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2015-05-11 ...
  • May 11-22, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • October 19-30, 2015 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1493
Vinay L. Virupaksha, Stuart Brown
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10.5 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma and finite element analysis is used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0627
Xiaoguang Yang, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo, Emmanuel Bolarinwa
The development of intelligent tyre technology from concept to application covers multi-disciplinary fields. During its development course, computational method has a significant effect on understanding tyre behaviour, assisting design of intelligent tyre prototype system and developing tyre parameters estimation algorithm, etc. In this paper, finite element tyre model was adopted for developing strain-based intelligent tyre system. The finite element tyre model was created considering tyre composite structure and nonlinear material properties, which was also validated by fundamental test. It is used to study tyre strain characteristics by steady state simulation for straight line rolling, traction and braking, and cornering rolling. Tyre loading conditions were estimated by feature extraction and data fitting. This process forms the fundamentals for identifying tyre loadings from strain information on potential sensor locations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0626
Adam C. Reid, Moustafa El-Gindy, Fredrik Oijer, David Philipps
The purpose of this research paper is to outline the methodology and procedure used for the development of a wide base rigid ring tire model. A rigid ring model is a mechanical representation of a tire model in which its in-plane and out-of-plane characteristics and behaviour can be captured. The FEA construction of the tire model is first completed to match all known information regarding the physical dimensions and material properties of the tire. For information that is unknown, an optimization-based parameter tuning algorithm is then run in order to solve for said parameters while matching any experimental data that is supplied. A series of virtual experiments are then conducted which replicate laboratory tests as well as some high speed maneuvers in order to isolate for specific tire dynamic parameters.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0693
Tadashi Naito, Yuta Urushiyama, Michael Bruyneel
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite material has more strength and stiffness than steel. FEM analysis of coupon test specimens were performed which are accompanied by intra-ply fracture, applying damage model. This model considers the damage evaluation for different fracture modes, stiffness degradation due to the damage, and coupling between different damage modes. The intra-ply damage is divided into three modes; fiber direction damage which represents fiber fracture, and damages in transverse and shear direction with respect to fiber, which arise from resin fractures. Each damage mode is represented by function of thermodynamic force which has the same dimension as strain energy. Damages in transverse and shear directions are coupled by coupling factor and thermodynamic forces. Permanent deformation of resin and non-linearity of the fiber modulus are also considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0663
Ling Zheng, Zhanpeng Fang, Zhongcai Tang, Zhenfei Zhan, Jiang-hua Fu
The design optimization of vehicle body structure is addressed to reduce interior noise and improve customer satisfaction in this paper. The structural-acoustic model is established and the response of sound pressure in frequency domain is obtained by using finite element method. The minimization of sound pressure near the driver’s right ear depends on the geometry of vehicle body structure and the layout of damping treatments. The panel participation analysis is performed to find out the key panels as design variables and improve the efficiency of optimization computation. Response Surface Method (RSM) is utilized to optimize the vibro-acoustic properties of vehicle body structure instead of complex structural-acoustic coupling finite element model. Structural-acoustic problem is approximated by a series of quadratic polynomial using RSM. Geometric optimization problem of panels is described and solved to minimize the interior noise in vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1486
Craig A. Markusic, Ram Songade
Full vehicle crash simulations typically require several days of effort from a highly skilled FE (finite element) analyst to set-up, execute, and analyze. The goal of this project was to create a simplified FE model of a side crash utilizing the same sophisticated software (LS-DYNA) that the FE analysts use along with a custom graphical user interface (GUI) that will allow an inexperienced user to set-up, execute, and analyze a number of side impact scenarios in a matter of hours, not days, and with very little training. The GUI allows the user to easily modify the performance characteristics of the side impact system that are critical to side crash performance including but not limited to intrusion rate, door liner stiffness, side airbag stiffness, side airbag time to fire, etc. The user can then compile and submit the model with a few simple clicks of a button.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1148
Xi Li, Weiguo Zhang, Jinning Li, Ming Jiang, Yunqing Zhang
A simulation model of a single cone synchronizer is presented using the dynamic implicit algorithm with commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus.. The meshing components include sleeve gear, blocking ring, clutch gear and detent, which are all considered as deformation body. The processes mainly contain the contact between sleeve teeth and blocking teeth, meshing period and the impact of sleeve teeth and clutch gear teeth,and these nonlinear contact steps are realized with Abaqus. In addition, a shift force as the driving load derives from a synchronizer experiment for approximating to the true condition, and a moment is added to the clutch gear to realize the relative rotational speed. Based on the FEA model, the effects of the varied cone angle and the frictional coefficients between the cone surfaces of blocking ring and clutch gear on the synchronizer time and contact stress are discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU) or pair of ECUs need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics’ high speed dynamics of with PWM signals frequently in the 10-20kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor co-located with analog and digital input and output, FPGAs make it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of 1 microsecond.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0554
Rafaa Esmaael, Vernon Fernandez
An accurate prediction of elasto-plastic cyclic deformation becomes extremely important in design optimization. Which lead to a more accurate fatigue life prediction and weight savings. In this project a two-step notch root prediction method based on interpolation between linear and Neuber’s notch strain amplitude solutions is proposed. The accuracy of this method is assessed by comparing the results with the results obtained from elasto-plastic finite element analysis. Different types of steels with different yield strengths were used in this study. Notch deformation behavior under cyclic loading conditions was monitored for a double notched flat plate and a circumference notched round bar to cover plain stress and plain strain conditions. Elastic as well as elasto-plastic finite element analyses are performed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0553
Yu Zhang, Weiqin Tang, Dayong Li, Xuming Su, Shiyao Huang, Yandong Shi, Yinghong Peng
ABSTRACT – In theoretical formulas, coach peel (CP) specimen width is assumed to be wide enough and has no influence on stress intensity factor (SIF) value. However, SIF value around nugget changes in finite element simulation when specimen width is different. To investigate the relationship between specimen width and SIF value around nugget, a finite element model was built in this paper. In this model, a contour integral crack is used, and the area around the nugget is taken as crack tip. Results showed that when specimen width was below 50mm, SIF value decreased rapidly with the increase of specimen width. When specimen width was larger than 50mm, SIF value almost remained constant with the variation of specimen width. To further study the influences of nugget diameter and sheet thickness on the width-SIF curves, CP specimens with different nugget diameters (5mm, 6mm and 7mm) and sheet thickness (1.2mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm) were built in ABAQUS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1345
Srinivas Kurna, Arpit Mathur, Sandeep Sharma
In commercial vehicle, Leaf Spring design is an important milestone during product design and development. Leaf springs are the most popular designs having multiple leaves in contact with each other and show hysteresis behavior when loaded and unloaded. Commonly used methods for evaluation of leaf spring strength like endurance trials on field and Rig testing are time consuming and costly. On the other hand, virtual testing methods for strength and stiffness evaluation give useful information early in the design cycle and save considerable time and cost. They give flexibility to evaluate multiple design options and accommodate any design change early in development cycle. A study has been done in VECV to correlate rig result with FEA simulation result of Multi-stage Suspension Leaf Spring, entirely through Finite Element Analysis route. Virtual leaf spring with U-Clamps and Suspension brackets with revolute joints are modeled in FEA which is similar to rig test bed setup.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0568
Wenxin Qin, Sandip Datta, Weidong Zhang, Fred Zweng
Simplified 3D Simulation Models to 2D Plane Strain Analytical Models in Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain finite element numerical analysis, more and more analysts and engineers like to adopt 3D complex FEA models along with improved computer hardware and software. The advantages of 3D FEA model are (1) looked like real model in vision; (2) simulation response is more vivid; (3) easily to discover the mistakes by watching simulation response. The drawbacks of 3D FEA model are (1) more pre/post process works and computation time; (2) numerical divergence is a challenging issue in nonlinear and contact situations and debug becomes difficulty; (3) sometimes accumulated numerical errors will cover the actual response. Therefore, it is necessary to explore what kinds of 3D FEA situations can be successfully converted by the simple 2D plan FEA models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0584
HaiYan Yu, JiaYi Shen, Gang He
The yield locus of a cold-rolled transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP780) steel sheet was investigated using cruciform biaxial tension. Effect of the key dimensions of the cruciform specimen on the calculation error and stress inhomogeneity was analyzed in detail using orthogonal test combined with finite element analysis. Scan electric metallography (SEM) observations of TRIP780 steel were performed. The theoretical yield curve of TRIP780 steel were calculated with Hill’48, Hill’93, Barlat’89, Gotoh and Hosford yield criteria. Experimental results indicate that none of the selected yield criteria can totally agree with the experimental curve. Among which, Hill’48 and Hosford yield criteria have the largest error while Barlat’89 yield criterion has the smallest error especially near the biaxial tension. Besides Barlat’89 criterion, Hill’93 and Gotoh anisotropic yield criteria are the second choices for TRIP780 steel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0618
Zhihong Dong, Ying Sun, Guitao Zhu, Shihu Wang, Jian Zeng, Yuliang Yang
Based on the modal frequency response theory and experiment ,the installation layout evaluation and structural optimization method for SIS(side impact sensors) installation position is studied. Establish the finite element model including B-pillar, roof and floor with local constraint .Than study the key parameter's influence on the frequency response analysis results ,and the simulation results are correlated by experiment. In view of the installation layout requirements of side impact sensors ,the structure optimization method for installation position of side impact sensor is put forward . The optimal scheme is confirmed by the finite element analysis, and a final experimental verification was implemented by a real vehicle test.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1458
Jia Hu
The driver and front row occupant safety is always the focus in the development of crash regulations and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). However in recent years, rear row occupant safety is also being paid attention to widely. The rear row occupant safety is being included in the NCAP of different countries. JNCAP began to assess the rear row occupant safety in 2009. C-NCAP started to assess the rear row occupant safety from July, 2012. Euro NCAP is also being updated. The frontal 50-kph full rigid barrier impact test will be included in Euro NCAP from 2015 and two Hybrid III 5th percentile dummies will be positioned in both the driver seat and the rear seat. For the rear row occupants wearing seatbelts, thoracic injuries from the seatbelt are by far the dominant injury type. For unbelted rear row occupants, the extremities and head are frequently injured by the B pillar, the front seat and other interior components.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1518
Emmanuel O. Bolarinwa, Oluremi Olatunbosun
Three-dimensional (3D) Finite element (FE) tyre models have been widely used for tyre design, vehicle design and dynamic investigations. Such tyre models have the inherent advantage of covering a wide range of tyre modelling issues such as the detailed tyre geometry and material composition, in addition to an extensive coverage of tyre operational conditions such as the static preload, inflation pressure and driving speed. Although tyre vibration behaviour, in different frequency ranges are of general interest, both for the vehicle interior and exterior noise, the present study is limited to a frequency of 100 Hz which is prevalent in most road induced NVH ride and handling problems. This study investigates tyre vibration behaviour using a propriety FE code. Such investigation plays an important role in the study of vehicle dynamics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1664
Amardeep Singh, Anindya Deb, Amit Mohan Mensi, Ranga Srinivas Gunti
Despite the considerable advancements made in the applications of CAE for evaluation of an IC engine, an integrated approach to the design of such engines based on thermo-mechanical considerations appears to be lacking. The usage of heterogeneous tools for thermal, mechanical and vibration analysis in industry decreases the efficiency of the product development process. In an effort to reduce this bottleneck, a unified framework is presented here according to which heat transfer and thermo-mechanical stress analysis of a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine is carried out in a unified manner with the aid of a multi-physics explicit finite element analysis tool, namely LS-DYNA, with robust contact interfaces leading to realistic representation of engine dynamics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0708
Catherine M. Amodeo, Jwo Pan
In this paper, mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for gas metal arc welds in single lap-shear specimens are investigated by the analytical stress intensity factor solutions and by finite element analyses. Finite element analyses were carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for both realistic and idealized weld geometries. The computational results indicate that the stress intensity factor solutions for the realistic welds are lower than the analytical solutions for the idealized weld geometry. The computational results can be used for the estimation of fatigue lives in a fatigue crack growth model under mixed mode loading conditions for gas metal arc welds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0473
YiRui Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Bo Yang, Can Wang
Abstract According to the resonant pavement crusher's work principle, its front frame mounted with the resonance system must meet the needs of the structural requirements. To satisfy the strength and stiffness requirement and avoid the resonance, the natural frequency of the front frame should be designed away from the crusher's working frequency. In this paper, the author builds a finite element model of the front frame and analyses its modal. According to the modal analysis results, the fourth modal frequency is close to the working frequency of the crusher. So the front frame should be optimized. In the finite element model, the front frame has been divided into a number of components of shell elements. Through optimal Latin hypercube experimental design, the author analyses the different component thickness's relationship of the frequencies of the front frame. The components with higher correlation coefficient have been chosen as the variables of optimization.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0496
Anindya Deb, Ranga Srinivas Gunti, Clifford Chou, Utpal Dutta
The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1489
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraint, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point vehicle belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven different body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0449
Libo Cao, Kai Zhang, Xin Lv, Lingbo Yan
Background:The Hybrid III anthropomorphic testing device (ATD or dummy) has been used in automotive testing widely. The validity of an ATD finite element model is largely dependent on accuracy of model structure and proper assignment of material parameters especially for the soft material used in the ATD. Objective:Aiming at the problem that knee in the published finite element model of Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy doesn't accord well with the physical dummy, the objective of this work was to improve the validity of the knee model. Method and material:Mesh refinement was performed, and the foam solid elements in the front of the knee which are not real in the physical knee model were replaced by skin solid elements. What’s more, a series of uniaxial compression tests for ATD skin material and rubber were performed. Material parameters of skin and rubber were fitted using uniaxial compression test data.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0482
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
We present a new formulation for the analysis of extreme response of plane stress/strain problems with given uncertainties in load, material and geometry. The formulation is based on Interval Finite Element Method (IFEM), and uncertainties in the system are modeled by intervals. In order to reduce overestimation caused by dependency of interval variables, we propose new decomposition strategies for the stiffness matrix and the nodal equivalent load vector for the structure. We introduce Lagrangian multipliers into the energy functional to compute derived quantities simultaneously as primary quantities. In addition, we implement a new variant of iterative enclosure method to obtain the outer and inner solutions. Numerical examples show that the interval solution from the proposed method guarantees to enclose the exact extreme response.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0484
Naijia Xiao, Rafi L. Muhanna, Francesco Fedele, Robert L. Mullen
We present a new interval finite element formulation for the response in the frequency domain of structural dynamic systems with uncertainties in load, material and geometry. Overestimation due to dependency is reduced using a new decomposition for the stiffness and mass matrices, as well as for the nodal equivalent load. In addition, primary and derived quantities are simultaneously obtained by means of Lagrangian multipliers that are introduced in the total energy of the system. The obtained interval equations are solved by means of a new variant of the iterative enclosure method resulting in guaranteed enclosures of relevant quantities. Several numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the new formulation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0578
Wei Li, Yi-Pen Cheng, Lisa Furton
Finite element dummy models have been more and more widely applied in virtual development of occupant protection system across the automotive industry due to their predictive capabilities. H305 dyna dummy model is a finite element representative of the Hybrid III small female dummy, which is designed to represent the lower extreme of the United States adult population. Lower extremities are the leading injured body region and the risk of lower limb injuries is significant in all front crash impacts. The tibia index is a very important injury criteria to be predicted during frontal impact occupant simulations for FMVSS 208 and IIHS. A common issue in application of the dummy model is that it often over predicts lower tibia loading (forces and/or moments) and in turn generate unrealistically higher tibia indices, when compared against corresponding physical tests. In this paper, a few factors are analyzed, which affect achieving good tibia loading predictions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0485
Mehdi Modares, Joshua Bergerson
In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. Moreover, the catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. In most buckling analyses, structural properties and applied loads are considered certain. Using the linear finite element method, the deterministic buckling analysis is done in two main steps. First, static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate applied load. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, performing an eigenvalue problem between structure’s elastic and geometric stiffness matrices yields the structure’s critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches do not consider uncertainty the structure’s material and geometric properties. In this work, a new method for finite element based buckling analysis of a structure with uncertainty is developed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0595
T. Mathialakan, V. U. Karthik, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ravi Thyagarajan, S. Ratnajeevan H. Hoole
Abstract This paper presents a computational investigation of the validity of eddy current testing (ECT) for defects embedded in steel using parametrically designed defects. Of particular focus is the depths at which defects can be detected through ECT. Building on this we characterize interior defects by parametrically describing them and then examining the response fields through measurement. Thereby we seek to establish the depth and direction of detectable cracks. As a second step, we match measurements from eddy current excitations to computed fields through finite element optimization. This develops further our previously presented methods of defect characterization. Here rough contours of synthesized shapes are avoided by a novel scheme of averaging neighbor heights rather than using complex Bézier curves, constraints and such like. This avoids the jagged shapes corresponding to mathematically correct but unrealistic synthesized shapes in design and nondestructive evaluation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0602
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jagadish Sorab, Cagri Sever
Abstract In this paper, the evolution equation for the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process based on the pressure-sensitive Drucker-Prager yield function and a recently developed anisotropic hardening rule with a non-associated flow rule is first presented. A user material subroutine based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relation was written and implemented into the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis of a crankshaft section under fillet rolling was conducted. After the release of the roller, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the material with consideration of pressure sensitivity typically for cast irons is smaller than that without consideration of pressure sensitivity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0451
Hao Zhu, Xi Tan, Biwen Zhou, Xi Tan, Biwen Zhou
The serpentine belt’s multi-scale problems in geometric size, which give rise to a very large number of element and deeply low calculating efficiency, always set obstacles to predicting the dynamic response of a serpentine belt drive system using three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). For this problem, in this paper, an equivalent finite element model is built which can accurately present the belt’s geometric characteristics such as cross-area and moment of inertia, as well as material characteristics such as stiffness and damping, etc. Furthermore, this equivalent model has less elements and much higher calculating efficiency. This equivalent model is then used in a three-dimensional belt-drive model to simulate the dynamic characteristics of the belt-drive system. Finally, an experiment is proposed to verify the belt-drive model.
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