roller rolls on the flat surface of the bar with a low coefficient of friction. The bar material is modeled as an elastic-plastic strain hardening material with a non-linear kinematic hardening rule for loading and unloading.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0426
Francisco C. Cione, Armando Souza, Luiz Martinez, Jesualdo Rossi, Evandro Giuseppe Betini, Fabio Rola, Marco A. Colosio
Studying the formation and distribution of residual stress fields will improve the operational criteria of wheel safety, among other gains. Many engineering specifications, manufacturing procedures, inspection and quality control have begun to require that the residual stress of a particular component be evaluated. It is known that these residual stress fields could be added to the effects of system load (tare weight plus occupation of vehicle traction, braking and torque combined). The results obtained used X-ray diffraction, drilling method with rosette type strain gages, are convergent with similarity to those obtained using FEA simulation over critical region for global and superficial in principal stresses mode. The mathematical tools for modeling and simulations using finite elements had evolved following the increasing computing power and hardware cost reduction.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0504
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
New analytical stress intensity factor solutions for spot welds in lap-shear specimens under clamped loading conditions are developed based on the beam bending theory to account for the bending moment on the clamped grips and the closed form solutions for rigid inclusions in thin plates under various loading conditions. The analytical solutions for selected ratios of the specimen width to the nugget diameter are compared with the computational solutions based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. Analytical stress intensity factor solutions as functions of the ratio of the specimen width to the nugget diameter for both the pinned connected and clamped loading conditions are compared and presented for future engineering applications. The analytical solutions can include the effects of the weld gap, weld bend, and load offset due to the spacer arrangement at the specimen edges.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0497
Brian Falzon, Wei Tan
The development of the latest generation of wide-body carbon-fibre composite passenger aircraft has heralded a new era in the utilisation of these materials. The premise of superior specific strength and stiffness, corrosion and fatigue resistance, is tempered by high development costs, slow production rates and lengthy and expensive certification programmes. Substantial effort is currently being directed towards the development of new modelling and simulation tools, at all levels of the development cycle, to mitigate these shortcomings. One of the primary challenges is to reduce the extent of physical testing, in the certification process, by adopting a ‘certification by simulation’ approach. In essence, this aspirational objective requires the ability to reliably predict the evolution and progression of damage in composites. The aerospace industry has been at the forefront of developing advanced composites modelling tools.
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