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2015-10-19 ...
  • October 19-30, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2015-09-14 ...
  • September 14-25, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been widely implemented by automotive companies and is used by design engineers as a tool during the product development process. Design engineers analyze their own designs while they are still in the form of easily modifiable CAD models to allow for quick turnaround times and to ensure prompt implementation of analysis results in the design process.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2135
Martin Schulz, Michael Sinapius
A designer of a new mechanical ice protection system for airplanes needs to know how much and in which way he has to deform the surface to break off the ice. The ice adhesion strength is often used as design value. To measure the adhesive strength several methods have been published. This paper presents a review about those methods and discusses the way the adhesion strength is derived. Finite Element Method is used to give a good insight into the stress state at failure for different load cases. The implication of these illustrations is that equations which use only ultimate force and total interfacial area to calculate adhesion strength miss the local stress state at the crack tip and the complex process of crack growing. Hence the derived adhesion strength may not be comparable with others, because they depend in fact on neglected parameters like specimen size, substrate thickness and stiffness.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2294
Kodali Ajay Krishna, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Sanjeevgouda Patil, Mansinh Kumbhar
One of the primary excitation sources in a passenger car comes from the powertrain [1]. Refinement of powertrain induced noise is one of the major tasks during a full vehicle NVH refinement. For better fuel efficiency and emission norms, vehicle manufacturers need to focus drastically on reducing the weight and also at the same time achieving defined NVH targets. Due to ever increasing demand for reducing the development cycle of the design, most critical decisions have to be made at the concept stage of the powertrain design itself. Combustion excitation forces and powertrain radiated noise are the most important design factors along with the thermal, durability, and strength requirements that must be evaluated during concept stage and also during other stages of the development process. Solution time for calculating the radiated noise using the existing acoustic solvers is very high and requires very expensive resources (software and hardware).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2237
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Sergey Medyanik
Structural-Acoustic Joints for Incompatible Models in the Energy Finite Element Analysis Sergey Medyanik, Michigan Engineering Services, LLC Nickolas Vlahopoulos, University of Michigan In the EFEA method, the governing differential equations are formulated for an energy variable that has been spatially averaged over a wavelength and time averaged over a period. Differential equations are derived for all wave bearing domains within a system. Each differential equation represents a power balance over a control volume. The corresponding fundamental solutions vary exponentially with space, thus requiring only a small number of elements to capture numerically the smooth spatial variation. Joint matrices are required between the finite elements at locations where discontinuities in the primary EFEA variables exist.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2287
Yaqiong Deng, Yanjing Zhao, Xiandi Zeng
Among the lower frequency vehicle NVH problems, booming noise is one of the most concerned issues. There are all kinds of booming noises from different driving conditions such as idling, driving away, and driving at lower speed on coarse road. In order for a vehicle to avoid those booming noises, the vehicle has to be designed to have the right structures and right counter -measures for all conditions possible for booming noise. One of the most common booming noise sources is the torsional vibration of the powertrain and driveline for rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive vehicle. The solutions for this problem are either to use a torsional dynamic absorber or to use a lower stiffness clutch. Both solutions require the modal frequency of the torsioanal vibration of the powertrain and driveline. At early design stages, vehicle prototype is not available for measuring this frequency. Analytical method is usually used to calculate this frequency.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2233
Hudson P. V, V Shivaraj, Sukumar T, Suresh Gaikwad
Generally the brake system products are mounted on chassis with brackets which are subjected to dynamic loads due to road undulations. Exhaust brake is used to restrict the engine exhaust flow passage and thereby creates a back pressure in the engine for reducing the engine speed. This in turn reduces the vehicle speed. This is widely used in the vehicles operating in the hilly areas. This product is mounted on the exhaust passage and the air cylinder sub-assembly which actuates the exhaust brake is mounted on a bracket. Automotive industries perform durability tests on vehicles to reduce the failure on end-user environment. An assembly which has cleared the durability test got failed on addition of a spring into the assembly. The inclusion of spring is for enhancing the performance of the overall assembly. This paper deals with investigations carried out using finite element method (FEM) to study the effect of spring on the assembly and to propose a design solution for the failure.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2356
Huangxing Chen, David W. Herrin
The insertion loss of louvered terminations is determined using acoustic finite element analysis. The analysis is conducted in the plane wave regime and the source is anechoic. Insertion loss is determined by taking the difference between the sound power with and without the louvers at the termination. The effect of different louver configurations on insertion loss is examined. Parameters investigated include louver length, angle, spacing between louvers, and sound absorption thickness.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2357
Hiromichi Tsuji, Kimihiko Nakano
In the early stage of digital phase and prototype experimental phase, the identification of the operational force on the components and the most important paths of the vibration correlated to the one of the evaluation points, such as steering, seats, and passenger ears, is required for optimizing the dynamic characteristics of the subsystem components of the vehicle. The transfer path analysis (TPA) with the impedance matrix of the component joints is widely used and reliable method to identify the force and the paths of the noise and vibration. However, the conduction of this TPA costs a lot of times. In addition, the estimated force includes not contributing to the evaluation responses. The uncorrelated force to the evaluation responses causes the design errors of the dynamic characteristics in the digital development phase. To solve the problems, a new force estimation technique is presented in this paper.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2236
Parimal Tathavadekar, Ricardo O. de Alba Alvarez, Michael Sanderson, Rabah Hadjit
Finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used in the automotive industry to predict low frequency NVH behavior (<150 Hz) of structures. Also, statistical energy analysis (SEA) framework is used to predict high frequency (>400 Hz) noise transmission from the source space to the receiver space. A comprehensive approach addressing the entire spectrum (>20 Hz) by taking into account structure-borne and air-borne paths is not commonplace. In the works leading up to this paper a hybrid methodology was employed to predict structure-borne and air-borne transfer functions up to 1000 Hz by combining FEA and SEA. The dash panel was represented by FE structural subsystems and the noise control treatments (NCTs) and the pass-throughs were characterized via testing to limit uncertainty in modeling. The rest of the structure and the fluid spaces were characterized as SEA subsystems.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2194
Giorgio Bartolozzi, Marco Danti, Guido Nierop, Andrea Camia
Abstract Within the automotive industry, a typical way to account for tires in a roadnoise mission simulation is to use the “modal model” supplied by tire manufacturers. Even though this kind of models is certified by the suppliers and is very simple to use, it has the drawback to be disconnected from the physical description of the tire. This reflects in limiting the carmaker company to be able only to request certain modal characteristics to the supplier. The aim of this paper is to present an accurate, yet easy to use, methodology to develop an FE model of a tire, to be used in a full-vehicle simulation. The determined model must be connected to the tire physical properties. These properties are not measured directly, but determined by tuning a properly created geometric FE model to the measured point inertances of the inflated tire. This allows creating the model only by using an optimization algorithm to tune such properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Abstract Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU), or pair of ECUs, need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics' high-speed dynamics due to PWM signals frequently in the 10-20 kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor colocated with analog and digital input and output, the FPGA makes it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of one microsecond.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0693
Tadashi Naito, Yuta Urushiyama, Michael Bruyneel
Abstract The strength characteristic of CFRP composite materials often is dependent on the internal micro-structural fracture mode. Therefore, in order to precisely predict this strength, each fracture mode and its mutual influence must be taken into account in a simulation. In this paper, intra-ply fracture progression and load characteristics of a cyclic loading test were analyzed, utilizing a material model proposed by Ladeveze et al. The model can evaluate different fracture modes and the stiffness degradation resulting from them. The analyzed results were compared with actual test results to confirm the validity of the analysis. Another analysis was performed without considering the mutual influence of the different fracture modes, and the results were compared to discuss the necessity of the coupling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0688
Wassan Abd Al-Sahb, Oday Ibraheem Abdullah
Abstract This paper presents three-dimensional thermal model, performed transient thermal analysis for the grooved dry friction clutches. A finite element technique has been used to study the effect of radial and /or circumferential grooves (classic models) on the temperature distribution for dry friction clutch during a single engagement. The friction clutch has been discretised using 20-noded brick elements. The effect of the groove area ratio (G.R=groove area / total contact area), number of grooves and their location are investigated. Furthermore, new groove shapes have been suggested, e.g., curved groove. The response of the new suggested groove has been compared to the already existing shapes. The commercial ANSYS13 has been used to perform the numerical computations in this paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0626
Adam C. Reid, Moustafa El-Gindy, Fredrik Oijer, David Philipps
Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to outline the procedure behind the parameter population of a wide-base rigid ring model. A rigid ring model is a mathematical representation of a highly non-linear FEA tire model that incorporates the characteristics and behaviour of a known physical tire. The rigid ring model parameters are determined using carefully designed virtual scenarios which will isolate for the parameter in question. Once all of the parameters have been calculated, for in-plane as well as out-of-plane parameters, a full rigid ring model can be populated. This model can also be modified to accommodate for a tire model simulated running over soft soils if necessary. For the purpose of this research however, the soft soil parameters were not determined. Once the rigid ring model is complete, the parameters can be used in a highly simplified virtual model to replicate the known behaviour of the tire but reduce the overall complexity of the full vehicle model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0638
Bo Tan, Yu Yang, Jun Huang, Wenhui Liu, Dongqing Zhang
Abstract The structure optimization method for heavy truck propeller shaft bracket is presented in this research. A model including propeller shaft, mount, bracket and frame is established based on finite element analysis and rigid-flexible coupling analysis. Under the unbalanced excitation, the dynamic response of the propeller shaft and dynamic stress on the bracket are presented. The effects of bracket structure mode on the frequency response and stress on the bracket are studied. As an engineering example, the optimization design of a heavy truck propeller shaft bracket is presented and a final experimental verification is validated by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0496
Anindya Deb, Ranga Srinivas Gunti, Clifford Chou, Utpal Dutta
The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0584
HaiYan Yu, JiaYi Shen, Gang He
Abstract The yield locus of a cold-rolled transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP780) steel sheet was investigated using a biaxial tensile test on a cruciform specimen. The effect of the key dimensions of the cruciform specimen on the calculation error and stress inhomogeneity was analyzed in detail using an orthogonal test combined with a finite element analysis. Scanning electron metallography (SEM) observations of the TRIP780 steel were performed. The yield curve of the TRIP780 steel was also calculated using the Von Mises, Hill '48, Hill '93, Barlat '89, Gotoh and Hosford yield criteria. The experimental results indicate that none of the selected yield criteria completely agree with the experimental curve. The Hill '48 and Hosford yield criteria have the largest error while the Hill '93 and Gotoh yield criteria have the smallest error.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0554
Rafaa Esmaael, Vernon Fernandez
An accurate prediction of elasto-plastic cyclic deformation becomes extremely important in design optimization. It also leads to more accurate fatigue life prediction and hence weight savings. In paper presents a two-stage notch root prediction method. This is based on a correction expression to Neuber's rule notch strain amplitude as the first stage, and a linear interpolation scheme as the second stage. The accuracy of this method is assessed by comparing the predicted results with the results obtained from elasto-plastic finite element analysis. Various types of steels with different yield strengths were used in this study. Notch deformation behavior under cyclic variable amplitude loading conditions was monitored for a double notched flat plate and a circumference notched round bar to cover plain stress and plain strain conditions. Elastic as well as elasto-plastic finite element analyses are performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0553
Yu Zhang, Weiqin Tang, Dayong Li, Xuming Su, Shiyao Huang, Yandong Shi, Yinghong Peng
SIF value around weld nugget changes when specimen width is different. To investigate the influence of specimen width on SIF value around weld nugget of coach peel specimen (CP), a finite element model was established in this paper. In this model, a contour integral crack was used, and the area around the nugget was treated as crack tip. Results indicated that when specimen width was below 50mm, SIF decreased rapidly with the increase of specimen width. When specimen width was larger than 50mm, SIF almost remained constant with the variation of specimen width. To further study the influences of nugget diameter and sheet thickness on the Width-SIF curves, CP specimens with different nugget diameters (5mm, 6mm and 7mm) and sheet thicknesses (1.2mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm) were established in ABAQUS. Simulation results of all CP specimens showed a similar relationship between specimen width and SIF.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0618
Zhihong Dong, Ying Sun, Guitao Zhu, Shihu Wang, Jian Zeng, Yuliang Yang
Abstract Based on the modal frequency response theory and experiment, the installation layout evaluation and structural optimization method for SIS(side impact sensors) installation position is studied. Establish the finite element model including B-pillar, roof and floor with local constraint. Than study the key parameter's influence on the frequency response analysis results, and the simulation results are correlated by experiment. In view of the installation layout requirements of side impact sensors, the structure optimization method for installation position of side impact sensor is put forward. The optimal scheme is confirmed by the finite element analysis, and a final experimental verification was implemented by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0451
Hao Zhu, Yumei Hu, Changlong Li, Biwen Zhou, Xi Tan
Abstract The serpentine belt's multi-scale problems in geometric size, which gives rise to a very large number of element and deeply low calculating efficiency, always bring obstacles when predicting the dynamic response of a serpentine belt driving system using three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). In this paper, a simplified finite element model is built which can accurately present the original serpentine belt's geometric characteristics such as cross-area and moment of inertia, as well as material characteristics such as stiffness and damping, etc. This simplified model is then used in a three-dimensional belt-drive model to simulate the dynamic characteristics of the belt-drive system. The results show that the tension fluctuation for the original serpentine belt and the simplified belt are in good agreement with each other which confirms that the simplified belt model can be used to predict the engine front end accessory drive system (EFEADS)'s dynamic characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0473
YiRui Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Bo Yang, Can Wang
Abstract According to the resonant pavement crusher's work principle, its front frame mounted with the resonance system must meet the needs of the structural requirements. To satisfy the strength and stiffness requirement and avoid the resonance, the natural frequency of the front frame should be designed away from the crusher's working frequency. In this paper, the author builds a finite element model of the front frame and analyses its modal. According to the modal analysis results, the fourth modal frequency is close to the working frequency of the crusher. So the front frame should be optimized. In the finite element model, the front frame has been divided into a number of components of shell elements. Through optimal Latin hypercube experimental design, the author analyses the different component thickness's relationship of the frequencies of the front frame. The components with higher correlation coefficient have been chosen as the variables of optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0676
Oday Ibraheem Abdullah, Wassan Abd Al-Sahb, Abdullah Al-Shabibi
Abstract The high thermal stresses generated between the contacting surfaces of a multi-disc clutch system (pressure plate, clutch discs, plate separators and piston) due to the frictional heating generated during the slipping, is considered to be one of the main reasons of clutch failure for contact surfaces. A finite element technique has been used to study the transient thermoelastic phenomena of a multi-disc dry clutch. The results present the contact pressure distribution, the temperature evaluation and the heat flux generated along the frictional surfaces. Analysis has been completed using two-dimensional axisymmetric model to simulate the multi-disc clutch. ANSYS software has been used to perform the numerical calculation in this paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1486
Craig A. Markusic, Ram Songade
Abstract Simplified Side Impact Finite Element Model (SSM) merged the complex side crash model parameters used in LS-DYNA4; the same sophisticated software employed by finite element (FE)2 analysts, and the user-friendly custom graphical user interface (GUI)1 to allow users having little to no simulation software knowledge the ability to conduct a full vehicle representative crash simulation. Prior to SSM development a literature search was carried to try and identify similar CAE tools for side impact. We did not find any tool that would cater specifically to side impact. During the testing phase, SSM demonstrated that one model analysis run can be completed in fewer than thirty (30) minutes, a radical efficiency increase because previous procedures require several days of effort from a highly skilled FE2 analyst to set up, execute, and analyze.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1518
Emmanuel O. Bolarinwa, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) Finite element (FE) tyre models have been widely used for tyre design, vehicle design and dynamic investigations. Such tyre models have the inherent advantage of covering a wide range of tyre modelling issues such as the detailed tyre geometry and material composition, in addition to an extensive coverage of tyre operational conditions such as the static preload, inflation pressure and driving speed. Although tyre vibration behaviour, in different frequency ranges are of general interest, both for the vehicle interior and exterior noise, the present study is limited to a frequency of 100 Hz which is prevalent in most road induced (Noise, Vibration, Harshness) NVH ride and handling problems. This study investigates tyre vibration behaviour using a proprietary FE code. Such investigation plays an important role in the study of vehicle dynamics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1458
Jia Hu
Abstract A Finite Element (FE) model for analysis of the rear row occupant injury assessment parameters in a frontal crash test was developed by using the LSTC Hybrid III 5th percentile FE dummy model. Three cases were studied using three different rear seatbelt retractor configurations, which were as follows: an ordinary retractor without load limiter or pretensioner (Case 1), a retractor with load limiter only (Case 2), and a retractor with load limiter and pretensioner (Case 3). The simulation results of each of these three cases were compared respectively to the results obtained from two frontal 50-kph full rigid barrier impact tests and one sled test. It turned out that the dummy kinematics and injury assessment parameters of the head, neck, chest, pelvis and femurs were all similar between test and simulation in the three cases. Thus, FE simulation models can be used to predict dummy injury assessment parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1664
Amardeep Singh, Anindya Deb, Amit Mohan Mensi, Ranga Srinivas Gunti
Despite the considerable advancements made in the applications of CAE for evaluation of an IC engine, an integrated approach to the design of such engines based on thermo-mechanical considerations appears to be lacking. The usage of heterogeneous tools for thermal, mechanical and vibration analysis in the industry decreases the efficiency of the product development process. In an effort to reduce this bottleneck, a unified framework is presented here according to which heat transfer and thermo-mechanical stress analysis of a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine is carried out in a unified manner with the aid of a multi-physics explicit finite element analysis tool, LS-DYNA, with robust contact interfaces leading to a realistic representation of engine dynamics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1489
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
Abstract Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Abstract Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma (DFSS) and finite element analysis are used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
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