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Training / Education
2014-10-14
This highly interactive seminar - featuring microcontroller hands-on lab projects - will help you learn fundamental concepts needed to design, implement, and calibrate control functions for an embedded microcontroller system. The seminar introduces the system elements: control system architecture; control algorithms; sensors; actuators; wiring; electromagnetic compatibility; microcontroller; software; diagnostics and calibration, wireless networks and shows how all elements are connected. While most examples and exercises focus on automotive, the materials presented are relevant to many industries including commercial vehicle, off-road, aerospace, rail, communication networks, appliances, and more. The course will provide overviews of powertain control functions and related sensors and actuators including electronic control signals, microcontroller functions, control algorithms, software, diagnostics and calibration of the system. Participants will also be exposed to robust design for electronic / mechatronic systems, as well as wireless communication.
Training / Education
2014-06-02
The advent of digital computers and the availability of ever cheaper and faster micro processors have brought a tremendous amount of control system applications to the automotive industry in the last two decades. From engine and transmission systems, to virtually all chassis subsystems (brakes, suspensions, and steering), some level of computer control is present. Control systems theory is also being applied to comfort systems such as climate control and safety systems such as cruise control or collision mitigation systems. This seminar begins by introducing the highly mathematical field of control systems focusing on what the classical control system tools do and how they can be applied to automotive systems. Dynamic systems, time/frequency responses, and stability margins are presented in an easy to understand format. Utilizing Matlab and Simulink, students will learn how simple computer models are generated. Other fundamental techniques in control design such as PID and lead-lag compensators will be presented as well as the basics of embedded control systems.
Event
2014-04-10
The increasing use of network based control systems is evident, as many of the new developments are distributing features and functions across the traditional domains of vehicle, chassis, body and powertrain. This distributed nature of the system has enabled scalability and design flexibility while increasing integration complexity with the continued development of safety requirements and regulations. Experts discuss specifics about the challenges of merging of powertrain, vehicle engineering system and sub-systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vukica Jovanovic, Mileta Tomovic, Lisa Ncube, Ana Djuric, Petros Katsioloudis, Filip Cuckov
Abstract Many vehicle subsystems were in essence mechatronic (electro-mechanical) designs. Modern vehicles have various subsystems which provide mechanical movements which were controlled by electronic and electrical systems. At the same time, they collect and track data about system performance and environmental conditions for on board diagnostics. Advances in mechanical, electrical, and embedded systems were making vehicles more intelligent. However, these mechatronics systems face new challenges including design for compliance and ensuring that all product specifications are transferred into the company's product data management system. This is especially important for electrical and electronic subsystems since they have to comply with ongoing changes related to the management of hazardous substances. Since modern vehicles were being manufactured in a global environment through outsourcing of many different components, this poses challenges with material tracking. Environmental regulations were not only different from country to country but were also constantly changing making it essential that systems are flexible and customizable.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Adam Fogarty, Kevin Oswald
In order to continue the effort of converting traditional internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles into hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), it is important to consider a variety of design architectures in which hybrid-electric operation is achieved. Such architectures include power split, parallel, and series. Of the previously stated architectures, the Purdue EcoMakers of the EcoCar 2 international Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) have chosen a parallel-through-the-road architecture for their 2013 Chevrolet Malibu provided by General Motors. From this, the Purdue EcoMaker vehicle design will be used as a case study for the design challenges and optimization strategies that are experienced when choosing this specific architecture for a light-duty passenger vehicle. This paper will focus on the design procedure and structural analysis of the custom rear suspension cradle created by the Purdue EcoMakers. Additionally, this paper will consider the benefits and practicality of using the structure of the custom suspension cradle as a design format for future suspension cradles to be used in light-duty passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ashish Vora, Haotian Wu, Chuang Wang, Yili Qian, Gregory Shaver, Vahid Motevalli, Peter Meckl, Oleg Wasynczuk, Haiyan Zhang
Abstract Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition. It describes the team's efforts towards developing a complete vehicle model of a Parallel-through-the road PHEV which can leverage SIL and HIL simulation platforms for control development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
George Shelly Lukose, S Paramasivam, M Vijayakumar
The switched reluctance motor (SRM) driver is receiving increasing attention from various researchers as well as industry as a viable for adjustable speed and servo applications. Combining the unique features of an SRM with simple and efficient power converter that in use, a superior motor drive system emerges which may be preferable for many applications compared to other AC or DC motor driver systems. Although a number of converters have emerged over the years for SRM drives, but every single driver has its own advantages and drawbacks and there has always been a trade-off between gaining something of the advantages and losing some when a new driver is offered. This paper presents a review of various research about SRM driver converters, for power quality and torque improvement, in last 20 years, in the area of modeling, simulation, static, dynamic analysis, different control schemes like power factor correction, quasi resonant switching, various demagnetization techniques for field current etc.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alexander T. Zaremba, Ciro Soto, Mohammad Shakiba-herfeh, Mark Jennings
Pareto optimal map concept has been applied to the optimization of the vehicle system control (VSC) strategy for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. The methodology relies on an inner-loop optimization process to define Pareto maps of the best engine and electric motor/generator operating points given wheel power demand, vehicle speed, and battery power. Selected levels of model fidelity, from simple to very detailed, can be used to generate the Pareto maps. Optimal control is achieved by applying Pontryagin's minimum principle which is based on minimization of the Hamiltonian comprised of the rate of fuel consumption and a co-state variable multiplied by the rate of change of battery SOC. The approach delivers optimal control for lowest fuel consumption over a drive cycle while accounting for all critical vehicle operating constraints, e.g. battery charge balance and power limits, and engine speed and torque limits. The methodology has been verified through comparison with the production VSC strategy of the 2013 HEV Fusion and it shows comparable performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tom Mockeridge, Hans-Peter Dohman, David Phiilips
Abstract Today's sophisticated state-of-the-art powertrains with various intelligent control units (xCU) need to be calibrated and tested stand-alone as well as in interaction. Today the majority of this work is still carried out with prototype vehicles on test tracks. Moving prototype vehicle tests from the road into the lab is key in achieving shorter development times and saving development cost. This kind of frontloading requires a modular and powerful simulation of all vehicle components, test track, and driver in steady state and dynamic operation. The described HIL (Hardware In the Loop) high performance driveline dyno test bed uses driveline components and models from the engine all the way to the wheel ends. The test cell was built to do real time vehicle maneuvers and NVH testing. This test setup can emulate any road surface and grade and vehicle inertia including wheels and engine as close to reality as possible. This test set-up will be used to calibrate, test, and validate the complete driveline system or any part thereof.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mina Kaldas, Kemal Caliskan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
Abstract New developments in road profile measurement systems and in semi-active damper technology promote the application of preview control strategies to vehicle suspension systems. This paper details a new semi-active suspension control approach in which a rule-optimized Fuzzy Logic controller is enhanced through preview capability. The proposed approach utilizes an optimization process for obtaining the optimum membership functions and the optimum rule-base of the preview enhanced Fuzzy Logic controller. The preview enhanced Fuzzy Logic controller uses the feedforward road input information and the feedback vehicle state information as the controller inputs. An eleven degree of freedom full vehicle model, which is validated through laboratory tests performed on a hydraulic four-poster shaker, is used for the controller synthesis. The cost function including both ride comfort and road holding performance of the full vehicle is minimized through a discrete optimization process utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yu Wang, Weiwen Deng, Jian Wu, Bing Zhu, Sumin Zhang
This paper proposed a novel fault-tolerant control method based on control allocation via dynamic constrained optimization for electric vehicles with XBW systems. The total vehicle control command is first derived based on interpretation on driver's intention as a set of desired vehicle body forces, which is further dynamically distributed to the control command of each actuator among vehicle four corners. A dynamic constrained optimization method is proposed with the cost function set to be a linear combination of multiple control objectives, such that the control allocation problem is transformed into a linear programming formulation. An analytical yet explicit solution is then derived, which not only provides a systematic approach in handling the actuation faults, but also is efficient and real-time feasible for in-vehicle implementation. The simulation results show that the proposed method is valid and effective in maintaining vehicle operation as expected even with faults.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Huan Li, Ying Huang, Xiaoyan Dai, Meiqi Hu
Abstract Based on MATLAB/Simulink, the ECU application software components library for diesel engine has been designed in this paper. The hierarchic and modularized components library is an open research platform for the model-based control software development. Using the components technology, the requirements of the diesel engine ECU application software have been analyzed, upon which the detailed components partition and the components library design have been accomplished. Besides, based on this components library, a control prototype for the diesel engine has been established quickly and verified through the Hardware-in-the-Loop test. The ECU software design and test process based on the components library show a good flexibility of the library, and it can improve the configurability and reusability of the software and increase the efficiency of the control software development.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Nico Adler, Stefan Otten, Melanie Schwär, Klaus D. Müller-Glaser
The international standard ISO 26262 for functional safety of road vehicles claims processes and requirements for the entire product lifecycle of automotive electric and electronic systems. The demanded activities and work products within the standard are highly interconnected. Additionally, references to exemplarily external quality management standards or commonly recognized industry sources are given. Therefore, the application of functional safety processes in distributed development is challenging regarding description, understanding, analysis and planning of processes. To overcome these inconveniences, we provide a meta model extension for model-based architecture description languages regarding process description, organizational structures and resource assignment. This is related to the established “Business Process Model and Notation” (BPMN) according to ISO/IEC 19510:2013. Our integration in a domain specific environment for large-scaled electric and electronic (E/E) architectures provides graphical modeling of processes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Helmut Martin, Stephan Baumgart, Andrea Leitner, Daniel Watzenig
Abstract The need for cost efficient development and shorter time to market requires reuse of safety-critical embedded systems. One main challenge for reuse approaches in a safety-critical context is to provide evidence that assumptions of the safety artifacts for the reused component are still valid in the new system definition. This paper summarizes the major findings from an explorative study conducted in order to identify the state of practice of reuse in the context of different functional safety standards. The explorative study consists of a set of questions, which have been discussed with interviewees from companies of various domains. The companies act in safety-critical domains with diverse product portfolios. We covered several points of view by interviewing persons with different background. The results of the study reveal industrial challenges, which built the input for the derivation of possible future work based on the identified practical needs. Our main findings show the current predominance of ad-hoc reuse techniques and the need for more systematic approaches for reuse.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yanan Zhao, Thomas Rambow, Chat Nguyen, Mathew Boesch, Raymond Spiteri, Kyle Post
Abstract The safety monitor is a high integrity control that monitors the health and performance of safety related computer controlled functions in vehicles. The integrity of the safety monitor code is critical to the overall performance of the control software. Traditionally, once monitor requirements are understood, then the safety monitor is hand coded or created in a modeling environment. New practices such as ISO 26262 prescribe formal or semiformal methods are used against certain classes of foreseeable faults. Recently, a new tool, which is capable of auto-generating C-code based on safety monitor formal functional requirements is available from BTC Company. Ford Motor Company investigated the tool using an application example from a powertrain control feature safety monitor. The paper describes a pilot project and process assessment, comprising the steps of requirement-based C-code generation, code integration, code analysis and code verification using requirements selected from the powertrain control feature's specification.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Salem Al-Assadi
Abstract This paper presents another application [1] of using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in adaptive tracking control of an electronic throttle system. The ANN learns to model the experimental direct inverse dynamic of the throttle servo system using a multilayer perceptron neural network structure with the dynamic back-propagation algorithm. An off-line training process was used based on an historical set of experimental measurements that covered all operating conditions. This provided sufficient information on the dynamics of the open-loop inverse nonlinear plant model. The identified ANN Direct Inverse Model (ANNDIM) was used as a feed-forward controller combined with an adaptive feed-back gains (PID) controller scheduled [2] at different operating conditions to provide the robustness in tracking control to un-modeled dynamics of the throttle servo system. The un-modeled dynamics are mainly related to the strong nonlinearity functions that may excite the system with external un-measurable disturbances and noise effects.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rolf Schneider, Andre Kohn, Karsten Schmidt, Sven Schoenberg, Udo Dannebaum, Jens Harnisch, Qian Zhou
Abstract The infrastructure in modern cars is a heterogeneous and historically grown network of different field buses coupling different electronic control units (ECUs) from different sources. In the past years, the amount of ECUs in the network has rapidly grown due to the mushrooming of new functions which historically were mostly implemented on a one-ECU-per-function basis resulting in up to a hundred ECUs in fully equipped luxury cars. Additionally, new functions like parking assist systems or advanced chassis control functions are getting increasingly complex and require more computing power. These two facts add up to a complex challenge in development. The current trend to host several functions in single ECUs as integration platforms is one attempt to address this challenge. This trend is supported by the increased computing power of current and upcoming multi-core microcontrollers. In this paper, our emphasis is on the practical realization of integration platform ECUs in the chassis domain, which is characterized by higher functional safety, and in the future, high security requirements.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays, electric control steering system has been a main tendency. It consists of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system, Steer by Wire (SBW) system and Active Front Steering (AFS) system. EPS is more widely applied and its technology is more developed. By 2010, the cars equipped with EPS have reached almost 30%. This paper describes one integrated test bench which can test and verify electric control steering system. The main target of the paper is to design and set up a resistance loading system for the test bench referred. The paper takes EPS as a prototype to verify the designed resistance loading system. If the resistance loading system provides a precise simulated torque for the bench, the results of tests will be more approximate with vehicle tests and the acquired data will be reliable for electric control steering system's design and improvement. The linear electric cylinder applied in the loading system is used to provide simulated torque for the bench. The linear electric cylinder is combined with a kind of software independently designed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andreas Kiep, Marco Puerschel
Abstract The amount of electronics in vehicles is increasing, so is the amount of power electronics circuits, like inverters for electric motor drives or dc/dc converters. The muscles of these circuits are power transistors like MOSFETs and IGBTs - in each circuit are several of them. While MOSFETs and IGBTs have advanced over the years in terms of their performance, their wide product spectrum and feature spectrum as well as cost, they are still not unbreakable, but semiconductors which are more sensitive to electrical or thermal overstress than, a relay for instance. Especially electrical overstress, like overvoltage or over current, may damage a power transistor within a short time frame. Hence, electrical overstress must be avoided when designing the power electronics circuit. However, even a power transistor in a carefully designed power electronics circuit, may still be exposed to over current, short circuit, over voltage, over temperature and so forth. This may damage the power transistor and may have severe consequences for the application.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lijiao Yu, Hongyu Zheng, Changfu Zong
Abstract Nowadays, conventional steering system cannot meet consumers' requirements as their environmental awareness increasing. Electrically controlled steering system can solve this problem well [1] [2]. Electrically controlled steering system has been not only applied widely in automobile steering technique but also becomes an important section of automobile integrated chassis control technology. It is necessary for vehicles to test their every component repeatedly before every component assembled. So a test bench becomes an essential part for vehicle products' design and improvement. The electrically controlled steering system consists of Electric Power Steering system (EPS), Active Front Steering (AFS) and Steer by Wire (SBW). The similarity among them is containing pinion-and-rack mechanical structure, so it is viable to design a test bench suitable for these three systems. This paper takes EPS as a prototype to verify the design's availability. The designed test bench is also used to detect and verify the electrically controlled steering system's performance at the same time.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Liebetrau, Philip Brockerhoff
Abstract In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface. In most cases, system suppliers have the choice between several electronic partitioning concepts, based on specific technical and economic conditions up to given specific preferences of the supplier.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Armin Wasicek
Intellectual property rights and their protection is a cornerstone of the automotive value chain. The automotive industry is composed by a meshwork of tightly integrated organizations that cooperate and compete in a hierarchical marketplace. Trading know-how and other virtual assets between participants is an essential part of this business. Thereby, software as a medium to transport ideas, innovations, and technologies plays a particular role. Protection of virtual goods and their associated rights is a current issue whose solution will determine how business will be done in the future automotive market. Automotive experts and researchers agree that ICT security technologies are a vital part to implement such a market. In this paper we examine the software life cycle of an automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and discuss potential threats and countermeasures for each stage. In particular, we will look at the following threats: (1) development (leakage of know-how through insiders or industrial espionage), (2) production (leakage through split inventor/producer companies, (3) deployment and service (manipulation of ECUs), and (4) aftersales (combating counterfeit ECUs and spare parts).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Satoshi Otsuka, Tasuku Ishigooka, Yukihiko Oishi, Kazuyoshi Sasazawa
Abstract In-vehicle networks are generally used for computerized control and connecting information technology devices in cars. However, increasing connectivity also increases security risks. “Spoofing attacks”, in which an adversary infiltrates the controller area network (CAN) with malicious data and makes the car behave abnormally, have been reported. Therefore, countermeasures against this type of attack are needed. Modifying legacy electronic control units (ECUs) will affect development costs and reliability because in-vehicle networks have already been developed for most vehicles. Current countermeasures, such as authentication, require modification of legacy ECUs. On the other hand, anomaly detection methods may result in misdetection due to the difficulty in setting an appropriate threshold. Evaluating a reception cycle of data can be used to simply detect spoofing attacks. However, this may result in false detection due to fluctuation in the data reception cycle in the CAN. We propose the “delayed-decision cycle detection” method for improving a conventional cycle detection method, which does not require modification of legacy ECUs, detects intrusions with a low misdetection rate, and prevents intrusions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Peter Subke
Abstract In the past, the automotive industry has learned the lesson that competition on the level of bits and bytes, proprietary bus systems, data communication and diagnostic protocols is unrewarding. Too much time and money has been spent on the development of proprietary diagnostic tools. Vehicle manufacturers and suppliers realized that standardization would be the best way to overcome this situation. Furthermore, regulatory requirements in the US and the EU for such standardization have strengthened this lesson. As a result, the automotive industry has standardized the technology for the communication of external test equipment with electronic control units (ECUs) in road vehicles. Standardization serves the price, the quality and the maintainability via scale and training curve effects. This paper contains a technical introduction of internationally standardized diagnostic protocols (UDS on CAN, WWH-OBD, UDSonIP and DoIP), the D-Server (MVCI) with D-Server API and D-PDU API, the diagnostic data format (ODX) and the open test sequence exchange format (OTX).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Egel, Scott Furry
Abstract A mature process for the development of embedded controls and systems using Model-Based Design relies on libraries of validated models for the physical system components. These models are used throughout the design process and are readily available to the system and controls engineers for design and validation tasks. Models are created at various levels of abstraction to accommodate analysis needs at various stages of the design process. Abstract models are used early in the process for quick assessment of design tradeoffs, while higher fidelity models are used as the design progresses to account for the dynamics that affect system performance. Once acceptable system performance is achieved with desktop simulation, the models are moved to a real-time platform for final verification. Creating real-time capable plant models typically requires making assumptions and compromises to achieve acceptable performance. The end result is successful deployment of the embedded controls system with minimal reliance on expensive prototype hardware during the bulk of the design process.
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