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Training / Education
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
Training / Education
Designing more efficient and robust emission control components and exhaust systems results in more efficient performance, reduced backpressure and fuel penalty, and higher conversion efficiency. This course will help you to understand the motion of exhaust flow in both gasoline and diesel emission control components including flow-through and wall-flow devices such as catalytic converters, NOx adsorbers, diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters as well as flow through the overall exhaust system.
Training / Education
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Training / Education
Lean burn engines (diesel and GDI) boast higher fuel economy and cleaner emissions than conventionally tuned engines while producing equivalent power. They employ higher combustion chamber compression ratios, significant air intake swirl and precise lean-metered direct fuel injection. The downfall of lean-burn technology, however, is increased exhaust NOx emissions (due to higher heat and cylinder pressure) and a somewhat narrower RPM power-band (due to slower burn rates of lean mixtures). Removal of NOx from exhausts is a critical need for emission standards and ambient ozone requirements.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers on the following exhaust emissions control topics will be considered: System integration and durability, advances in catalyst substrates, advances in particulate filter substrates, advances in NOx reduction technology, and on-board measurement and control.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on the general topics of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes papers discussing well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research with their primary focus on engine, emissions, fuels, control or related components or sub-components within. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment. (Papers focusing on vehicle-system approach on fuel economy should be directed to PFL370.)
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on the general topics of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes papers discussing well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research with their primary focus on engine, emissions, fuels, control or related components or sub-components within. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment. (Papers focusing on vehicle-system approach on fuel economy should be directed to PFL370.)
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0911
Krishna Chilumukuru, Aniket Gupta, Michael Ruth, Michael Cunningham, Govindarajan Kothandaraman, Lasitha Cumaranatunge, Howard Hess
Light duty emission certification levels such as Tier 2 Bin 2 (equivalent of Tier 3 Bin 30) are 70% and 88% lower in NOx and HC respectively from current Tier 2 Bin 5 level. For light duty chassis certified automotive applications, the weighting factor of the cold portion of the FTP-75 (federal transient procedure) cycle is 43% of the overall emissions certification value. NOx and HC emissions must be mitigated at much lower exhaust temperatures as compared to diesel aftertreatment systems currently in production. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture to improve low temperature NOx and HC conversion efficiency is proposed. This system consists of a diesel cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst and selective catalytic reduction catalyst on filter (SCRF®) close coupled to the engine for faster warm up. Additionally, a flow-through SCR catalyst is located downstream of the SCR on DPF catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1045
Ioannis Papadopoulos, Simon Becker, Holger Ehnis, Reiner Kunzel PhD, Armin Frommer PhD
The oil emission of an internal combustion engine has a direct impact on CO2 and particle emission. Thereby reducing the oil emission, especially in the context of stricter emission requirements in the automotive industry, is becoming a center of attention. To achieve this goal, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the formation of the oil emission in the internal combustion engine is necessary. In order to determine the oil emission caused by the piston group, the exhaust is sampled and analyzed via a mass spectrometer in the exhaust manifold directly after the exhaust valve. For the detection of the lubricating oil, which contains long-chain hydrocarbons, the mass spectrometer is operated in the high-pass filter mode. The oil emission is evaluated in stationary and transient operation of the engine for assessing specifically selected design parameters of the piston group, in order to make differentiated and detailed statements about the oil emission mechanisms.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0907
Timothy Johnson, Ameya Joshi
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Euro 6 type regulations for Beijing, China, and India in the 2017-20 timeframe. Europe finalized real driving emissions (RDE) standards with the conformity factors for light-duty diesel NOx and GDI PN ramping down to 1.5X by 2021. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations. LD gasoline concepts are achieving 45% BTE (brake thermal efficiency or net amount of fuel energy gong to the crankshaft) and closing the gap with diesel.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1009
Yajun Wang, Yuesen Wang, Xiuxiu Sun, Hanzhengnan Yu, xikai Liu
In this paper, the influence of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a two cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions, fractal dimension of aggregates and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 70 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1006
Fadzli Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Shahrir Abdullah, Fadzli Ibrahim
The undisputable advantages in terms of time and cost saving for soot emission study have made the computational analyses becomes more preferable. Current development of computer program with higher precision mathematical model making simulation works becomes closer to the real engine combustion environment. This investigation for in-cylinder soot concentration has been carried out using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software, CONVERGE CFD. In conjunction to explore its full capability, study on soot has been performed using different level of complexity soot model, from simple two-steps of Hiroyasu-NSC soot model to the detailed-kinetic soot model. Both detailed soot model which based on methods of moment and sectional method are applied in this study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1007
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
Increasingly stringent legislation aims to reduce exhaust gas particulate levels - and not only for vehicle with Diesel engines. Various authorities have set limits for the mass of particulate (PM) emitted over a legislative driving cycle and the EU has added particle number (PN) limits. Additionally, there is considerable interest in particulate emissions from engine types traditionally assumed to have zero particulate emissions - port fuel injected vehicles running on gasoline, LPG and CNG. Regional specifics such as drive cycles mean that the legislative particulate emissions result varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, even where the same vehicle is used for testing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0933
Yunhua Zhang, Diming Lou, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu, Qian Feng
Biodiesel as a renewable energy is becoming increasingly attractive due to the growing scarcity of conventional fossil fuels. Meanwhile, the development of after-treatment technologies for the diesel engine brings new insight concerning emissions especially the particulate matter pollutants. In order to study the coupling effects of biodiesel blend and CCRT (Catalyzed Continuously Regeneration Trap) on the particulate matter emissions, the particulate matter emissions from an urban bus operated under steady and transient conditions respectively on real road equipped with and without CCRT (the same bus) fuelled with biodiesel blends BD10 (90% pure diesel and 10% biodiesel by volume) and BD0 (100% pure diesel) was tested and analyzed using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Results showed that the particulate number-size distribution of BD10 had two peaks in nuclei mode and accumulation mode respectively except the condition of high speed, which was similar to BD0.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0936
Pavel Krejza, Jaroslav Pekar, Jiri Figura, Lukas Lansky, Dirk von Wissel, Tianran ZHANG
Diesel automotive engines after-treatment systems face greater challenges with every iteration of emission norm legislation. Major improvements in tailpipe NOx removal need to be achieved to fulfil the upcoming post EURO 6 norms and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) limits. Multi-brick systems employing combinations of multiple selective reduction catalysts (SCR) with an ammonia oxidizer (CUC) are proposed to cover operation over wide temperature range, however, control of multi-brick systems is complex due to many unmeasurable states. Usage of sophisticated model based predictive controls (MPC) makes the control task straight forward and less error prone compared to classic PID control. This paper shows the application of MPC to a SCR multi-brick system. Storage levels for SCR are calculated by optimization based on NOx conversion efficiency keeping tailpipe NH3 slip under emission limits.
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