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2017-06-05 ...
  • June 5-16, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 4-15, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2017-05-08 ...
  • May 8-19, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 16-27, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is used by design engineers as a tool during the product development process. Design engineers analyze their own designs while they are still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models to allow for quick turnaround times and to ensure prompt implementation of analysis results in the design process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1090
Praveen Kumar Tumu, KungHao Wang, Juhchin Yang, Selvakumar Palani, Balaji Srinivasan
In the shop floor, cracking issue was noticed during assembly of valve seat and valve guide in the engine cylinder head, especially near the valve seating area. This paper reveals a non- linear finite element methodology to verify the structural integrity of a cylinder head during valve seat and valve guide assembly press-in operation under the maximum material condition. Material and geometrical nonlinearities, and contact are included in this method to replicate the actual seat and guide press-in operation which is being carried out in shop floor. The press-in force required for each valve seat and valve guide assembly is extracted from simulation results to find out the tonnage capacity of pressing machine for cylinder head assembly line. Stress and plastic deformation due to assembly load are the criteria checked against the respective material yield.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1134
Taechung Kim, Jaret Villarreal, Luke Rippelmeyer
For a front engine front wheel drive (FF) transmission, compactness is one of the main design constraints. In these transmissions, a multiple axis configuration is used to transmit torque from multiple planetary systems to the wheel. Although general characteristics of a simple planetary gear (component) have been studied, no specific investigations are available in literature explaining interactions between planetary systems and torque-transmitting parallel axis gears (full unit or sub-system). This is because analytical calculations of planetary components are already complex and using conventional finite element analysis (FEA) is impossible because it requires a micron size mesh to analyze gear contact correctly. In this paper, a sub-system FEA model (Using Transmission3D FEA Code by AnSOL) of a Ravigneaux and a counter gear pair is introduced. The influences of a parallel axis counter gear on pinions loads are explored by investigation in gear root stress pattern changes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0256
Xianhe Wu, Yudong Fang, Zhenfei Zhan, Xu Liu, Gang Guo
Vehicle weight reduction has become one of the most crucial problems in the automotive industry. Increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, such as fuel economy and environmental protection, must be met. The lightweight design needs to consider various vehicle attributes, including crashworthiness and stiffness. Therefore, the essence of vehicle weight reduction is a typical Multidisciplinary Design Optimization problem. To improve the computational efficiency, meta-models have been widely used as the surrogate of FE model in the multidisciplinary optimization of large structures. However, these surrogate models introduce additional sources of uncertainty, such as model uncertainty, which may lead to the poor accuracy in prediction. In this paper, a method of corrected Surrogate model based multidisciplinary design optimization under uncertainty is proposed to incorporate both of the uncertainties introduced by meta-models and design variables.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1464
Sandeep Sharma, Shailesh Pawar
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is an imperative tool in automotive world for virtual validation of designs during early stages of development cycle. A robust approach in numerical simulation is required to achieve the desired results as rollover performance of complete vehicle is complex in nature and depends on many parameters of design. In present study, complete methodology developed for analysis and simulation of a passenger bus rollover event in an FEA solver. This involved multiple physical tests of strength check for bus body joints. In order to establish FE method of joint modeling, results of these individual tests are correlated with the outcomes of equivalent FE simulations. Then, a finite element model of complete bus was developed using established method. Bus FE model validated with the actual measurements of center of gravity and mass distribution between the axles so that it accurately represents the complete built up bus vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0445
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Arunkumar S, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum
In recent years, there is increasing demand for every CAE engineer on their confidence level of the virtual simulation results due to the upfront robust design requirement during early stage of an automotive product development. Apart from vehicle feel factor NVH characteristics, there are certain vibration target requirements at system or component level which need to be addressed during design stage itself in order to achieve the desired functioning during vehicle operating conditions. Vehicle passive safety system is one of which primarily consists of acceleration sensors, control module and air-bag deployment system. As the sensors act as the front-end of passive safety system and control module’s decision is based on these sensors signals, its mounting locations should meet the sufficient inertance or dynamic stiffness performance in order to avoid distortion in signals due to its structural resonances.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0285
Navid Nazemi, Mohammad Alam, Syed Saqib, Ruth Jill Urbanic, Afsaneh Edrisy
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties of a substrate such as corrosion and wear resistance. For a surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and the bead characteristics are varying for different overlap bead conditions. The complex temperature distributions in the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three pass bead formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0452
David A. Stephenson
Thermally sprayed engine bores require surface preparation prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion. Mechanical roughening methods, in which a fine-scale dovetail profile is cut into the bore wall, produce surfaces which are easily gaged and are attractive for high volume. The currently available mechanical roughening methods are finish-boring based processes in which a standard boring insert is replaced with a PCD insert in which the roughening profile has been cut by EDM. These methods require diameter-specific tooling and significant clearance at the bottom of the bore for tool overtravel and retraction. This paper describes a new mechanical roughening method based on circular interpolation rather on finish boring. This method uses two tools: a side cutting end mill with peripheral grooves, which cuts a series of concentric grooves in the bore wall through interpolation, and a rotary swage which deforms the grooves to produce an undercut.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0451
Klaus-Peter Heinig, David A. Stephenson, Timothy G. Beyer
Thermally sprayed coatings are used in place of iron bore liners in some aluminum engine blocks. The coatings are steel-based, and are sprayed on the bore wall in the liquid phase. The thermal response of the block structure determines how rapidly coatings can be applied and thus the investment and floor space required for the operation. It is critical not to overheat the block to prevent dimensional errors, metallurgical damage, and thermal stress cracks. This paper describes an innovative finite element procedure for estimating both the substrate temperature and residual stresses in the coating for the thermal spray process. Thin layers of metal at a specified temperature, corresponding to the layers deposited in successive thermal spray torch passes, are applied to the substrate model, generating a heat flux into the block. The thickness, temperature, and application speed of the layers can be varied to simulate different coating cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0454
Colin Young
Contacts between different meshed components in a finite element model frequently present modeling challenges. Tracking the progress of contact and separation is computationally expensive and may result in non-convergence of the model. In many contact problems of practical interest, such as bolted assemblies or in a shaft bearing where the shaft is constrained against rotation, it is clear that the components are in essentially constant contact and relative motion between them is negligible. In these cases, we can reduce the computational burden by defining an interface between the bodies using modeling devices other than the contact commands. Some approaches in common use, such as tying the meshed surfaces together, while they resolve convergence issue, can result in non-physical stress distributions and un-conservative results in some cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0453
Zane Yang
Considered in this study by the use of finite element model is a unit of assembled stator and one-way clutch (OWC) whose inner chamber is maintained at a given temperature of 150 degree C while its exterior housing surfaces are exposed to the room temperature. Two key components of dissimilar metals are assembled, as usual, at the room temperature, through the conventional interface fitting, to form a secured joint by the means of internal friction forces so that torque loads are capable to be transmitted. Due to the dissimilar materials and resulting difference in their thermal expansion coefficients, an outer component of aluminum from this joint tends to expand more than the inner component of steel when the temperature rises. This work is indented to demonstrate that using a combined thermal and structural FEA can play a pivoting role in designing not only a robust product, but also a vital test procedure that can really captures how the product functions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0470
Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Structural stress solutions for flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole (without and with gap) are investigated. Analytical structural stress solutions at the critical locations of FDS joints based on the analytical solutions for a rigid inclusion in a thin plate under various loading conditions are first obtained. Finite element analyses are then conducted to verify the analytical solutions. The fatigue life estimations of the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens with and without clearance hole (without and with gap) based on the structural stress solutions are in agreement with those of the experimental results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0475
Catherine Amodeo, Jwo Pan
The mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for the pre-existing cracks near continuous and discontinuous gas metal arc welds in lap-shear specimens are investigated. Two-dimensional, plane strain finite element analyses were carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for the idealized and realistic weld geometries as the references. Then the stress intensity factor solutions for continuous and discontinuous welds were obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. The computational results indicate that the distributions of the mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for the discontinuous weld are quite different from those for the continuous weld.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1323
Jerry Lai, Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
In the assembly of axle and wheel hub, a nut is frequently used to fasten the two components. In order to retain the nut in final position to hold the axle assembly, crimping is a widely-used method to prevent nut from loosening. A reliable crimping process not only prevents the movement of nut during axle operation but also minimizes the possibility of cracking the rim. Nut can start to rust and deteriorate if crack exists. Service life span of the axle assembly hence shortened as a result. The quality of crimping operation is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the crimping tool geometry. It would be time-consuming and costly to evaluate these factors empirically; let alone the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0338
Jeong Kyun Hong, Andrew Cox
Even under uniaxial loading, seemingly simple welded joint types can develop multi-axial stress states, which must be considered when evaluating both the fatigue strength and failure location. Two well established examples of this are a hollow tube through a flat plate and a flat plate with an angled attachment plate. The stress distribution at these weld failure locations show significant in-plane shear stress in addition to the usual normal stress. Previously the author noted that when only the normal structural stress is considered for these joints the predictions of both the fatigue failure location and the fatigue life using the master S-N curve approach are inaccurate because the in-plane shear stress plays a significant role in the development of the crack.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0333
Kurt Munson, Frederic Kihm, Andrew Halfpenny
Finite Element Analysis (FEA)-based structural simulations are typically used to assess the durability of automotive components. Many parts experience vibration in use, and resonance effects are directly linked to many structural problems. In this case, dynamics must be included in the structural analysis. Dynamic FEA can be more realistic than static analysis, but it requires knowledge of additional characteristics such as mass and damping. Damping is an important property when performing dynamic FEA, whether transient or steady state frequency response, as it governs the magnitude of the dynamic stress response and hence durability. Unfortunately the importance of damping is often overlooked; sometimes a default damping value is erroneously assumed for all modes. Errors in damping lead to errors in the stress response, which in turn lead to significant changes in the fatigue life estimates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0341
Seyyedvahid Mortazavian, Javid Moraveji, Reda Adimi, Xingfu Chen
Engine camshaft cap components experience high number of fluctuating loads during engine operation. The problem is complicated in engines with variable cam timing, because the loading for these components are sensitive to engine valve timing (combustion phasing) which can lead to catastrophic overload or fatigue failures. Improving the design of these components using computer-aided tools can drastically reduce the cost and time to the market of the final acceptable design, by eliminating the number of physical prototypes. Hence, a decent and robust finite element analysis with representative load and boundary conditions can significantly reduce the premature failures in engine development. In this study, first a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a cap punching bench test. Effect of punch radius and shape on the component stiffness is investigated and correlated with test data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0337
Kalyan S. Nadella
Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for vehicles. Cooling modules typically include radiator, charge air cooler, transmission oil cooler, low-temp radiator and condenser. Typical loading on cooling modules comes from body, in the form of road loads. The road load accelerations are commonly utilized to predict the high-stress regions and predict the fatigue life of the components. In certain cases where components are attached to both body and engine, the cooling module components can experience additional loads which might require additional analysis to determine the fatigue life. In the proposed paper we look at the effect of engine roll on the fatigue life of transmission oil cooler which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe. Bench tests were used to prove out the mode of failure observed in the simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0353
Matilde Scurria, Sinem Emre, Benjamin Möller, Rainer wagener, Tobias Melz
Manganese sulfides (MnS) are nonmetallic, ductile inclusions with high melting temperature (1610 °C) which improve the machinability and retard the grain growth in steels, in addition to contributing to avoid cracking during hot working. In this paper, the effect of manganese sulfides on the fatigue life of forged steel is discussed. As the initial state a wrought product of rolled steel with a high sulfur content of 0.073% is used. Orthogonal to the direction of rolling, a cylinder is extracted and forged in the axial direction, decreasing the height by a factor corresponding to an upset (logarithmic) strain of -1.35 at a temperature of 1200°C. Due to this upset forging process, the MnS are compressed to thin and long particles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0342
Benjamin Möller, Alessio Tomasella, Rainer wagener, Tobias Melz
In case of highly loaded welded structures, the fatigue strength of critical sections is dominated by plastic strains in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime. Regarding fatigue, the transition from the weld seam to the base material, which additionally is affected by the heat input due to welding, is the most critical region. Fatigue life assessment by the notch strain concept is based on the evaluation of the local strain at the weld toe or weld root and includes the cyclic material behavior. The choice of the stress-strain relation is connected to the cyclic stress-strain curve and a hardening model. Stress-controlled fatigue test results of butt joints and transverse attachments show a linear extension (in the log-log scale) of the S-N line into the LCF regime. Therefore, the nominal and notch stress concept can be applied up to at least 5,000 cycles to failure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0543
Oliver Hofmann, Shijin Han, Daniel Rixen
This study discusses model-based injection rate estimation in common rail diesel injectors exhibiting aging phenomena. Since they result in unexpected injection behavior, aging effects like coking or cavitation may impair combustion performance, which justifies the need for new modeling and estimation approaches. To predict injection characteristics, a simulation model for the bottom section of the injector is introduced, with a main focus on modeling the hydraulic components. Using rail pressure and control piston lift as inputs, a reduced model is then derived in state-space representation, which may be used for the application of an observer in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environments. Both models are compared and validated with experimental data, with which they show good agreement. Aging efects and nozzle wear, which result in model uncertainties, are considered using a fault model in combination with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) observer scheme.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0419
Yuliang Yang, Yu Yang, Ying Sun, Jian Zeng, Yunquan zhang
The vehicle performances are studied through the ride comfort and handling stability commonly. While the lateral performance should be mainly considered for the centre axle trailer combination, such as the maximum stable side-inclination, the anti-rolling stability, the lateral stability and so on. Based on the finite element method, a rigid-flexible coupling model for the truck combination was built and analyzed in the multi-body environment (ADAMS), in which the key components of the chassis and cab suspension were treated as flexible bodies. According to the auto standards and regulations, the lateral stability of the centre axle trailer was evaluated through several simulation analyses. The variables' effects on the lateral stability were studied by design of experiment. Furthermore, in order to improve the lateral stability of the trailer combination, the optimal design was obtained by the co-simulation of the ADAMS/Car, iSIGHT and Matlab.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0423
Lei Yang, Chuxuan Wang, Yunqing Zhang
The frame is an important subsystem for the FSAE race car, as it supports and connects to other subsystems. The weight, frequency and structure of the frame influence on the race car performances such as acceleration, handling, ride and durability. A rigid-flexible coupling FSAE race car model with flexible frame is implemented in ADAMS/car. By extracting the forces and torques of the joints which connect the frame to other subsystems in various race car extreme conditions, the loads transfer path from road and aerodynamic forces to the frame is discussed. The strength, stiffness and free mode analysis of the frame are carried out by means of Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the stress analysis and checking are under loads extracted from dynamic simulation with the rigid-flexible coupling FSAE race car model. According to the FEA results, an optimization of the frame is implemented by topological and size optimization.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0346
Radwan Hazime, Thomas Seifert, Jeremy Kessens, Frank Ju
Increasing the efficiency of heavy duty internal combustion engines is directly related to increasing specific power and, thus, increasing combustion pressure and temperature. One key component of the engine is the cylinder head which must withstand these higher temperatures and higher pressures. The path of increasing loads intensifies design conflicts, as e.g. associated with the fire deck of cylinder heads: the deck should be as thin as possible to avoid critical thermal stresses during the low frequency thermal transients but sufficiently thick to avoid failures due to the high frequency combustion pressure. A superficial solution of the design conflict is the usage of superior cast iron materials. Vermicular graphite cast iron show higher strength and fatigue resistance than the classically used lamellar graphite cast iron. However, due to their lower thermal conductivity, higher thermal stresses will arise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1136
Jack S.P. Liu, Natalie Remisoski, Javed Iqbal, Robert Egenolf
Automotive vehicles equipped with Cardan joints may experience a low frequency vehicle launch shudder vibration (5-30Hz) and a high frequency driveline moan vibration (80-200Hz) under operated angles and speeds. The Cardan joint introduces a 2nd order driveshaft speed variation and a 4th order joint articulation torque (JAT) causing the vehicle shudder and moan NVH issues. Research on the Cardan joint induced low frequency vehicle shudder using MBS method has been attempted. A comprehensive MBS method to predict the Cardan joint induced high frequency driveline moan vibration is yet to be developed. This paper presents a hybrid Multi-Body System (MBS) and FEA approach to predict the Cardan joint induced high frequency driveshaft moan vibration. The CAE method considers the elastically coupled driveshaft bending and engine block vibration due to Cardan joint excitation. Detailed driveshaft, joints, slip mechanism, differential, axle and wheel were modeled using a MBS modeling tool.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0011
Kesav Kumar Sridharan, Swaminathan Viswanathan
Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit board. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Hence it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each of the manufactured module is not practical.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1234
Srikanthan Sridharan, Joseph Kimmel, Jun Kikuchi
Dc-link capacitor sizing considerations are discussed for HEV/EV e-Drive systems. The capacitance value of the dc-link in HEV/EV e-Drive systems affects numerous factors. For example, some of the most significant are the system stability and the maximum tolerable dc-bus transient voltage with operating point change or with worst-case energy dump into the capacitor. Also to be paid attention is the equivalent series resistance and inductance of the capacitor module, because they affect thermal behavior of the capacitor module and voltage spikes occurring across a power semiconductor switch with its every turning-off instant, respectively. In addition, these factors are cross-coupled with other power-stage component parameters, control structures and controller gains. Furthermore such effects and cross-couplings are operating point dependent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1237
Ahmad Arshan Khan, Michael J. Kress
For high performance motor controls applications such as electric vehicles, accurate motor parameter knowledge is required. Motor parameters like inductances, resistance and permanent magnet flux linkage are difficult to obtain and measure directly. These parameters vary considerably depending on operating conditions. Various methods are available in literature to obtain motor parameters offline. Usually motor designers use finite element analysis to calculate inductance estimate. Normally motor data necessary to come up with finite element model is unavailable and not provided by manufacturers. Even if provided, simulation results rarely match experimental results. Other methods commonly used in industry are locked rotor test and no-load test. However, parameters obtained by using such tests differ from parameters in real operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1315
Balaji Arumugam, KungHao Wang, Juhchin Yang
During cylinder block and cylinder head assembly, the traditional cup-plug pressing operation is based on process and equipment that are dedicated to a single assembly line. This approach no longer matches the demand for a quick change of assembly line setup to satisfy customers’ responses in the automobile industry. Furthermore, the pressing operation is performed in multiple separate operations across the assembly line. As a result, it is difficult to control the cost and quality of the pressing process. To address this issue, a flexible cup-plug pressing operation was introduced in the engine assembly line. The quality of a flexible pressing operation is determined by the component design, fixture design, support pad mounting location, pressing parameters, and assembly load. It would be extremely time-consuming to evaluate all these factors either empirically or through physical trials.
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