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Training / Education
2015-03-26
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
Training / Education
2015-03-02
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Event
2014-12-10
Event
2014-12-10
Pd based catalysts has not been considered sufficient for converting methane to carbon dioxide for lean-CNG applications mainly in terms of durability, which finally impact the performance on long period. In the present investigation, we were addressed the substantial improvement of Pd-based catalyst with respect to its durability and initial activity. To obtain this, primarily the improvement was mainly achieved based on the new insight on the deactivation routes of Pd-based catalysts under normal operating condition of lean-CNG engines using various physicochemical tools. In addition, optimal engine control logic was carried in second stage of catalysts development by keeping the catalyst more durable. The system, comprised of improved Pd-based catalyst and engine control logic, has demonstrated the capability of complying EURO-6 regulations.
Event
2014-12-10
The automotive industry is facing a combination of challenges over the next decade. Fuel economy regulations are increasing for light-duty vehicles, and U.S. EPA Tier 3 emissions standards are requiring lower tailpipe emissions. Advanced combustion techniques are being pursued to enable improved fuel economy, and lower NOx and PM emissions can be obtained by the more homogeneous combustion from these techniques. However, CO and HC emissions are often higher from advanced combustion engines, and the higher efficiency of these engines results in lower exhaust temperatures. The combination of higher CO and HC emissions with lower exhaust temperatures challenges conventional oxidation catalysts. Thus, new catalyst technologies are being pursued to lower light-off temperatures to enable emissions compliance. Research on novel catalyst formulations for control of CO and HC emissions will be presented.
Event
2014-12-10
Upcoming tighter LEVIII emission regulations, especially SULEV-20 and SULEV-30 standards, are placing a greater burden on OEM’s to reduce PGM consumption since 84% of passenger cars must comply with LEVIII by 2022. Over the last few years, BASF has developed an innovated approach for multi-catalyst systems to allow OEMs to successfully meet their goals. The material discusses this approach. Beginning with an analysis of the vehicle’s ECU properties followed by an analysis of ECU-catalyst and front and rear catalysts synergies, as well as PGM loading and cell density effects. Once best performing catalyst technologies are identified, a PGM optimization is conducted to provide the most cost effective catalyst system to OEMs. Past programs have resulted in a 20-40% PGM reduction.
Event
2014-12-10
Temperature and gas and surface concentration gradients exist in catalytic reactors, yet often the composition of the catalyst in the reactor is itself homogeneous. Taking advantage of the existing and evolving reaction gradients, by using tailored gradients in active site distributions, can be used to improve catalyst performance and durability. For example, previous research has shown that “front-loading” catalysts can reduce the light off temperature for CO oxidation. In this study, a combination of experimental and modeling results will be presented that indeed demonstrate that there are benefits to designing oxidation catalysts with a non-uniform distribution in active sites, and these benefits become more significant the more the catalyst is “challenged”. Such results could prove particularly important for future low-temperature combustion technologies, which appear to not only result in lower temperature exhaust, but the exhaust also contains higher levels of CO and hydrocarbons.
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
The proposed legislative requirements on particle number emissions for EU6c and the reduced particle mass emission limits of CARB LEV-III / EPA Tier-3 pose a new challenge in the development of gasoline direct injection engines. Bosch is actively pursuing system level solutions, including the development of next generation DI injection systems, to aid OEMs in meeting the new legislative requirements without the need for additional exhaust gas after-treatment or penalties in fuel economy. This presentation will highlight key development areas and show system level pathways to successfully address these challenges.
Event
2014-12-09
Cold start emission control is critical for light duty vehicles to meet the US EPA Tier 3 or CARB LEV III emission standards. Recent development in this area will be reviewed in this presentation. For stoichiometric-burn gasoline engine powdered vehicles, a gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) technology will be discussed. The technology integrates HC trapping components and low temperature Three-Way Catalysts together to improve the net HC conversion efficiency. For lean-burn diesel engine powered vehicles, novel diesel Cold Start Concept (dCSC™) catalysts will be presented. The catalysts, in combination with NOx reduction catalysts, can significantly reduce the cold start HC/NOx emissions.
Event
2014-12-09
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are being developed to enable compliance with the Euro 6c particulate number limit for gasoline direct injection engines. Applying a precious metal containing coating to the GPF has been found to improve soot combustion, enabling better passive regeneration under typical driving conditions. Furthermore, examples will demonstrate how coating the GPF with a three-way catalyst also provides benefits including system compactness and improved conversion efficiencies under transient and high speed driving conditions. The effects of PGM content and washcoat design on soot combustion and conversion activity will be discussed.
Event
2014-12-09
Lube oil-driven ash is inevitable for particulate filters and thus the filters need to be designed in consideration of ash loading. Since passive soot oxidation occurs at a high exhaust temperature range in GPF, ash behaviors in GPF are distinct from DPF. Our studies have shown that soot oxidation reactivity increases proportionally with increasing ash content in soot. The effect of ash loading on GPF pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and passive soot oxidation will be discussed.
Event
2014-12-09
The fuel efficiency of a stoichiometric gasoline engine can significantly be improved by operating the engine in a fuel-lean combustion mode. Reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust, however, poses a significant technical challenge. The passive NH3-SCR system is a potential low-cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean-burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an under-floor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. This presentation discusses reductant generation and utilization processes over the passive SCR system and analysis relevant to simulated drive cycles where lean, rich and stoichiometric operations are used to meet engine torque and catalyst emission control demands.
Event
2014-12-09
Gasoline direct injection engines are attractive for their low CO2 emissions and high fuel efficiency; however, these engines produce significant particulate emissions relative to multiport injection engines. Many OEMs may require exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies to meet the proposed Eu6c particle number emissions regulations if system solutions are not viable. New filter technologies are being explored to lower PN emissions for GDI vehicles. In addition to providing high filtration capability, filters with low backpressure and good thermal survivability are required. Characterization and performance results for these advanced filter technologies will be presented.
Event
2014-11-18
Papers in this session pertain to studies of exhaust emission control and the emission effects from fuels, engine controls, engine design, combuston quality, catalytic converters, diesel particulate filters, and other aftertreatment. The focus of the session is on reducing emissions and meeting international emission standards.
Event
2014-11-18
Papers in this session pertain to studies of exhaust emission control and the emission effects from fuels, engine controls, engine design, combuston quality, catalytic converters, diesel particulate filters, and other aftertreatment. The focus of the session is on reducing emissions and meeting international emission standards.
Event
2014-11-18
Papers in this session pertain to studies of exhaust emission control and the emission effects from fuels, engine controls, engine design, combuston quality, catalytic converters, diesel particulate filters, and other aftertreatment. The focus of the session is on reducing emissions and meeting international emission standards.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulation for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulation the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic WMTC will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions consist of so called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different relations and concentrations. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) that is compensating the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle. In this paper we will present the modification of an existing Euro 3 catalytic formulation for a 690cc motorcycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective The motorcycle sales have improved consistently during the last decade mostly in developing and BRICS countries. There are many reasons for it such as their low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars, associated to the economic growth on those cited countries. New emissions limits have been reduced and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Additionally Flex Fuel motorcycles have been offered to the market and a combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends and their effect on the emissions still an open issue to be fully understood. The objective of the paper is to present recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends. Methodology One motorcycle was fuelled with gasoline blended with 22, 61 and 85% ethanol. Additionally a 100% ethanol fuel was used. Regulated emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) have been measured with 7000 series Horiba benches.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, the authors want to demonstrate the possible achievements by the application of state of the art technology to a standard small capacity two-wheeler engine being representative for the current market situation. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations. Thus, the possibility for investigations on the optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment was given.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Many two stroke engines for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce exhaust gas emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight , dimensions and temperature . One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter .
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry (PM), granulometry SMPS (PN) and differential analysis of filter residue. In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best material were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be considerably influenced by the lube oil quality and reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Saager Paliwal, Alex S. Bare, Katherine J. Lawrence, Marc Anderson, Glenn Bower
This study looks at the application of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalytic nanoparticle suspension to the surface of the combustion chamber as a coating, as well as the addition of hydrogen gas to a four-stroke spark-ignited carbureted engine as a possible technique for lowering engine-out emissions. The experiments were conducted on two identical Generac gasoline powered generators using two, four and six halogen work lamps to load the engine. One generator was used as a control and the second had key components of the combustion chamber coated with the catalytic suspension. In addition to the coating, both engines were fed a hydrogen and oxygen gas mixture and tested at low, medium and high loads. Using an unmodified engine as a control set, the following three conditions were tested and compared: addition of hydrogen only, addition of coating only, and addition of hydrogen to the coated engine. Operating the engines on standard gasoline in a laboratory, emission gases were transferred via a heated line to be analyzed by an FTIR.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
The small gasoline engines are widely used as prime movers in the urban areas. For this reason great efforts have been paid to improve their efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions because of the non-uniform mixture preparation and piston wetting. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. In this sense, ethanol is becoming even more attractive for spark ignition fuels as more resistant to knock phenomena due to its higher octane number. Moreover, ethanol is also expected to play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. It was investigated two operating condition representative of the typical EUDC.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
With environmental issues such as global warming getting acute, the demand of engine exhaust gas emission reduction is increasing. The purpose of this study is the reduction of exhaust gas emissions for small size generators by using after-treatment device. The requirement of small size generators are portability, so they must be lightweight and compact. After-treatment device should be housed in the compact package. And sometimes generators are used near a house, so CO discharge amount should be a little under the condition of fuel rich mixture for high specific power. To meet these conditions, a catalytic converter with secondary air induction is adopted. Secondary air is used for oxidization of CO. However before this study, sufficient amount of secondary air couldn’t be inducted because of the shortage of minus pressure in exhaust pipe which caused by high-load operating and the shortness of an exhaust pipe. But high-load operating is inevitable in generator and adoption of a long exhaust pipe is impossible to compact casing.
Training / Education
2014-11-11
Lean burn engines (diesel and GDI) boast higher fuel economy and cleaner emissions than conventionally tuned engines while producing equivalent power. They employ higher combustion chamber compression ratios, significant air intake swirl and precise lean-metered direct fuel injection. The downfall of lean-burn technology, however, is increased exhaust NOx emissions (due to higher heat and cylinder pressure) and a somewhat narrower RPM power-band (due to slower burn rates of lean mixtures). Removal of NOx from exhausts is a critical need for emission standards and ambient ozone requirements. This three session web seminar will examine the various catalytic processes for lean burn applications, including Selective Catalytic NOx Reduction (SCR), NOx Trap Technologies (i.e.
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