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2015-03-16 ...
  • March 16-27, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • September 14-25, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is used by design engineers as a tool during the product development process. Design engineers analyze their own designs while they are still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models to allow for quick turnaround times and to ensure prompt implementation of analysis results in the design process. While FEA software is readily available, successful use of FEA as a design tool still requires an understanding of FEA basics, familiarity with FEA process and commonly used modeling techniques, as well as an appreciation...
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0023
Daniele Barbani, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Abstract In the study of new solutions for motorcycle passive safety, FE models of full-scale crash tests play a strategic role. The most important issue in the development process of FE models is their reliability to reproduce real crash tests. To help the engineering in the validation phase, a sensitivity analysis of a FE model for motorcycle-car crash tests is carried-out. The aim of this study is to investigate the model response subjected to variations of specific input parameters. The DOE is performed generating a list of simulations (each one composed by a unique combination of 8 parameters) through Latin Hypercube Sampling. The outputs monitored are the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Neck Injury Criteria (Nij). The analysis of the results is performed using scatter plots and linear regression curves to identify the parameters that have major impact on the outputs and to assess the type of dependency (linear or non-linear).
2014-10-28 ...
  • October 28-November 7, 2014 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • May 11-22, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 19-30, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions. This course will enable...
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2516
Katsuhiro Uchiyama, Yuji Shishido
Abstract Last year, we presented the “spring - mass model” FEA simulation from stick-slip phenomenon standpoint for improvement of “creep groan”. “Creep groan” is one of representative groan of brake system for automobile and it is clarified by µ vs velocity (µ−V) property of friction material. This time, we will present our study for reduction of creep groan by pad shape parameter (chamfer and slot) with “advanced” spring - mass model” FEA simulation which used actual pad shape as mass model. In addition, this paper was revised based on oral presentation which we presented at SAE 2013.
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2492
Sukumar T, Murugan Subramanian
Abstract This paper presents a systematic procedure for design and evaluation of snap fit for Quadruple System Protection Valve (QSPV) piston assembly. The QSPV piston is assembled with housing by means of snap joint. Snap joints are a very simple, economical and rapid way of joining two different components. All types of snap joints have in common the principle that a protruding part of one component, e.g., a hook, stud or bead is deflected briefly during the joining operation and catches in a depression (undercut) in the mating component. After the joining operation, the snap-fit features should return to a stress-free condition. The joint may be separable or inseparable depending on the shape of the undercut; the force required to separate the components varies greatly according to the design. It is particularly important to bear the following factors in mind when designing snap joints: Mechanical load during the assembly operation and force required for assembly.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2067
Michael Klanner, Mathias Mair, Franz Diwoky, Oszkar Biro, Katrin Ellermann
Abstract The noise vibration and harshness (NVH) simulation of electric machines becomes increasingly important due to the use of electric machines in vehicles. This paper describes a method to reduce the calculation time and required memory of the finite element NVH simulation of electrical machines. The stator of a synchronous electrical machine is modeled as a two-dimensional problem to reduce investigation effort. The electromagnetic forces acting on the stator are determined by FE-simulation in advance. Since these forces need to be transferred from the electromagnetic model to the structural model, a coupling algorithm is necessary. In order to reduce the number of nodes, which are involved in the coupling between the electromagnetic and structural model, multipoint constraints (MPC) are used to connect several coupling nodes to one new coupling node. For the definition of the new coupling nodes, the acting load is analyzed with a 2D-FFT. After the coupling with MPCs, forces are only acting on the newly defined coupling nodes.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2083
Arnaud Caillet, Antoine Guellec, Denis Blanchet, Thomas Roy
Abstract Since the last decade, the automotive industry has expressed the need to better understand how the different trim parts interact together in a complete car up to 400 Hz for structureborne excitations. Classical FE methods in which the acoustic trim is represented as non-structural masses (NSM) and high damping or surface absorbers on the acoustic cavity can only be used at lower frequencies and do not provide insights into the interactions of the acoustic trims with the structure and the acoustic volume. It was demonstrated in several papers that modelling the acoustic components using the poroelastic finite element method (PEM) can yield accurate vibro-acoustic response such as transmission loss of a car component [1,2,3]. The increase of performance of today's computers and the further optimization of commercial simulation codes allow computations on full vehicle level [4,5,6] with adequate accuracy and computation times, which is essential for a car OEM. This paper presents a study of a fully trimmed vehicle excited by structureborne excitations with almost all acoustic trims such as seats, dash insulator, instrument panel, headliner… which are modelled as poroelastic finite element (PEM) parts.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2081
Rainer Stelzer, Theophane Courtois, Ki-Sang Chae, Daewon SEO, Seok-Gil Hong
Abstract The assessment of the Transmission Loss (TL) of vehicle components at Low-Mid Frequencies generally raises difficulties associated to the physical mechanisms of the noise transmission through the automotive panel. As far as testing is concerned, it is common in the automotive industry to perform double room TL measurements of component baffled cut-outs, while numerical methods are rather applied when prototype or hardware variants are not available. Indeed, in the context of recent efforts for reduction of vehicle prototypes, the use of simulation is constantly challenged to deliver reliable means of decision during virtual design phase. While the Transfer matrix method is commonly and conveniently used at Mid-High frequencies for the calculation of a trimmed panel, the simulation of energy transfer at low frequencies must take into account modal interactions between the vehicle component and the acoustic environment. After providing a brief review of the established approaches for TL simulation at LF, the article will present a new FE methodology for TL simulation and introduce the advantages of “in-situ” TL simulations by means of fluid-structure FE calculation.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0039
Christiane Fourment, Julien Barlier, Mickael Barbelet, Patrice Lasne, David Cardinaux
Abstract Virtual forming tools based on Finite Element simulation are routinely used in order to improve process design and to reduce time to market. However, with the growing requirements with regards to in-use properties of forged components, not only the forming processes must be simulated but the entire process chain, including the heat treatment processes that are carried out to improve the mechanical properties of the final part. In order to meet these needs, new heat treatment features have been introduced into the commercial code FORGE®. This paper presents an application of induction hardening to an industrial component. This application demonstrates the strategic capabilities of FORGE® commercial software to achieve production challenges.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0035
Shiva Kumar Manoharan, Christoph Friedrich
Abstract Self-loosening of bolted connections is a crucial failure mode for joints under transverse dynamic load. For some years, three dimensional finite element analysis has been enabled for avoiding experimental investigations of self-loosening. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the effect of joint design on the self-loosening of bolted connections, which is important for product development in early design stage. Joints consisting of internally threaded nut components are often heavier and stiffer as compared with light weight designs consisting of a separate nut. The difference of self-loosening is significant between arrangements with nut thread component and separate nut, although the design versions only contain slight modifications. Hence it is necessary to evaluate the effect of light weight design on self-loosening.
Anytime
Training / Education On Demand Web Seminar RePlay
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions. This course will enable...
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0954
Oday Ibraheem Abdullah, Josef Schlattmann
Abstract Most of failures in automotive friction clutches occur due to the excessive heat generated between the contact surfaces during the slipping period; for this reason, the accurate calculation of the heat generation during the slipping is considered an essential item in the successful design process to avoid the failures due to the high thermal stresses. A finite element technique has been used to study the temperature field, the heat generation and the contact pressure distribution when friction disc slides over the steel disc. Analysis has been completed using a three dimensional model to simulate the thermo-structural coupling in automotive clutches. ANSYS software has been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0890
Shuming Chen, Dengzhi Peng, Dengfeng Wang
Abstract Automobile cabin acoustical comfort is one of the main features that may attract customers to purchase a new car. The acoustic cavity mode of the car has an effect on the acoustical comfort. To identify the factors affecting computing accuracy of the acoustic mode, three different element type and six different element size acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different element type models are meshed in three different ways, tetrahedral elements, hexahedral elements and node coupling tetrahedral and hexahedral elements (tetra-hexahedral elements). The six different element size models are meshed with hexahedral element varies from 50mm to 75mm. Modal analysis test of the passenger car is conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes. All the acoustic cavity models are coupled with the structure model respectively, the cavity modes are calculated with structural-acoustic coupling model.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0790
Jianghui Mao, Sayed Nassar
Abstract In this paper, experimental study and FEA simulation are performed to investigate the effect of three different methods for joining dissimilar metal coupons in terms of their strength and load transferring capacity. The joining techniques considered include adhesive bonding, bolting and hybrid bolting-and-bonding. Elastic-plastic material model with damage consideration is used for each of the joint components. Traction-separation rule and failure criterion is defined for adhesive. Load transfer capacity and the failure mode are assessed for each type of joining. Joint strength is examined in terms of the effects of adhesive property, bolt preload level, and friction coefficient. Results show that load transferred and failure mechanism vary significantly between samples with different joint methods; preload evolution in bolt changes with friction coefficient; hybrid joint generally has advantage over the other two methods, namely, bolting-only and bonding-only. With appropriate damage model, the FEA could successfully simulate the actual failure mode of the single slap joint samples.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0800
Oday Ibraheem Abdullah, Josef Schlattmann, Emir Pireci
Abstract A friction clutch is an essential component in the process of power transmission. Due to this importance, it's necessary to investigate the stresses and vibration characteristics of the rigid drive disc of clutch to avoid failure and obtain an optimal weight and cost. This work presents the numerical solution of computing the stresses and deformations during the steady-state period, as well as the vibration characteristics of the rigid drive disc of friction clutch. Furthermore, new models for rigid drive disc have been suggested. The response of the new suggested models have been compared to the classic model, the numerical results show that the stresses and vibration characteristics of rigid drive disc of clutch can be controlled by adjusting design parameters. They show as well that the suggested models improve the response of the friction clutch considerably. The ANSYS/WORKBENCH14 and SolidWorks 2012 have been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0812
Kyoo Sil Choi, Xiaohua Hu, Xin Sun, Mark Taylor, Emmanuel De Moor, John Speer, David Matlock
Abstract In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of material parameters of the constituent phases on the macroscopic tensile behavior of Q&P steel and to perform a computational material design approach for performance improvement. For this purpose, a model Q&P steel is first produced and various experiments are then performed to characterize the model steel. Actual microstructure-based model is generated based on the information from EBSD, SEM and nano-indentation test, and the material properties for the constituent phases in the model are determined based on the initial constituent properties from HEXRD test and the subsequent calibration of model predictions to tensile test results. The influence of various material parameters of the constituents on the macroscopic behavior is then investigated. Based on the observation of the respective influence of constituent material parameters, a new set of material parameters is devised, which results in better ductility performance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0743
Bo Liu, Zhenfei Zhan, Xuemei Zhao, Haibo Chen, Bo Lu, Yusheng Li, Jian Li
Abstract Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the essential research areas in the automotive industry. It is important to perform design optimization of Body-in-White (BIW) at the concept design phase so that to reduce the development cost and shorten the time-to-market in later stages. Finite Element (FE) models are commonly used for vehicle design. However, even with increasing speed of computers, the simulation of FE models is still too time-consuming due to the increased complexity of models. This calls for the development of a systematic and efficient approach that can effectively perform vehicle weight reduction, while satisfying the stringent safety regulations and constraints of development time and cost. In this paper, an efficient BIW weight reduction approach is proposed with consideration of complex safety and stiffness performances. A parametric BIW FE model is first constructed, followed by the building of surrogate models for the responses of interest. Stochastic design optimization is then performed to reduce the weight of BIW and ensure the robustness and reliability of the optimal design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1028
Venkat Pisipati, Srikanth Krishnaraj, Edgar Quinto Campos
Abstract Motor vehicle safety standards are getting to be more demanding with time. For automotive interiors, instrument panel (IP) head impact protection is a key requirement of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201. To ensure compliance of this requirement, head impact tests are conducted at 12 and 15 mph for performance verification. Computer simulation has become more prevalent as the primary development tool due to the significant reduction in time and cost that it offers. LS-DYNA is one of the most commonly used non-linear solvers in the automotive industry, particularly for safety related simulations such as the head impact of automotive interiors. LS-DYNA offers a wide variety of material models, and material type 024 (MAT 024, piecewise linear plasticity) is one of the most popular ones [1]. Although it was initially developed for metals, it is commonly used for polymers as well. LS-DYNA also offers several other material models specifically developed to simulate polymers, such as material types 019, 089, 123, to name a few.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0532
Simon B. Albrodt, Fadi Tahan, Kennerly Digges
Abstract Different roof strength methods are applied on the 2003 Ford Explorer finite element (FE) model to achieve the current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 requirements. Two different modification approaches are utilized. Additionally, the best design of each approach is tested dynamically, in rollover and side impact simulations. In the first approach, several roll cage designs are integrated in all pillars, roof cross-members, and in the side roof rails. A roll cage design with a strength-to-weight ratio (SWR) of 3.58 and 3.40 for driver and passenger sides, respectively, with a weight penalty of 18.54 kg is selected for dynamic test assessments. The second approach investigates different localized reinforcements to achieve a more reasonable weight penalty. A localized reinforcement of the B-pillar alone with a tube meets the new FMVSS 216 requirements with a weight penalty of 4.52 kg and is selected for dynamic analyses. The two selected reinforcement designs are tested in a dynamic unconstrained rollover crash under different pitch angles while using common rollover initial conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0522
Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Satheesh Narayanan
Abstract A logistic regression analysis of accident cases in the NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrian pelvis injuries tend to be complex and depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, and the gender and age of the pedestrian. Adult female models (50th %ile female AF50: 161 cm and 61 kg; 5th %ile female AF05: 154 cm and 50 kg) were developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50 and substituting the pelvis of the GHBMC AM50 model. The fine-meshed pelvis model thus obtained is capable of predicting pelvis fractures. Simulations conducted with these models indicate that the characteristics of pelvis injury patterns in male and female pedestrians are influenced by the hip/BLE height ratio and to some extent by the pelvis bone shape. A previously developed six-year-old (6YO) child pedestrian model and the newly developed models were used to estimate the head impact time (HIT) for a typical SUV fitted with an active pop-up hood system.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0531
Madhav Khadilkar
Abstract The purpose of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 is to reduce fatalities and serious injuries when vehicle roof crushes into occupant compartment during rollover crash. Upgraded roof crush resistance standard (571.216a Standard No. 216a) requires vehicle to achieve maximum applied force of 3.0 times unloaded vehicle weight (UVW) on both driver and passenger sides of the roof. (For vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating ≤ 6,000 lb.) This paper provides an overview of current approach for dual side roof strength Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and its limitations. It also proposes a new approach based on powerful features available in virtual tools. In the current approach, passenger side loading follows driver side loading and requires two separate analyses before arriving at final assessment. In the proposed approach only one analysis suffices as driver and passenger side loadings are combined in a single analysis. This is achieved by using sensors to control loadings, resulting in reduced consumption of CPU time (for computer simulation) and disk space utilization without compromising accuracy of current approach.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0485
Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko
Abstract The high frequency of fatal head injuries of elderly people in traffic accidents is one of the important issues in Japan. One of the causes may be vulnerability of the aged brain. While a human head/brain FE model is a useful tool to investigate head injury mechanism, there has not been a research result using a model considering the structural and qualitative changes of the brain by aging. The objective of this study was to clarify the generational difference of intracranial responses related to traumatic brain injuries (TBI) under impact loading. In this study, the human head/brain FE models in their twenties (20s) and seventies (70s) were used. They were developed by reflecting the age-specific characteristics, such as shape/size and stiffness of brain matter and blood vessels, to the baseline model developed by Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) LLC. The generational difference of intracranial responses related to TBI, such as cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM), dilatational damage measure (DDM) and elongation of bridging vein (BV), were studied using the models.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0486
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
In the present study, transfer equations relating the responses of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to the mid-sized male Hybrid III test dummy (HIII50) under matched, or nearly-identical, loading conditions were developed via math modeling. Specifically, validated finite element (FE) models of the Ford Human Body Model (FHBM) and the HIII50 were used to generate sets of matched cases (i.e., 256 frontal impact cases involving different impact speeds, severities, and PMHS age). Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting age-dependent FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was conducted for five different body regions: head, neck, chest, femur, and tibia. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (PHMS relative to HIII50) were consistent with the limited available test-based results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0541
Gwansik Park, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall, Andy Svendsen, Nathaniel Saunders, Craig Markusic
Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the three computational surrogates (GHBMC model, WorldSID model, and the FTSS ES-2re model) under the side impact rigid wall sled test condition. The responses of the three computational surrogates were compared to those of post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) and objectively evaluated using the correlation and analysis (CORA) rating method. Among the three computational surrogates, the GHBMC model showed the best biofidelity based on the CORA rating score (GHBMC =0.65, WorldSID =0.57, FTSS ES-2re =0.58). In general, the response of the pelvis of all the models showed a good correlation with the PMHS response, while the response of the shoulder and the lower extremity did not. In terms of fracture prediction, the GHBMC model overestimated bone fracture. The results of this study can be effectively utilized in a research that mainly relies on the response of computational surrogates without experimental tests, especially initial development stage of countermeasures for occupant protection from vehicular accidents.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0515
Tushar Baviskar, Jagadish Mahadevaiah, Vijay Shankar Iyer, Mark Neal
Abstract EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactors have been used to assess the risk of pedestrian upper leg injuries with respect to regulatory and consumer metric rating requirements. The paper compares the femur injury responses between the finite element models of the EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactor, the FlexPLI and the 50th percentile male GM/UVa pedestrian model on two sample vehicle architectures, for a sedan and a sports utility vehicle. The study shows that the peak femur load and maximum bending moment response are higher in the EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactor than the FlexPLI and the human body model. Variation studies are carried out to study the influence of impact location on the vehicle, impactor knee height, additional upper body mass and human body model size on the femur injury responses. The FlexPLI femur responses correlate better with those of the human body model and indicate that the impactor has the potential to be an effective surrogate leg form of a pedestrian with appropriate refinement.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0983
Andrey Ilinich, S. George Luckey
Abstract This paper documents the finite element (FE) analysis of a hot stamping process for high strength aluminum sheet. In this process a 7075 blank, heated above its solvus temperature, was simultaneously die quenched and stamped in a room temperature die to form a B-pillar outer reinforcement. Two modeling approaches have been investigated: an isothermal mechanical model and a non-isothermal coupled thermo-mechanical model. The accuracy of each approach was assessed by comparing the predicted strain and thickness distributions to experimental measurements from a formed panel. The coupled thermo-mechanical model provided the most accurate prediction.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0355
Atishay Jain
Abstract One of the key aspects of designing a race car chassis is Torsion Stiffness (Roll stiffness). Designers strive to develop a chassis design with a high value of roll stiffness to counter the forces applied by the suspension during cornering while keeping the weight as low as possible. CAD and static analysis techniques are instrumental for virtual testing and validation in the initial stages of a project prior to experimental testing. This paper intends to encapsulate elementary analysis skills and their application in designing and developing tubular frame structures for amateur racing vehicles and simultaneously focusing on reducing the time for the design and development process. The objective of this paper is to calculate, analyze and optimize the torsion stiffness of a Formula SAE/ Formula Student chassis using an analysis model developed and optimized for quicker design iterations and to compare different design proposals based on certain key parameters in the nascent stage of project development.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1869
Takashi Kato, Takashi Fukushige, Kan Akatsu, Robert Lorenz
Abstract This paper describes a variable magnetomotive force interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine for use as a traction motor on automobiles in order to reduce total energy consumption during duty cycles and cut costs by using Dy-free magnets. First, the principle of a variable magnetomotive force flux-intensifying IPM (VFI-IPM) machine is explained. A theoretical operating point analysis of the magnets using a simplified model with nonlinear B-H characteristics is presented and the results are confirmed by nonlinear finite element analysis. Four types of magnet layouts were investigated for the magnetic circuit design. It was found that a radial magnetization direction with a single magnet is suitable for the VFI-IPM machine. Magnetization controllability was investigated with respect to the magnet thickness, width and coercive force for the prototype design. The estimated variable motor speed and torque characteristics are presented. Following the explanation of the design process, the experimental results obtained for the prototype machine are described.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1085
Camille Baelden, Tian Tian
Piston rings are large contributors to friction losses in internal combustion engines. To achieve higher engine efficiency, low friction ring packs that can maintain good sealing performance must be designed. To support this effort, simulation tools have been developed to model the performance of piston rings during engine operation. However, the challenge of predicting oil consumption, blow by, and ring pack friction with sufficient accuracy remains. This is mostly due to the complexity of this system. Ring dynamics, deformation, interaction with liner and piston, gas and lubricant flow must all be studied together to make relevant predictions. In this paper, a new curved beam finite element model of piston rings is proposed. Ring structural deformation and contact with the liner are treated on two separate grids. A comparison with ring models in the literature and analytical solutions shows that it can provide accurate results efficiently. The proposed model can serve as a numerical framework to couple ring structural deformation, interaction with liner and piston, and predict oil transport.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1175
Michael Tess, Jaal Ghandhi
The effects of imaging system resolution and laser sheet thickness on the measurement of the Batchelor scale were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. The Batchelor scale was determined by fitting a model spectrum to the dissipation spectrum that was obtained from fuel tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the in-cylinder scalar field. The imaging system resolution was quantified by measuring the step-response function; the scanning knife edge technique was used to measure the 10-90% clip width of the laser sheet. In these experiments, the spatial resolution varied from a native resolution of 32.0 μm to 137.4 μm, and the laser sheet thickness ranged from 108 μm to 707 μm. Thus, the overall resolution of the imaging system was made to vary by approximately a factor of four in the in-plane dimension and a factor of six in the out-of-plane dimension. The Batchelor scale was found to increase linearly with the laser sheet thickness; a beam half-width of less than six times the effective in-plane resolution was required for 10% accuracy.
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