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2017-06-05 ...
  • June 5-16, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 4-15, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2017-05-08 ...
  • May 8-19, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 16-27, 2017 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is used by design engineers as a tool during the product development process. Design engineers analyze their own designs while they are still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models to allow for quick turnaround times and to ensure prompt implementation of analysis results in the design process.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0086
Sanjai Sureshkumar, Subhashree Rajagopal, Anand Subramaniam, Ganesh Nagarajan, Karthik Nagarajan
Abstract With Increasing environmental concerns and high fuel prices, the automotive industry is shifting its focus to electric vehicles (EVs). Electric motor being the heart of an electric vehicle, faces a major design challenge to have optimum performance and structural strength at an affordable cost. Synchronous reluctance motor offers higher power density at low cost since the rotor is free from permanent magnets or field excitation. However, torque fluctuations at low speed is a major concern. This is amended by altering the width of the barriers to improve the saliency ratio which aids in better electromagnetic performance. But, on contrary, the barrier width adjustment has an impact on structural integrity of the motor, eventually affecting the electromagnetic performance. Hence, a tradeoff between the performance and structural strength is necessary to make it more practical for the application.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0135
Bandu Shamrao Zagade, Vijay Sharma, Thomas Körfer
Proposed Title: "Tuning & validation of DPF for India Market" Authors: Bandu Zagade1 , Vijay Sharma1 Thomas Körfer2 1FEV India, 2FEV Group Holding GmbH Corresponding author: zagade@fev.com Key Words: Diesel engine, emissions, DPF, Fuel, driving cycles, DPF regeneration, DeSOx & oil dilution ABSTRACT: In a move to curb vehicular pollution, Indian Government decided to bring forward the date for BSVI standards into effect from April 2020 while skipping the intermediate BSV stage. The plan to implement BSVI norms, which was initially scheduled for 2024 according to the National Auto Fuel Policy dated April 27, 2015, has now been slotted for April 2020. For particulate mass (PM) emissions to be brought down to the BS VI level (4.5mg/km), diesel passenger cars need to be fitted with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove soot from the exhaust gas of the diesel engine.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0111
MY Raghu, Prashant Sharma
In recent times diesel powered vehicles are becoming popular due to improved performance and economic viability, with this the market share of diesel passenger cars is expected to approach 60 percent over the next few years. In compliance with future emission standards for diesel powered vehicles, it is required to use Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) along with other exhaust emission control devices. There is a need for use of optimized DPF cell structure for maximum soot load capacity with low pressure drop to suit Indian driving conditions. In this paper a detailed parametric study have been carried out on different DPF cell structures like Square, Hexagonal and combined cell geometry. The performances of different cell structure has been evaluated for maximum soot loading capacity , regeneration rate, pressure drop, temperature distribution across cell structure.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0263
Vikas Palve, Prashant Bhavsar, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Gyanendra Roy
In fuel tank virtual validation, not much attention is given to the effect fluid-structure interaction which is very important in dynamic analysis of two-wheeler. Currently, in fuel tank analysis the fuel mass is represented by non-structural mass (NSM) or density adjusted elements of shell. This paper describes the suitability of FE analysis using the virtual fluid mass methodology in fuel tank validation. Using the VFM method modal analysis is performed keeping the fuel tank 90% filled and results are compared with physical testing. The VFM (using MFLUID) method is much more reliable and accurate than the NSM or density adjusted method. The modal frequencies obtained in VFM technique are in proximity with the physical testing results. Further, the fuel tank and its mountings are evaluated for frequency response analysis with excitation in vertical direction using VFM.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0233
Solairaj Perumal, Abhay Kumar, Arun Mahajan, Dinesh Redkar, Sureshkumar Balakrishnan
The tractor engine related mounting brackets are very critical due to different aspects of vehicle performance, durability and noise. These mounting bracket have been designed as a framework to support engine external parts like muffler, exhaust tail pipe, fuel filter, alternator etc. Vibration and fatigue has been continuously a concern which may lead to structural failure and performance issues. Various such failures are faced regularly by automotive industry and finite element based analysis are used to resolve them. The resolution is done by playing with the component thicknesses, material, by providing additional support etc. However, due to large degree of uncertainty associated with the loading, boundary conditions, manufacturing, environmental effects; still there is some probability of failure. This paper focuses on a field failure issue of an exhaust system of a tractor and subsequent concern resolution.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0025
Govardan Daggupati, Bapanna Dora Karedla, Chandan Bansilal Chavan, Gagandeep Singh Risam
Abstract In two wheelers the front suspension system is mounted on chassis by two steering bearings which are lubricated ball type angular contact bearings with significant radial force components. These bearings are designed to withstand maximum vehicle loads for target durability. Maximum load carrying capacity depends on the number and size of the balls, bearing size and material. For target durability with designed load carrying capacity, the ball contact pressure, bearing preload plays a major role as compared to other design parameters. Geometry parameters and maximum load defines contact pressure for given bearing design. But in two wheelers due to nature of usage and road conditions, the peak loads are dynamic and geometry based design calculations may not yield the most optimal bearing design. In this work the bearing ball race profile design is optimized by using dynamic bearing contact profiles by using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis.
2016-11-01
Book
Pawel M. Kurowski
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by the automotive industry as a productivity tool for design engineers to reduce both development time and cost. This essential work serves as a guide for FEA as a design tool and addresses the specific needs of design engineers to improve productivity. It provides a clear presentation that will help practitioners to avoid mistakes. Easy to use examples of FEA fundamentals are clearly presented that can be simply applied during the product development process. The FEA process is fully explored in this fundamental and practical approach that includes: • Understanding FEA basics • Commonly used modeling techniques • Application of FEA in the design process • Fundamental errors and their effect on the quality of results • Hands-on simple and informative exercises This indispensable guide provides design engineers with proven methods to analyze their own work while it is still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2345
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang
Abstract In order to study the static and dynamic characteristics of the thrust rod. Based on the multi-body dynamics theory, the dynamic model of the thrust rod and the vehicle system is established by using ADAMS software. The limit braking condition is simulated, and the limit braking load of the thrust rod is obtained. Thrust rod finite element model is established, the load calculation value and rubber test data as a finite element analysis of input conditions, using ABAQUS software to carry on the stiffness and strength analysis, analysis results show that the strength meets the requirement, and the stiffness and strength calculation result is in good agreement with the sample test, accurately describes the finite element model. The analytical method used can be used to predict the stiffness of the thrust rod.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2349
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Jham Tikoliya
Abstract To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For commercial vehicles, an attempt is made to decrease weight of the current design without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road/engine load cases and severe environmental conditions. The topic was chosen because of interest in higher payloads, lower weight, and higher efficiency. Automotive cylinder head must be lighter in weight, to meet increasingly demanding customer requirements. The design approach for cylinder head has made it difficult to achieve this target. A designer might make some judgment as to where ribs are required to provide stiffness, but this is based on engineering experience and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the stand-alone head.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2341
Arnab Ganguly, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, R Pradeepak
Abstract When a scooter is put on main stand, it keeps the vehicle from falling as it rests against the engine crankcase. As the main stand is operated it transmits a large amount of load to the crankcase, thus creating a necessity to check the durability of the later. Practical tests showed that continuous application of the main stand resulted in the failure of its pivot area on the crankcase. This raised questions not just on the feasibility of the crankcase design in terms of durability, but also on the main stand design in terms of a load transmitting member. However, as the project was at its later stage, crankcase design could not be altered; thus it asked for a main stand design optimization. The base main stand model was thus taken for MBD simulation and loads were generated for further FEA analysis. The meshed crankcase model was taken in a commercially available FEA code for checking its durability.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2350
Zhien Liu, Jiangmi Chen, Sheng-hao Xiao
Abstract This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8101
Yoshimune Mori, Akifumi Yoshimura, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito, Atsushi Fujimoto, Zenzo Yamaguchi, Koichi Honke
Abstract In a typical mechanical product such as an automobile or construction machinery, it is important to identify deformation modes, for which experiments and analyses can result in significant improvements. It is also important to consider how to improve the structure with high rigidity by using a technique such as the strain energy method in conventional design and development. However, the abovementioned method often generates conflicting results with regard to weight saving and cost reduction of development requirements. Transfer path analysis (TPA) using the finite element method (FEM) is an effective way to reduce noise and vibration in the automobile with respect to these issues. TPA can reveal the transfer path from the input to the response of the output point and the contribution of the path, and to efficiently consider improved responses.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8067
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Kamal Rohilla, Gaurav Paliwal, Naveen Sukumar, Naveen Pratap Tripathi
Abstract Three on the tree, four on the floor. The gear change mechanism is a component that is too often taken for granted but it is one of the more important features of the vehicle. It must be quick and smooth in action, efficient and totally reliable. Modern driving conditions demand that the driver makes frequent gear changes and a mechanism that is temperamental or inaccurate can be both frustrating and dangerous as well as physically tiring. The gear changing mechanism starts, quite obviously, with the gear lever. Most stem from the fact that a gear lever must move in two planes, forward and back and then from side to side to move across the gear "gate". A good many drivers think of gear changing as one simple action. This is more a tribute to the design of gear changing mechanisms than a reality. There are multiple gear selector mechanisms that are available for use in commercial vehicle industry.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8051
Jixiu Zhang, Shuming Chen, Dengfeng Wang
Abstract In order to predict the interior noise of a commercial vehicle cab, a finite element model of a heavy commercial vehicle cab was established. An acoustic-structure coupling model of the cab was built based on experimentally validated structure model and acoustic model of a commercial vehicle cab. Moreover, based on the platform of Virtual. Lab, the acoustic field modes of the acoustic model of the commercial vehicle cab and the coupled modes of the acoustic-structure coupling model were analyzed by using the acoustic-structure coupling analysis technique. The excitation of the vehicle cab was tested at an average speed on an asphalt road. Then, the interior noise of the heavy commercial vehicle cab was predicted based on FEM-FEM method and FEM-BEM method with all the parameters and excitation. Furthermore, the predicted interior noise of the commercial vehicle cab was compared with the tested interior noise.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2126
Ali Mohamed Abdelhafeez, Sein Leung Soo, David Aspinwall, Anthony Dowson, Dick Arnold
Abstract Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2047
K. Suresh, Rajkumar Dhande, Udupi Ananthakrishna Acharya
Abstract Reducing the amount of physical testing is of importance in the aeronautical industry, where each physical test represents a significant cost. Apart from the cost aspect, it may also be difficult or hazardous to carry out physical testing. Specific to the aeronautic industry are also the relatively long development cycles, implying long periods of uncertainty during product development. In any industry a common viewpoint is that of verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification using simulation models are critical activities for a successful development of a product. In Aeronautical application, the design of store's structural equipments needs to be certified in accordance with MIL-T-7743F [1]. This paper focuses on a case study for shock analysis, whereby an attempt has been made to reduce the cost of certification by way of replacing the actual physical testing by a reliable high fidelity FE simulation.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1999
Debabrata Pal, Frank Feng
Abstract In 3-phase AC application, there is additional heat dissipation due to skin effects and proximity effects in bus bars. In addition, when the 3- phase AC is used to drive a motor at high fundamental frequency, for example between 666 Hz and 1450 Hz, there are higher bus bar losses due to presence of higher frequency harmonic content. High frequency current carrying bus bars in aircraft power panels are typically cooled by natural convection and radiation. In this paper a thermal and electrical finite element analysis (FEA) is done for a bus bar system. For electrical loss modeling, 3D electromagnetic FEA is used to characterize losses in three parallel bus bars carrying AC at various frequencies. This loss analysis provides correlation of heat loss as function of frequency. A method is presented where this AC loss is incorporated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based thermal model.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1910
Philippe Dufrenoy, Vincent Magnier, Ruddy MANN, Anne-Lise CRISTOL, ITZIAR SERRANO
Abstract An original methodology is described to characterize mechanical properties of braking sintered material from the microstructure. Firstly, a compressive test on cube extracted from the friction pad is performed. This compressive test is instrumented with a camera leading to use the digital image correlation method giving local information. Indeed, it is possible to identify the elastic and residual strains mechanisms and to make connection with the microstructure. All these information are introduced in a finite element analysis to identify the mechanical properties of the components using an optimization algorithm. As regards of the 2D measurements, it is relevant to confirm the tendency with a 3D information. Secondly, an ex-situ compression test in a micro tomography is performed. This test is coupled to digital image correlation and a 3D simulation is performed exhibiting elastic-plastic behavior and confirming results found in the 2D study.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1931
Aaron Völpel, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
Abstract In today’s research and development of brake systems the model-based prediction of complex vibrations and NVH phenomena plays an important role. Despite the efforts, the high dimensional computational simulation models only provide a limited part of the results gained through experimental measurements. Several reasons are discussed by the industry and academic research. One potential source of these inadequacies is the very simple formulation of the friction forces in the simulation models. Due to a significant shorter computation time (by orders of magnitude), the complex eigenvalue analysis has been established, in comparison to the transient analysis, as the standard method in the case of industrial research, where systems with more than one million degrees of freedom are simulated.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1958
Seungpyo Lee, Nahyon Lee, Jongkeun Lim, Jungyang Park
Abstract Through transmitting power and carrying vehicle weight, automotive wheel bearings play an important role. Counterbalancing the bearing responsibilities, they also are designed to last the life of a vehicle without servicing. When mounted to the vehicle steering knuckle by bolts, distortion occurs to the outer ring. Performance is affected when distortion takes place at the seal mounting location and raceways. Finite element analysis using commercial software was performed to analyze the outer ring distortion. Elasto-plastic and contact analyses were carried out to compute the clamping behavior of the outer ring, bolts and the knuckle under various conditions. To verify the reliability of this study, the distortion of the outer ring was measured. The experimental results proved to be comparative with the analysis results.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1911
Philippe Dufrenoy, Vincent Magnier, Yassine WADDAD, Jean-Francois Brunel, Gery DE SAXCE
Abstract During friction it is well known that the real contact area is much lower to the theoretical one and that it evolves constantly during braking. It influences drastically the system’s performance. Conversely the system behavior modifies the loading conditions and consequently the contact surface area. This interaction between scales is well-known for the problematic of vibrations induced by friction but also for the thermomechanical behavior. Indeed, it is necessary to develop models combining a fine description of the contact interface and a model of the whole brake system. This is the aim of the present work. A multiscale strategy is propose to integrate the microscopic behavior of the interface in a macroscopic numerical model. Semi-analytical resolution is done on patches at the contact scale while FEM solution with contact parameters embedded the solution at the microscale is used. Asperities and plateaus are considered at the contact interface.
2016-09-16
Journal Article
2016-01-9017
Janka Cafolla, Derick Smart, Barry Warner
Abstract The lifting and excavating industry are not as advanced as automotive in the use of modern CAE tools in the early stages of design and development of heavy machinery. There is still a lack of confidence in the integrity of the results from FE simulations and optimisation and this becomes a barrier to the adoption of virtual prototyping for vehicle verification. R&D of Tata Steel has performed tests on two forklift truck overhead guards supplied by a major manufacturer. Based on the international standard for Falling Object Protective Structures (FOPS) as an initial input to the method of testing, the main aim of this study was to generate as much test data as possible to correlate the Finite Element (FE) simulations of two tests - a static and a dynamic test. The static test was developed to deform the overhead guard plastically in a slow controlled manner, so it would be easier to correlate the measured data to FE simulation.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1857
Ettore Lappano, Frank Naets, Martijn Vermaut, Wim Desmet, Domenico Mundo
Abstract This paper proposes a specific parametric model order reduction (pMOR) scheme for the efficient evaluation of beam based structures. The model to be parameterized is a Finite Element (FE) model that represents a generic network of beams with a number of distinct cross-section types. The methodology considers geometrical parameters that describe the cross-section and the material properties of the beams as the design parameters of interest. An affine representation of the model is derived based on the description of the deformation of a uniform beam. This affine representation can be exploited for the hyper-reduction where the evaluation cost of the system matrices is reduced. The reduction of the system matrices is obtained through a projection based approach. For a given number of parameter combinations a modal basis is constructed. A global reduced order basis (ROB) is obtained through a principal component analysis of these local bases.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1780
Francesca Ronzio, Theophane Courtois
Abstract In automotive acoustics, body NVH design is traditionally carried out without considering the acoustic trim parts. Nevertheless, the vibro-acoustic interaction of body structure and insulation trim cannot be neglected in the middle frequency range, where structure borne propagation might still be dominating and where classical statistical approaches are generally not able to represent the influence of local changes in stiffness and damping. This, together with the market requirement of lightweight and more efficient sound package solutions, is leading the CAE engineers to evaluate new design approaches dedicated to vehicle components such as dash or floor systems, for which the multi-physics interaction between damping, body stiffness and trim impedance is important.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1849
Arnaud Caillet, Luca Alimonti, Anton Golota
Abstract The need for the industry to simulate and optimize the acoustic trim parts has increased during the last decade. There are many approaches to integrate the effect of an acoustic trim in a finite element model. These approaches can be very simple and empirical like the classical non-structural mass (NSM) combined to a high acoustic damping value in the receiver cavity to much more detailed and complex approach like the Poro-Elastic Materials (PEM) method using the Biot parameters. The objective of this paper is to identify which approach is the most appropriate in given situations. This article will first make a review of the theory behind the different methods (NSM, Impedances, Transfer Matrix Method, PEM). Each of them will be investigated for the different typical trim families used in the automotive industry: absorber, spring/mass, spring/mass/absorber.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1813
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
Abstract The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1819
Antonio J. Torregrosa, Alberto Broatch, Vincent Raimbault, Jerome Migaud
Abstract Intake noise has become one the main concerns in the design of highly-supercharged downsized engines, which are expected to play a significant role in the upcoming years. Apart from the low frequencies associated with engine breathing, in these engines other frequency bands are also relevant which are related to the turbocharger operation, and which may radiate from the high-pressure side from the compressor outlet to the charge air cooler. Medium frequencies may be controlled with the use of different typologies of resonators, but these are not so effective for relatively high frequencies. In this paper, the potential of the use of multi-layer porous materials to control those high frequencies is explored. The material sheets are located in the side chamber of an otherwise conventional resonator, thus providing a compact, lightweight and convenient arrangement.
2016-06-15
Journal Article
2016-01-1777
Sebastian Oberst, Zhi Zhang, Joseph CS Lai
Abstract Despite significant progress made in the past 20 years in discovering some of the mechanisms of brake squeal, it remains difficult to predict the underlying friction-induced instabilities reliably. Most numerical analyses are based on linear deterministic analyses of structural vibrations such as the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA). However, nonlinear multi-scale processes govern friction contact with high sensitivities to operating and/or environmental conditions. In addition, uncertainties in the material properties and boundary conditions such as contact and friction laws are rarely considered. Hence, it is quite common to underpredict or overpredict the number of instabilities and extensive brake noise dynamometer tests are still required in industry to ensure acceptable brake noise performance. In this paper, simplified finite element brake models are used to illustrate the role of nonlinearity in brake squeal.
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