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Training / Education
2015-06-08
The advent of digital computers and the availability of ever cheaper and faster micro processors have brought a tremendous amount of control system applications to the automotive industry in the last two decades. From engine and transmission systems, to virtually all chassis subsystems (brakes, suspensions, and steering), some level of computer control is present. Control systems theory is also being applied to comfort systems such as climate control and safety systems such as cruise control or collision mitigation systems. This seminar begins by introducing the highly mathematical field of control systems focusing on what the classical control system tools do and how they can be applied to automotive systems.
Event
2014-12-11
Power electronics, especially advanced technologies such as GaN, GAAs, and SiC, offer great advantages in increasing the overall system efficiency of xEV systems. This session will explore various technologies and the benefits/challenges facing them.
Event
2014-12-11
With the integration of many subsystems, modeling, simulation and systems engineering take on a more important role in the design/development of new vehicle technology
Training / Education
2014-10-14
This highly interactive seminar - featuring microcontroller hands-on lab projects - will help you learn fundamental concepts needed to design, implement, and calibrate control functions for an embedded microcontroller system. The seminar introduces the system elements: control system architecture; control algorithms; sensors; actuators; wiring; electromagnetic compatibility; microcontroller; software; diagnostics and calibration, wireless networks and shows how all elements are connected. While most examples and exercises focus on automotive, the materials presented are relevant to many industries including commercial vehicle, off-road, aerospace, rail, communication networks, appliances, and more.
Event
2014-10-09
This session covers advanced technologies and analysis/design/testing techniques related to powertrain performance, emissions, and electronic controls. It includes both system-level and component-level contents such as engine system design and integration optimization. Typical topics include emissions, fuel economy, combustion, air charging, EGR systems, fuel systems, valvetrains, engine brakes, waste heat recovery, calibration, steady-state and transient performance, engine/powertrain/drivetrain controls, model-based controls, sensors, OBD, and HIL. The topics of engine applications cover on-road, off-road, heavy-duty, and light-duty.
Event
2014-10-09
This session covers advanced technologies and analysis/design/testing techniques related to powertrain performance, emissions, and electronic controls. It includes both system-level and component-level contents such as engine system design and integration optimization. Typical topics include emissions, fuel economy, combustion, air charging, EGR systems, fuel systems, valvetrains, engine brakes, waste heat recovery, calibration, steady-state and transient performance, engine/powertrain/drivetrain controls, model-based controls, sensors, OBD, and HIL. The topics of engine applications cover on-road, off-road, heavy-duty, and light-duty.
Event
2014-10-07
Powertrain Electronics play a key role in meeting today's complex emissions and performance requirements, on-board diagnostics, legislated regulations, and product flexibility. This session will explore the challenges and future prospects for powertrain controls. Papers are sought in the areas of on-board diagnostics, integration with transmissions, flash programming, service, software design and development, unit and system test, and electronics architecture today and in the future.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Ilya A. Kulikov, Elena E. Baulina, Andrey I. Filonov
The paper gives a short description of the University’s developments in the field of hybrid electric powertrains and vehicles, and a survey of theoretical instruments utilized in these developments regarding powertrains control strategies. For the moment, two units fitted with hybrid powertrains are in operation. These are the four-wheel-drive SUV and the powertrain test rig. Both allow to test different powertrain configurations. Prior to implementing a certain configuration in the rig, an extensive theoretical research of powertrain is conducted to reveal its properties and find a way to control it optimally. The basic tool adopted for that purpose is R. Bellman’s dynamic programming (DP). The paper gives an example of applying DP to explore a potential of decreasing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of van-type vehicle by converting its powertrain into hybrid one. During this study, a contradiction has emerged between minimizing fuel consumption and emissions of NOx. An example shows the way to resolve this contradiction by tuning the cost function.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Harry Dwyer, Seungju Yoon PhD, David Quiros, Mark Burnitzki, Roelof Riemersma, Donald Chernich, John Collins, Jorn Herner
A novel ambient dilution wind tunnel has been designed, tested and used to measure the emissions from “Active Parked Regenerations” of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) for 2007 and 2010 certified heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The HDDT exhaust was routed to the wind tunnel entrance, and a mixing plate was employed to induce rapid mixing with the ambient air inflow. The tunnel geometry consisted of a 4’ by 4’ cross-section, and the tunnel length was 30’. An induction fan created a flow of 9000 ft3/min (CFM), and velocity and temperature traverses indicated that the mixture of exhaust gases and ambient air was homogeneous at the emission sampling location. The sampling probe was located near the exit of the tunnel, and withdrew 6 CFM from the tunnel centerline for PM measurements. A wide variety of emissions measurements and instrumentation was used in the investigation, which included the following: (1) Engine out On-board diagnostics; (2) Exhaust flow PEMS; (3) Tunnel temperature, CO2, mixture dilution ratio, and relative humidity; (4) Real-time PM instrumentation: EEPS, SMPS, DustTrak, and Dekati Mass Monitor; and (5) Gravimetric filter media.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Yang Li, JianWei Zhang, Konghui Guo, Dongmei wu
The driving and braking torque distribution method between front and rear axles for the four-wheel-drive electric vehicles is comparative flexible, and the reasonable distribution method is very significant for improving the vehicle dynamics stability and the energy efficiency. This paper presents from the perspective of improving the vehicle dynamics stability, without regard to the energy efficiency and optimization for the present. In the paper the target of the ideal driving and braking torque distribution, which is gained according to the friction circle of tyre force, is to make the front and rear axles reach at the adhesion limit at the same time when the vehicles operate at various conditions. At first, gain the ideal driving and braking torque distribution when the electric vehicles operate at straight motion condition and the lateral acceleration is zero. Secondly, the ideal driving and braking torque distribution is expanded into the various conditions with the lateral stability demand, which can enhance the limit of lateral stability of the vehicle performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Yang Li, JianWei Zhang, Konghui Guo, Dongmei wu
It is also very important to save energy and improve the energy efficiency of the electric vehicle. For the 4WD electric vehicle with PMSM hub motors, the motor drive system is the main energy transmission link. If the efficiency of the motor drive system can be improved, the energy efficiency of the vehicle can also be enhanced, the better performance of motors can be gained and the thermal condition of each hub motor can be improved. As a result, it is very significant to study the torque distribution algorithm between front and rear hub motors in 4WD electric vehicle systems with independently driven wheels to improve the energy efficiency of the vehicle. This paper presents an optimized torque distribution algorithm based on the loss model of multi-motors drive system for the 4WD electric vehicle with PMSM hub motors, which operate at straight line condition. The main content include: develop a comparative accurate mathematical model of permanent magnet synchronous in-wheel motor considering the iron loss and gain the loss model of single motor, which include copper loss, iron loss and mechanical loss ; when the electric vehicle operates at straight line condition, realize the loss model of front and rear motors, which operate at the same speed and torque condition; realize the on-line identification of motor parameters based on the MARS, which is important for updating the efficiency model of the motor drive system when the motor parameters are changing; realize the optimized torque distribution algorithm based on the loss model of the multi-motors drive system to improve the energy efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Hanlong Yang
Adaptive estimation approach for air-path controls in Turbocharged Diesel Engines Due to more stringent emission regulations as well as the customer requirements on performance improvement, the model-based controls in diesel engines are becoming more and more common and necessary. In fact, as diesel engine systems become more complicated with additional hardware, such as throttle, EGR, VVT, VGT, the dynamics of the systems with more freedom of multiple actuators become much more sophisticated. The advanced model-based and coordinated controls become almost the only effective way to improve the system performance. In most of the model based approaches, feedback controls and estimation methods based on real-time dynamics are the key techniques. However since the system has sensors and actuators which have parts-to-parts variations as well as degradation over useful life, therefore any identification of those slow changes and compensation of the controls over the system life cycle is critical for long term control performance, system reliability and diagnostic monitoring.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Christopher Atkinson
Pending GHG emissions reduction legislation for medium and heavy duty vehicles will require the development of engines and powertrains with significantly increased mechanical and electronic complexity. Increasing powertrain efficiency will require the simulation, control and calibration of an expanding number of highly interdependent air, fuel, exhaust, combustion and energy transfer subsystems. As a result, engine and powertrain control is becoming significantly more sophisticated to develop and difficult to optimize. The high cost of developing engines and powertrain systems that demonstrate greater fuel efficiency and emissions benefits than the engines of today, is undeniable. The increased calibration burden and the complexity of optimization require the development and adoption of entirely new methods for transient engine calibration and optimization to achieve maximum vehicle fuel efficiency and lowest regulated emissions. Model-based rapid transient calibration offers significant advantages over traditional testing-intensive methods of calibration.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Daofei Li, Huanxiang Xu, Lei Wang, Zhipeng Fan, Wenbo Dou, Xiaoli Yu
Internal combustion engine is expected to be the major power unit to propel vehicles for decades from now on. Therefore, the advanced technologies to improve energy efficiency and to reduce emissions of engine should be continually encouraged and emphasized. For normal driving conditions, nearly half energy of the consumed fuel of engine is wasted, in the form of exhaust heat and coolant heat. In order to recovery the waste heat generated in normal thermodynamic cycle of internal combustion engine, a novel hybrid pneumatic engine concept is proposed, which uses compressed air and fuel as dual energy. During the expansion stroke, additional compressed air is injected, with carefully optimized timing, into the cylinder to absorb the heat released by the fuel, and then the compressed air can do further expansion work. The ideal thermodynamic model of the hybrid pneumatic engine cycle is established and explored, and is used to analyze the influences of the main design parameters on the cycle performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Matt Zwick
The base design of Commercial Vehicle wheel end systems has changed very little over the past fifty years. Current bearings for R-Drive and trailer wheel end systems were designed from the 1920’s through the 1960’s and have essentially remained the same. Over this same period of time, considerable gains have been made in bearing design, manufacturing capabilities and materials science. These gains allow for the opportunity to significantly increase bearing load capacity and improve efficiency. Government emissions regulations and the need for fuel efficiency improvements in truck fleets are driving the opportunity for re-designed wheel end systems. The EPA and NHTSA standard requires up to twenty three percent reduction in emissions and fuel consumption by 2017 relative to the 2010 baseline for heavy duty tractor combinations. This paper summarizes the history of current wheel end bearing designs and the opportunity for change to lighter weight, cooler running and more fuel efficient wheel bearing designs to help meet the new industry standards.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Yves Provencher
The objective of this project proposed was to compare the fuel consumption and traction performances of 6 × 2 and 6 × 4 tractors. Two approaches have been considered: evaluation of 6 × 2 tractors, modified from 6 × 4 tractors, and evaluation of OEM 6 × 2 tractors. Compared to the 6 × 4 tractors, which are equipped with a rear tandem with both drive axles, the 6 × 2 tractors have a rear tandem axle with one drive axle, and one non-drive axle, also called dead axle. The 6 x 2 tractor configurations are available from the majority of tractor manufacturers. The SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedures Type II (J1321) and Type III (J1526) were used for fuel consumption track test evaluations. Traction performances were assessed using pull sled tests to compare pulling distance, maximum speed, and acceleration when pulling the same set sled on similar surface. Fuel consumption tests showed that 6 × 2 tractors consume up to 3.5% less than the similar 6 × 4 tractors, whilst pull sled tests showed shorter distance, lower maximum speed, and lower acceleration for the 6 × 2 tractors, when compared to similar 6 × 4 tractors.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Philipp Scherer, Marcus Geimer
It was investigated how the energy efficiency of heavy equipment can be determined and evaluated. The wide range of applicability of heavy equipment, as well as the existence of one or more power take-offs require, a special approach for evaluating the energy efficiency of these machines. Therefore, different types of heavy equipment vehicles were equipped with sensors and measurement instrumentation throughout the whole powertrain. With these vehicles, field tests were realised in order to receive perception about the life cycles and the exact kinematic paths of these vehicles as well as to observe the power- and energy flows throughout the powertrain. Parameters were varied in order to receive information about the impact of environmental effects on the energetic- and temporal shares of the kinematic paths. For the analyzation of these measurements a software package has been developed. This package provides features to analyze the kinematic paths of the performed field tests. Furthermore it is possible to show the energy flows within the powertrain for selected time periods.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Jennifer Wheeler, Joshua Stein, Gary Hunter
Recent advances in natural gas recovery technologies and availability have sparked a renewed interest in using natural gas as a fuel for commercial vehicles. Natural gas can potentially provide for both reduced operating cost and reductions in CO2 emissions. Commercial natural gas vehicles, depending on application and region, will have different performance and fuel consumption targets and are subject to various emissions regulations. Therefore, different applications may require different combustion strategies to achieve specific targets and regulations. This paper summarizes an evaluation of combustion strategies and parameters available to meet these requirements while using natural gas. One combustion strategy that was evaluated was stoichiometric combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), while the other strategy tested was based on lean-burn combustion. Testing consisted of parametric variations to quantify the effects of swirl ratio, compression ratio, and dilution ratio, either via EGR or excess air, on the operating limits, engine out emissions, and fuel efficiency of spark-ignited natural engines operating in conditions typical for heavy-duty vehicle applications.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jon Zumberge, John Mersch
Cost and performance requirements are driving military and commercial systems to highly integrated, optimized systems which require more sophisticated, highly complex controls. To realize benefits and make confident decisions, the validation of both plant and control models becomes critical. To quickly develop controls for these systems, it is beneficial to develop models and determine the uncertainty of those models so as to predict performance and stability. A process of model validation for a boost circuit based on acceptance sampling is presented here. The validation process described in this paper includes the steps of defining requirements, performing a screening and exploration of the system, completing a system and parameter identification, and finally executing a validation test. To minimize the cost of experimentation and simulation, design of experiments is used extensively to limit the amount of data taken without losing information. One key contribution in this paper is the use of tolerance intervals as an estimation of model accuracy.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Brian C. Raczkowski, Benjamin Loop, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Oleg Wasynczuk, Sean Field, Jason Gousy
Abstract Future more electric aircraft (MEA) architectures that improve electrical power system's (EPS's) source and load utilization will require advance stability analysis capabilities. Systems are becoming more complex with bidirectional flows from power regeneration, multiple sources per channel and higher peak to average power ratios. Unknown load profiles with large transients complicate common stability analysis techniques. Advancements in analysis are critical for providing useful feedback to the system integrator and designers of multi-source, multi-load power systems. Overall, a framework for evaluating stability with large displacement events has been developed. Within this framework, voltage transient bounds are obtained by identifying the worst case load profile. The results can be used by system designers or integrators to provide specifications or limits to suppliers. Subsystem suppliers can test and evaluate their design prior to integration and hardware development. By identifying concerns during the design phase, a more streamlined approach to hardware development can save on rework, integration delays and cost.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Fei Gao, Serhiy Bozhko, Greg Asher
Abstract Stability is a great concern for the Electrical Power System (EPS) in the More Electric Aircraft (MEA). It is known that tightly controlled power electronic converters and motor drives may behave as constant power loads (CPLs) which may produce oscillations and cause instability. The paper investigates the stability boundaries for dc multi-source EPS under different power sharing strategies. For each possible strategy the corresponding reduced-order models are derived. The impedance criterion is then applied to study the EPS stability margins and investigates how these margins are influenced by different parameters, such as main bus capacitance, generator/converter control dynamics, cabling arrangements etc. These results are also illustrated by the root contours of reduced-order EPS models. Theoretical results achieved in the paper are confirmed by the time-domain simulations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Shweta Sanjeev, Goutham Selvaraj, Patrick Franks, Kaushik Rajashekara
Abstract The transition towards More Electric Aircraft (MEA) architectures has challenges relating to integration of power electronics with the starter generator system for on-engine application. To efficiently operate the power electronics in the hostile engine environment at high switching frequency and for better thermal management, use of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices for a bi-directional power converter is examined. In this paper, development of a 50 kVA bi-directional converter operating at an ambient temperature of about 2000C is presented. The design and operation of the converter with details of control algorithm implementation and cooling chamber design are also discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jennifer C. Shaw, Patrick Norman, Stuart Galloway, Graeme Burt
Abstract Radical new electrically propelled aircraft are being considered to meet strict future performance goals. One concept design proposed is a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) aircraft that utilises a number of electrically driven propulsors. Such concepts place a new and significant reliance on an aircraft's electrical system for safe and efficient flight. Accordingly, in addition to providing certainty that supply reliability targets are being met, a contingency analysis, evaluating the probability of component failure within the electrical network and the impact of that failure upon the available thrust must also be undertaken for architecture designs. Solutions that meet specified thrust requirements at a minimum associated weight are desired as these will likely achieve the greatest performance against the proposed emissions targets. This paper presents a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based design approach for the electrical system and thrust reliability analysis of TeDP aircraft architectures.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Michael L. Zierolf, Thomas Brinson, Andrew Fleming
Abstract Recent emphasis on optimization of engine technologies with ancillary subsystems such as power and thermal management has created a need for integrated system modeling. These systems are coupled such that federated design methods may not lead to the most synergetic solution. Obtaining an optimal design is often contingent on developing an integrated model. Integrated models, however, can involve combining complex simulation platforms into a single system of systems, which can present many challenges. Model organization and configuration control become increasingly important when orchestrating various models into a single simulation. Additionally, it is important to understand such details as the interface between models and signal routing to ensure the integrated behavior is not contaminated or biased. This paper will present some key learnings for model integration to help alleviate some of the challenges with system-based modeling.
Standard
2014-08-21
This SAE Recommended Practice provides minimum requirements and performance criteria for devices to prevent runaway snowmobiles due to malfunction of the speed control system.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4262

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