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2017-06-05 ...
  • June 5-16, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 4-15, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2017-05-08 ...
  • May 8-19, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 16-27, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is used by design engineers as a tool during the product development process. Design engineers analyze their own designs while they are still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models to allow for quick turnaround times and to ensure prompt implementation of analysis results in the design process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1640
Peng Liu, Liyun Fan, Wenbo Peng, Xiuzhen Ma, Enzhe Song
A novel high-speed electromagnetic actuator for electronic fuel injection system of diesel engine is proposed in this paper. By using permanent magnet and annular flange, the design of novel actuator aims to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the conventional solenoid electromagnetic actuator, such as high power consumption and so on. The finite element model (FEM) of novel actuator is developed. Combined with design of experiments and finite element analysis, the second order polynomial response surface models (RSM) of electromagnetic force of novel actuator are produced by the least square principle. Then the influence mechanisms and interaction effects of key design variables on the electromagnetic characteristics of novel actuator are revealed by RSM.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1239
Naoya Take, Takuya Kadoguchi, Masao Noguchi, Kimihiro Yamanaka
Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternative motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. The good fuel efficiency and high power density are requested in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of power module will be necessary. This trend may make current density, which is operated by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and Free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration which exchanges momentum from electrons to metallic atoms .This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area and void formation. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0341
Seyyedvahid Mortazavian, Javid Moraveji, Reda Adimi, Xingfu Chen
Engine camshaft cap components experience high number of fluctuating loads during engine operation. The problem is complicated in engines with variable cam timing, because the loading for these components are sensitive to engine valve timing (combustion phasing) which can lead to catastrophic overload or fatigue failures. Improving the design of these components using computer-aided tools can drastically reduce the cost and time to the market of the final acceptable design, by eliminating the number of physical prototypes. Hence, a decent and robust finite element analysis with representative load and boundary conditions can significantly reduce the premature failures in engine development. In this study, first a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a cap punching bench test. Effect of punch radius and shape on the component stiffness is investigated and correlated with test data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0894
Nishant Singh
Improving fuel economy has been a key focus across automotive and truck industry for several years if not decades. In heavy duty commercial vehicles, the benefits from small gains in fuel economy lead to significant savings for fleets as well as owners and operators. Additionally, the regulations require vehicles to meet certain GHG levels which closely translate to vehicle fuel economy. For current state of the art FE technologies, incremental gains are so small that they are hard to measure on an actual vehicle. Engineers are challenged with high level of variability to make informed decisions. In such cases, highly controlled tests on Engine and Powertrain dynos are used, however, there is an associated variability even with these tests due factors such as part to part differences, fuel blends and quality, dyno control capabilities and so on.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1310
Harihar T. Kulkarni, Yu Wang, James Alanoly
The perceived quality of automotive closures (flushness and margin) is strongly affected by flanging and hemming of the outer panels and assembly respectively. To improve the quality of closures, the traditional hardware approach needs significant amount of time and costly die re-cuts and trials with prototype panels. Thus, such approach may delay the vehicle program and increase the overall investment cost. The proposed CAE methodology approach provides upfront design guidance to dies and panels, reduces time and cost associated with flanging and hemming trials necessary to improve overall quality of the closures. In this approach, as a first step, analytical formulae and design of experiments (DOE) are followed to estimate magnitude of design parameters of panels and dies to provide upfront design guidance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1323
Jerry Lai, Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
In the assembly of axle and wheel hub, a nut is frequently used to fasten the two components. In order to retain the nut in final position to hold the axle assembly, crimping is a widely-used method to prevent nut from loosening. A reliable crimping process not only prevents the movement of nut during axle operation but also minimizes the possibility of cracking the rim. Nut can start to rust and deteriorate if crack exists. Service life span of the axle assembly hence shortened as a result. The quality of crimping operation is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the crimping tool geometry. It would be time-consuming and costly to evaluate these factors empirically; let alone the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1220
Ahmad Arshan Khan
In an electrified vehicle, magnet temperature plays a critical role in determining optimal current control trajectory of an interior permanent magnet machine. Monitoring magnet temperature is a challenging task. In lab and various specialized applications, infrared sensors or thermocouples are used to measure the temperature. But it adds cost, maintenance issues and their integration to electric machine drives could be complicated. To tackle the issues due to sensor based methods, various sensor-less model based approaches are proposed in the literature recently such as flux observer, high-frequency signal injection, and thermal models, etc. Although magnet temperature monitoring received a lot of attention of researchers, very few papers give a detailed overview of the effects of magnet temperature on motor control from a controls perspective. In this paper, we will show the effect of the change in magnet temperature on Maximum Torque per Ampere control and Flux Weakening Control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1234
Srikanthan Sridharan, Joseph Kimmel, Jun Kikuchi
Dc-link capacitor sizing considerations are discussed for HEV/EV e-Drive systems. The capacitance value of the dc-link in HEV/EV e-Drive systems affects numerous factors. For example, some of the most significant are the system stability and the maximum tolerable dc-bus transient voltage with operating point change or with worst-case energy dump into the capacitor. Also to be paid attention is the equivalent series resistance and inductance of the capacitor module, because they affect thermal behavior of the capacitor module and voltage spikes occurring across a power semiconductor switch with its every turning-off instant, respectively. In addition, these factors are cross-coupled with other power-stage component parameters, control structures and controller gains. Furthermore such effects and cross-couplings are operating point dependent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0338
Jeong Kyun Hong, Andrew Cox
Even under uniaxial loading, seemingly simple welded joint types can develop multi-axial stress states, which must be considered when evaluating both the fatigue strength and failure location. Two well established examples of this are a hollow tube through a flat plate and a flat plate with an angled attachment plate. The stress distribution at these weld failure locations show significant in-plane shear stress in addition to the usual normal stress. Previously the author noted that when only the normal structural stress is considered for these joints the predictions of both the fatigue failure location and the fatigue life using the master S-N curve approach are inaccurate because the in-plane shear stress plays a significant role in the development of the crack.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0337
Kalyan S. Nadella, Yi Zhang
Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for vehicles. Cooling modules typically include radiator, charge air cooler, transmission oil cooler, low-temp radiator and condenser. Typical loading on cooling modules comes from body, in the form of road loads. The road load accelerations are commonly utilized to predict the high-stress regions and predict the fatigue life of the components. In certain cases where components are attached to both body and engine, the cooling module components can experience additional loads which might require additional analysis to determine the fatigue life. In the proposed paper we look at the effect of engine roll on the fatigue life of transmission oil cooler which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe. Bench tests were used to prove out the mode of failure observed in the simulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1136
Jack S.P. Liu, Natalie Remisoski, Javed Iqbal, Robert Egenolf
Automotive vehicles equipped with Cardan joints may experience a low frequency vehicle launch shudder vibration (5-30Hz) and a high frequency driveline moan vibration (80-200Hz) under operated angles and speeds. The Cardan joint introduces a 2nd order driveshaft speed variation and a 4th order joint articulation torque (JAT) causing the vehicle shudder and moan NVH issues. Research on the Cardan joint induced low frequency vehicle shudder using MBS method has been attempted. A comprehensive MBS method to predict the Cardan joint induced high frequency driveline moan vibration is yet to be developed. This paper presents a hybrid Multi-Body System (MBS) and FEA approach to predict the Cardan joint induced high frequency driveshaft moan vibration. The CAE method considers the elastically coupled driveshaft bending and engine block vibration due to Cardan joint excitation. Detailed driveshaft, joints, slip mechanism, differential, axle and wheel were modeled using a MBS modeling tool.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0453
Zane Yang
Considered in this study by the use of finite element model is a unit of assembled stator and one-way clutch (OWC) whose inner chamber is maintained at a given temperature of 150 degree C while its exterior housing surfaces are exposed to the room temperature. Two key components of dissimilar metals are assembled, as usual, at the room temperature, through the conventional interface fitting, to form a secured joint by the means of internal friction forces so that torque loads are capable to be transmitted. Due to the dissimilar materials and resulting difference in their thermal expansion coefficients, an outer component of aluminum from this joint tends to expand more than the inner component of steel when the temperature rises. This work is indented to demonstrate that using a combined thermal and structural FEA can play a pivoting role in designing not only a robust product, but also a vital test procedure that can really captures how the product functions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0454
Colin Young
Contacts between different meshed components in a finite element model frequently present modeling challenges. Tracking the progress of contact and separation is computationally expensive and may result in non-convergence of the model. In many contact problems of practical interest, such as bolted assemblies or in a shaft bearing where the shaft is constrained against rotation, it is clear that the components are in essentially constant contact and relative motion between them is negligible. In these cases, we can reduce the computational burden by defining an interface between the bodies using modeling devices other than the contact commands. Some approaches in common use, such as tying the meshed surfaces together, while they resolve convergence issue, can result in non-physical stress distributions and un-conservative results in some cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0543
Oliver Hofmann, Shijin Han, Daniel Rixen
This study discusses model-based injection rate estimation in common rail diesel injectors exhibiting aging phenomena. Since they result in unexpected injection behavior, aging effects like coking or cavitation may impair combustion performance, which justifies the need for new modeling and estimation approaches. To predict injection characteristics, a simulation model for the bottom section of the injector is introduced, with a main focus on modeling the hydraulic components. Using rail pressure and control piston lift as inputs, a reduced model is then derived in state-space representation, which may be used for the application of an observer in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environments. Both models are compared and validated with experimental data, with which they show good agreement. Aging efects and nozzle wear, which result in model uncertainties, are considered using a fault model in combination with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) observer scheme.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1431
Ke Dong, Brian Putala, Kristen Ansel
Out-of-position (OOP) driver tests were designed to address concerns about airbag introduced injury in situations while the occupant is nearer to the airbag module than in a normal seated position. The 5th percentile female has instrumentation for measuring ATD sternum displacement (potentiometer) and acceleration (accelerometers) which can be used to compute compression rate. This paper documents a study investigating the capability of the chest accelerometers to accurately assess non-distributed loading of the chest during this test configuration. The study included ATD mechanical loading and instrumentation review. Finite element analysis was conducted using a Hybrid 3 - 5th percentile female ATD correlated to testing. The correlated restraint model was utilized with a Hybrid 3 – 50th percentile male ATD. A 50th percentile male Global Human Body Model was then applied for enhanced anatomical review.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0366
Xingyu Liang, Yuesen Wang, Shuhe Huang, Guichun Yang, Lin Tang, Guoqi Cui
Due to the mechanical forces under high temperature and pressure conditions, the engine cylinders cross section will not be a round circle any more once they are installed. Therefore, both static and dynamic conditions can change the geometry of the cylinders. On the other hand, deformation of engine cylinder causes increasing lubricating oil consumption and abnormal wear, resulting of worse fuel economy and emissions. However, prediction of deformation on a liner has not been made because of the complication of conditions and structure. In this study, a V6 engine body model was built and meshed with Hypermesh suit software. Also, cylinder deformation under static condition has been simulated and analyzed. Basically, few parameters like pre-tightened force, structure and distribution of bolts have been investigated to figure out how the cylinder bore deformation behaves via finite element analysis. Also, a simple Matlab program had been developed to process the data.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1462
Haiyan Li, Xin Jin, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui, Binghui Jiang, King H. Yang
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinetic responds and injury mechanisim. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Patameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, was analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1237
Ahmad Arshan Khan, Michael J. Kress
For high performance motor controls applications such as electric vehicles, accurate motor parameter knowledge is required. Motor parameters like inductances, resistance and permanent magnet flux linkage are difficult to obtain and measure directly. These parameters vary considerably depending on operating conditions. Various methods are available in literature to obtain motor parameters offline. Usually motor designers use finite element analysis to calculate inductance estimate. Normally motor data necessary to come up with finite element model is unavailable and not provided by manufacturers. Even if provided, simulation results rarely match experimental results. Other methods commonly used in industry are locked rotor test and no-load test. However, parameters obtained by using such tests differ from parameters in real operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1090
Praveen Kumar Tumu, KungHao Wang, Juhchin Yang, Selvakumar Palani, Balaji Srinivasan
In the shop floor, cracking issue was noticed during assembly of valve seat and valve guide in the engine cylinder head, especially near the valve seating area. This paper reveals a non- linear finite element methodology to verify the structural integrity of a cylinder head during valve seat and valve guide assembly press-in operation under the maximum material condition. Material and geometrical nonlinearities, and contact are included in this method to replicate the actual seat and guide press-in operation which is being carried out in shop floor. The press-in force required for each valve seat and valve guide assembly is extracted from simulation results to find out the tonnage capacity of pressing machine for cylinder head assembly line. Stress and plastic deformation due to assembly load are the criteria checked against the respective material yield.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1453
Sudip Sankar Bhattacharjee, Shahuraj Mane, Harsha Kusnoorkar, Sean Hwang, Matt Niesluchowski
Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Assessment methods become more complicated for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic deployment systems, that are typically used to lift up the hood surface for creating more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro-NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1495
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank, Krishna Srikanth Achanta
At the time of invention of road coaches, the vehicle consisted only of an axle with wheels & a body attached. Smooth roads were built for a better ride comfort however they were not consistent. The road coaches were too bumpy & uncomfortable for the passenger along with the driver who was not able to control the vehicle. That's why the engineers had to turn their attention to the suspension system for a better ride comfort & handling. The technology has advanced with the time so has the suspension system. Weveller type leaf spring is one of the many type of suspension systems available in the industry. The job of a suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to act as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver & passengers. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0285
Navid Nazemi, Mohammad K. Alam, Ruth Jill Urbanic, Syed Saqib, Afsaneh Edrisy
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties of a substrate such as corrosion and wear resistance. For a surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and the bead characteristics are varying for different overlap bead conditions. The complex temperature distributions in the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three pass bead formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1488
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank, Riddhish Pathak
The job of a suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to act as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver & passengers. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. Almost all heavy duty vehicles use inverted type suspension system which is also called as bogie type suspension system. The design of this type of suspension is a complex and difficult science which has evolved over many years. It was recognized very early in the development of suspensions that the interface between vehicle body and wheel needed some sort of cushioning system to reduce the vibration felt as the vehicle moved along. This was already part of road coach design and took the form of leaf (laminated) steel springs mounted on the axles, upon which the vehicle body rested.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0396
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Hao Wang, Elizabeth Lekarczyk, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0423
Lei Yang, Qiang Li, Chuxuan Wang, Yunqing Zhang
Abstract This paper focuses on dynamic analysis and frame optimization of a FSAE racing car frame. Firstly, a Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model of the racing car is established using ADAMS/Car. The forces and torques of the mechanical joints between the frame and suspensions are calculated in various extreme working conditions. Secondly, the strength, stiffness and free vibration modes of the frame are analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The extracted forces and torques in the first step are used as boundary conditions in FEA. The FEA results suggest that the size of the frame may be not reasonable. Thirdly, the size of the frame is optimized to achieve minimized weight. Meanwhile the strength and stiffness of the frame are constrained. The optimization results reveal that the optimization methodology is powerful in lightweight design of the frame.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0346
Radwan Hazime, Thomas Seifert, Jeremy Kessens, Frank Ju
Increasing the efficiency of heavy duty internal combustion engines is directly related to increasing specific power and, thus, increasing combustion pressure and temperature. One key component of the engine is the cylinder head which must withstand these higher temperatures and higher pressures. The path of increasing loads intensifies design conflicts, as e.g. associated with the fire deck of cylinder heads: the deck should be as thin as possible to avoid critical thermal stresses during the low frequency thermal transients but sufficiently thick to avoid failures due to the high frequency combustion pressure. A superficial solution of the design conflict is the usage of superior cast iron materials. Vermicular graphite cast iron show higher strength and fatigue resistance than the classically used lamellar graphite cast iron. However, due to their lower thermal conductivity, higher thermal stresses will arise.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0168
B. Vasanth, Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sathya Narayana, S. Sathish Kumar, Murali govindarajalu
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. In the vehicles having third row seat, floor duct is connected to the rear HVAC and it is routed under the seat below the carpet to provide the airflow. Passenger would keep the luggage in the third row carpet area by unfolding the seat and there is a chance that passenger might walk over the duct routing carpet area. Due to the overloading of luggage, duct might get damaged or deformed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1080
Yanan Wei, Shuai Yang, Xiuyong Shi, Jiaqi Li, Xuewen Lu
Abstract This paper aimed at a gasoline engine "cylinder head- cylinder gasket-cylinder body-bolt" sealing system, built the 3D solid model and the finite element model of the assembly, and calculated the stress and strain of the cylinder gasket under the cylinder pressure and the deformation of the engine block. In addition, based on the calculation results, this paper put forward the optimization scheme of the cylinder gasket structure, re-established the simulation model, and get the calculation results. The calculation results showed that the cylinder pressure had influence on the sealing performance of the cylinder gasket, and the influence of cylinder pressure should be taken into consideration when designing the cylinder gasket. When the cylinder pressure was applied, the overall contact stress of the cylinder gasket had decreased, and the whole remaining height of the gasket had increased.
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