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2015-06-08 ...
  • June 8-9, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The advent of digital computers and the availability of ever cheaper and faster micro processors have brought a tremendous amount of control system applications to the automotive industry in the last two decades. From engine and transmission systems, to virtually all chassis subsystems (brakes, suspensions, and steering), some level of computer control is present. Control systems theory is also being applied to comfort systems such as climate control and safety systems such as cruise control or collision mitigation systems.
2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-23
Event
Power electronics and electric motors are essential for improving vehicle efficiency through drivetrain electrification. Technologies that support high efficiency, high power density, and low cost motors and power modules are required for the success of vehicle electrification.
2015-04-22
Event
Power electronics and electric motors are essential for improving vehicle efficiency through drivetrain electrification. Technologies that support high efficiency, high power density, and low cost motors and power modules are required for the success of vehicle electrification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0241
Milind Potdar, Suyog Wani
Modern vehicle design involves multiple set of data from various sensors and controlling devices spread across the vehicle. The sensors and devices placed at various locations in the vehicle need to be connected with various Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As long as wires are used, its maintenance and installation cost and time are major disadvantages for OEMs. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) reduces the cabling and installation cost. It also provides flexibility in deciding location of ECU according to desired shape of the vehicle. This paper presents a way which can provide a strong secured wireless network. The proposed method of encryption and decryption ensures that the data from sensors and to devices is available to ECU and is not accessible to any other unintended receiver. A novel method is proposed in order to achieve this. Sensors and devices in the vehicle are segregated according to their location. Hence, same wireless node can be used for sensors as well as devices e.g.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0296
Roman Schmied, Harald Waschl, Luigi del Re
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor’s velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1450
Jeremy Daily, Andrew Kongs, James Johnson, Jose Corcega
The proper investigation of crashes involving commercial vehicles is critical for fairly assessing liability and damages, if they exist. In addition to traditional physics based approaches, the digital records stored within heavy vehicle electronic control modules (ECMs) are useful in determining the events leading to a crash. Traditional methods of extracting digital data use proprietary diagnostic and maintenance software and require a functioning ECM. However, some crashes induce damage that renders the ECM inoperable, even though it may still contain data. As such, the objective of this research is to examine the digital record in an ECM and understand its meaning. The research was performed on a Detroit Diesel DDEC V engine control module. The data extracted from the flash memory chips include: Last Stop Record, two Hard Brake events, and the Daily Engine Usage Log. The procedure of extracting and reading the memory chips is explained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1201
Mohammad Anwar, Monty Hayes, Anthony Tata, Mehrdad Teimorzadeh, Thomas Achatz
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. Since its introduction in 2011, Chevrolet Volts have been driven over half a billion miles: 63% as electric vehicles and 37% in extended range driving. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (E-REV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1209
Zhengyu Liu, Thomas Winter, Michael Schier
The capability of heat dissipation in electric machine has great influence on its output performance. Under high output rating the temperature in the machine can raise rapidly due to losses generated in components. To ensure the lifetime and prevent machine failure, power output must be limited as soon as the temperature reaches a certain critical level. The electric machine continuous power density is restricted by this thermal effect. To increase power density and reduce machine size, studies on machine cooling have been intensively conducted over the last decades. This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in the stator slots with oil flows. In this approach the machine stator slots are sealed to air gap after the coils are mounted.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0621
Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Nowadays with the advances in the vehicle control systems, the customers want new and exciting features in their vehicles, which make the vehicle driving characteristics adjustable as they prefers. One of the vehicle controlled systems which can be used to change the vehicle driving characteristics from time to time is the semi-active suspension system. Therefore, the paper presents a rule-optimized fuzzy controller for semi-active suspension system which is continuously adjusts itself according to the road conditions and the drivers’ requirements. The proposed rule-optimized fuzzy controller has three different control modes (Sport, Normal and Comfort), which can be switched using the button and thus adjusted to customer requirements. The Normal Mode is adjusted to provide an overall balance between the vehicle ride comfort and road holding. On the other hand, the Comfort Mode is adapted to leads to a comfort-oriented, softer basic configuration of the damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1154
Benjamin Black, Tomohiro Morita, Yusuke Minami, David Farnia
Test and validation of control systems for hybrid vehicle power trains provide a unique set of challenges. Not only does the electronic control unit (ECU) or pair of ECUs need to smoothly coordinate power flow between two or more power plants, but it also must handle the power electronics’ high speed dynamics of with PWM signals frequently in the 10-20kHz range. The trend in testing all-electric and hybrid-electric ECUs has moved toward using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the processing node for simulating inverter and electric motor dynamics in real time. Acting as a purpose-built processor co-located with analog and digital input and output, FPGAs make it possible for real-time simulation loop rates on the order of 1 microsecond.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0267
Ryoichi Inada, Teppei Hirotsu, Yasushi Morita, Takahiro Hata
ISO 26262 is a standard for functional safety of road vehicles. Automotive manufacturers and suppliers are developing electronic control unit (ECU) that complies with the standard. The standard requires the manufacturers to perform quantitative assessment of the diagnostic coverage (DC) of the ECU that is defined as fault rate that is covered by safety mechanisms, and show evidence that the DC is above a specific threshold. We can refer to some generic fault diagnostic methods and their DC value prescribed in the standard. However, it is not practical to claim validity of the DC value if we simply refer to DC in the standard. Also, we have to evaluate the DC value separately, if we introduce a proprietary fault diagnostic method other than the methods described in the standard. In this paper, we propose a novel method for quantitatively evaluating the DC value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0184
James Price
AUTOSAR is a well established standard for automotive ECU and network design. This session will walk through a demonstration project, using a full AUTOSAR 4.x run-time stack. Attendees will learn how design tools are used in the development process together with the Basic Software stack to develop a specific ECU application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0186
Syed Arshad Kazmi, Jin Seo Park, Jens Harnisch
End of Line tests are brief set of tests intended to evaluate ECU’s in order to ensure correct functioning of intended functionality works as expected. These tests perform two critical functions. 1- Act as a proof of quality for the manufactured ECU and 2 - determine a faulty test object and therefore act as a criterion for rejection. As these tests are executed on the production line, available time to perform these tests is limited. With ever increasing demand of faster production, there is an increasing pressure to design the tests and its execution framework in a time optimized manner without any compromise on the quality of tests or a reduction in functional coverage. On the other hand, OEMs specify increasingly more functionality and complexity in ECU, thus demanding increase in EoL tests functional coverage. Therefore the time taken to execute the tests reaches a critical point in overall ECU production.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0189
Rolf Schneider, Dominik Juergens, Andre Kohn
A permanent challenge for the development of automotive electronic control units is the steadily rising demand for computing power. One well known reason is surely the trend for co-hosting of functions on a shared hardware platform. But what is also heavily propelling this demand is the raising complexity of innovative functions meant to make the car brand specific driving experience even more unique, extraordinary and/or comfortable. The underlying complex algorithms often accompanied with high safety requirements thirst for faster CPUs. Meanwhile also for the automotive domain silicon vendors try to satisfy those resource demands with new microcontrollers incorporating multiple independent computing cores on one single chip as it is already common for personal computers, server installations, communication infrastructure and even consumer electronics like smartphones or flat TVs for quite some years.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1642
Shrey Aggarwal, Rama Subbu, Sanjay Gilotra
Testing, validation & evaluation are vital factors in terms of defining vehicle reliability and durability. Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the performance of the engine. It affects many variables including engine longevity, fuel economy, and engine power. It needs to measured & controlled such that vehicle performance can be improved. Sparks occurring too soon or too late in the engine cycle are often responsible for excessive vibrations and even engine damage. Attempt has been made in our endeavour to develop an electronics & embedded system device which can be used hand-on to measure the ignition timing w.r.t TDC (Top Dead Center). The benefit of this system is its usage in the field since it does not require any test rig or any special fixture to measure the spark angle. The device measures the analog pulses signal generated from the pulser coil & calculate the RPM.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1401
Pawel Skruch, Rafal Dlugosz, Krzysztof Kogut, Pawel Markiewicz, Dominik Sasin, Maciej Różewicz
Active Safety (AS) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be considered nowadays as a distributed embedded software system where independent microprocessor systems, called Electronic Control Units (ECUs), communicate together using different communication protocols. Typical AS or ADAS functionality is then realized by several ECUs communicating each other. AS and ADAS systems interact with other ECUs in a vehicle, usually, via communication networks and with vehicle’s surroundings via camera, radar, or laser sensors. Quality assurance and safety standards combined with increasing complexity and reliability demands related to vision sensing, radar sensing and data fusion, often together with a short time to market makes the development of such systems challenging. As the number of important for the system road scenarios grows, mathematical modelling and computer simulation become important engineering tasks to assure required quality and compliance to safety standards.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1203
Subhashree Rajagopal, Sebastien Desharnais, Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
Eddy-current brakes are contactless magnetic brakes that allow decelerating a vehicle without friction and wear. Electromagnetic brakes are found in variety of applications. However they suffer from a decreasing torque at low and high speed. In this study a novel concept of permanent magnet eddy-current brake is proposed that maintains a flat braking torque profile over a broad speed range. The principle is analytically investigated and numerically validated through finite element simulations using MAXWELL. It is demonstrated that a useably flat braking torque profile can be achieved by altering the path of eddy-currents by magnetic field orientation, thereby, affecting the apparent rotor resistance. Keywords: Eddy-currents, eddy-current brakes, electromagnetic brakes, permanent magnet brakes, MAXWELL
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1202
Weimin Zhang, Saeed Anwar, Daniel J. Costinett, Fred Wang
A cost-effective SiC based hybrid switch and an improved inductor design procedure for boost converter in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are presented in this paper. The feasibility of a hybrid switch using low power SiC MOSFET and high power Si IGBT is investigated to provide a cost-effective and failure-resistant method to employ the fast switching characteristics of SiC devices. The operation of the hybrid switch is tested in double pulse test experiment and compared with the single IGBT. Additionally, the boost inductor design is discussed, which allows the optimization of weight and power loss across different core materials. An improved powder core inductor design procedure is presented to avoid the iterative design procedure provided by the manufacture. Both the powder material and nanocrystalline material are considered in the inductor design procedure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0207
Xiping Ma, Zhenchun Xia, Haotian Wu, Xianan Huang
Powertrain diagnosis has been demanded with growth & complexity of powertrain electronic control system and enforcement of law & regulation in the last decades. In regulation OBD II, requirement of misfire monitoring has been demanded much more strictly. A variety of diagnosis methods for misfire have been proposed and developed, however most of them either depend greatly on special or expensive sensors or suffer from the disturbance of vibration due to non-misfire reasons. One combination of Frequency Domain Analysis and Fuzzy Logic to perform the misfire diagnosis is proposed. It takes full advantage of property of frequency domain analysis and fuzzy logic, providing accurate and robust detection results, without adding additional hardware diagnosis instruments.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0279
Fumio Narisawa, Masahiro Matsubara, Masataka Nishi, Tomohito Ebina
Electronic control and software systems in automotives are being increasing both in its functions and sizes to achieve better controllability and reduction of fuel consumptions. The higher safety level is also demanded, and introduction of the functional-safety standard is progressing to the in-vehicle system in recent years. In safety critical systems, it is necessary to diagnose failure and to transit a system surely to a safe state, even if failure of hardware occurs. Therefore, verification of the failure diagnosis part of the basic software which takes charge of signal inputs and outputs processing is highly required for high accountability and the explanatory to a third party. In order to diagnose failure, the hardware and software which are originally operating independently need to cooperate in principle. Verification of hardware and software cooperating systems are not straight-forward, because the number of combinations of conditions will be too much for testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0172
Won Kyung Ham, Sangchul Park, JiMyoung Park, Minsuk Ko, Min-Ho Yoo
Abstract Presented in this research is methodology for modeling the behavior of an automotive ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to verify in a production system. The methodology of this paper is to verify the defects of ECU products during in a real operation, before the defective ECU equipped to an automobile. The performance of an ECU operation is dependent on not only the specification of a hardware device, but also a software program installed in the memory of an ECU. The software program of an ECU is able to be validated before installation, but the validation process is usually executed in a very controllable environment. In order to consider the software program which is frequently changeable in practice, the verification methodology of ECU products as the hardware device and software program integrated is required for detecting defective ECU products caused by inappropriate software program during in manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0202
Armin Wasicek, Andre Weimerskirch
Combatting the modification of automotive control systems is a current and future challenge for OEMs and suppliers. ‘Chiptuning’ is a manifestation of manipulation of a vehicle’s original setup and calibration. With the increase in automotive functions implemented in software and corresponding business models, chip tuning will become a major concern. Recognizing and reporting of tuned control units in a vehicle is required for technical as well as legal reasons. This work approaches the problem by capturing the behavior of relevant control units within a machine learning system called a recognition module. The recognition module continuously monitors vehicle’s sensor data. It comprises a set of classifiers that have been trained on the intended behavior of a control unit before the vehicle is delivered. When the vehicle is on the road, the recognition module uses the classifier together with current data to ascertain that the behavior of the vehicle is as intended.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0173
Stephen Barrett, Maximilien Bouchez
Abstract Engine ECU testing requires sophisticated sensor simulation and event capture equipment. FPGAs are the ideal devices to address these requirements. Their high performance and high flexibility are perfectly suited to the rapidly changing test needs of today's advanced ECUs. FPGAs offer significant advantages such as parallel processing, design scalability, ultra-fast pin-to-pin response time, design portability, and lifetime upgradability. All of these benefits are highly valuable when validating constantly bigger embedded software in shorter duration. This paper discusses the collaboration between Valeo and NI to define, implement, and deploy a graphical, open-source, FPGA-based engine simulation library for ECU verification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0229
Zhongwen Zhu, Xu Wang, Wei Huang, Jinfeng Gong
Abstract Pure electric vehicles are recognized as one of the most important new energy vehicle types to meet the increasingly stringent standards in energy saving and environment protection. To meet the control demands, China Automotive Technology & Research Center(CATARC) plan to develop an advanced Vehicle Control Platform(VCP) for pure electric vehicles. The developed VCP is well structured on both hardware and software and can be adapted to different pure electric vehicles easily. This paper describes the design of the hardware, the software architecture, the base software and the control strategy applied in the VCP in detail. A matching method is proposed to configure the VCP to a real VCU for the specific application by modifying the hardware channel definition and the control parameters. The paper shows successful application of the VCP on several types of pure electric vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0176
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Jens Harnisch, Albrecht Mayer, Udo Dannebaum, Herbert Christlbauer
The implementation of innovative features in the areas of electric-drive systems, chassis and driver assistance systems as well as the introduction of new networking architectures and mostly the increasing in-house software developed by car manufacturers result in new ECUs integrating high numbers of application software components. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. Currently, the applied approaches like sending debug messages over CAN or FlexRay need to be enhanced by further approaches. It is important to accept that timing is a crucial aspect.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0177
Thomas Fuhrman, Shige Wang, Marek Jersak, Kai Richter
Multi-core systems are promising a cost-effective solution for 1) advanced vehicle features requiring dramatically more software and hence an order of magnitude more processing power, 2) redundancy and mixed-IP, mixed-ASIL isolation required for ISO 26262 functional safety, and 3) integration of previously separate ECUs and evolving embedded software business models requiring separation of different software parts. In this context, designing, optimizing and verifying the mapping and scheduling of software functions onto multiple processing cores becomes key.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0180
Karsten Schmidt, Denny Marx, Kai Richter, Konrad Reif, Andreas Schulze, Torsten Flämig
Transitioning from single-function to multi-function ECUs poses new challenges to the software integration, especially the design, verification and optimization of the software architecture with the OS schedule. We must maximize the CPU utilization and run all functions according to their specific timing needs (CPU load, cycle time, execution time, jitters, etc.). In single-function systems, the relation between function/software development and software integration/test is simple: one function, one ECU, one test system. When timing issues are detected, we can identify their root cause and take appropriate action, either in the function or in the platform software.
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