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2016-10-24
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2016-10-24
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-26 ...
  • April 26-27, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 12-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
2016-04-14
Event
Papers are invited for this session on the general topics of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes papers discussing well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research with their primary focus on engine, emissions, fuels, control or related components or sub-components within. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment. (Papers focusing on vehicle-system approach on fuel economy should be directed to PFL370.)
2016-04-14
Event
Papers are invited for this session on the general topics of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes papers discussing well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research with their primary focus on engine, emissions, fuels, control or related components or sub-components within. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment. (Papers focusing on vehicle-system approach on fuel economy should be directed to PFL370.)
2016-04-13
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-13
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-04-11 ...
  • April 11, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 17, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Designing more efficient and robust emission control components and exhaust systems results in more efficient performance, reduced backpressure and fuel penalty, and higher conversion efficiency. This course will help you to understand the motion of exhaust flow in both gasoline and diesel emission control components including flow-through and wall-flow devices such as catalytic converters, NOx adsorbers, diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters as well as flow through the overall exhaust system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0921
Ashok Kumar, Kristopher Ingram, Deepesh Goyal, Krishna Kamasamudram
Vanadia based Selective Catalytic Reduction (V-SCR) catalysts are widely used to meet NOx emissions over off-road diesel engines in North America and both on-road and off-road diesel engines in Europe and rest of the markets. Even though Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts offer higher NOx conversion as compared to V-SCR at lower temperatures, sulfur poisoning of Cu-zeolite leads to a significant decrease in NOx conversion and desulfation (deSOx) temperatures in excess of 500C are needed to restore its performance. Wide-spread application of V-SCR is found in off-road applications due to their resistance to poisoning by sulfur that eliminates the need for periodic thermal management (TM) for deSOx. Several applications with V-SCR catalysts operate below 300C in conditions that are conducive to carbonaceous deposits formation due to the presence of unburned HCs in the exhaust gas.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0925
Douglas Ball, David Moser, Lucy Yang, Jason Warkins, Tinghong Tao, Angus Craig, Krishna Aravelli
A production calibrated GTDI 1.6L Ford Fusion was used to demonstrate low HC, CO, NOx, PM (particulate mass), and PN (particulate number) emissions, using advanced catalyst technologies with newly developed high porosity substrates and coated gasoline particulate filters. The exhaust system consisted of 1.2 liters of TWC catalyst in the close-coupled position, and 1.6L coated GPF in the underfloor position. The catalysts were dyno aged to simulate 120K miles of road aging. Results indicate that ULEV70 emissions can be achieved at $30 of PGM, while also demonstrating PM tailpipe performance far below the proposed CARB LEV III limit of 1 mg/mi. Along with PM and PN analysis, exhaust system back pressure is also presented with the various GPF designs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0758
Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Yan Long, Shouzhi Xiang, Jianxin Wang
Particle number (PN) have already been a big issue for developing high efficiency internal combustion engine (ICE). In this study, controlled spark-assisted stratified compression ignition (SSCI) with moderate end-gas auto-ignition was used for reducing PN in a high compression ratio gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Under wide open throttle (WOT) and minimum spark advance for best torque (MBT) condition, high external cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was filled in the cylinder, while two-stage direct injection was used to form desired stoichiometric but stratified mixture. SSCI combustion mode exhibits two-stage heat release, where the first stage is associated with flame propagation induced by spark ignition and the second stage is the result of moderate end-gas auto-ignition without pressure oscillation at the middle or late stage of the combustion process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0553
Akira Miyamoto, Kenji Inaba, Yukiko Obara, Yukie Ishizawa, Emi Sato, Mai Sase, Patrick Bonnaud, Ryuji Miura, Ai Suzuki, Naoto Miyamoto, Nozomu Hatakeyama, Jun Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Akihama
Restraint of the soot emission is an important issue in the development of the automotive engine and computational methods have been demonstrated to be effective for this purpose in addition to experimental methods .  
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0940
Sam George, Achim Heibel
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe for non-road engines will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions of those engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO₂ implications for the DPF operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1010
Roberto Aliandro Varella, Gonçalo Gonçalves, Gonçalo Duarte, Tiago Farias
Internal combustion engine (ICE) cold-start is an issue that occurs either in conventional and hybrid powertrains before the ICE reaches its normal operation temperature, affecting both fuel consumption due to higher heat losses, and pollutant emissions due to low catalytic converter temperatures. The study of cold start emissions on conventional powertrains has been extensively addressed, although typically under laboratorial conditions, however studies addressing the impact of this phenomenon on hybrid powertrains is still reduced. Hybrid electric (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles usually incorporate technologies to manage the battery and ICE power supply leading to ICE on/off operation under regular driving, which can result in a decrease on catalytic converter efficiency (due to cooling).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0993
Yoshinori Otsuki, Kenji Takeda, Hiroshi Nakamura
Recently, it was reported that the atmospheric pollution levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are not decreasing despite the introduction of stricter vehicle emission regulations. The difference between conditions of the test cycles defined by the vehicle emission regulations and the real driving can contribute to the differences between expected and actual pollution levels. This has led to the introduction of in-use vehicle emission monitoring and regulations by means of a portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). An optimized on-board PM analyzer was developed in this study. The technologies which realized miniaturization and higher performances will be explained. Basic performances such as flow and dilution ratio accuracies and proportionality between raw exhaust and sample flows have been evaluated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0756
Dong Han, Peng Zhao, Zhen Huang
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been proven an effective strategy for the ignition and combustion control in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a major constituent in EGR, was found to pose a coupled effect on engine combustion: reduced intake oxygen concentration (dilution effect), increased gas heat capacity (thermal effect) and participation of CO2 in chemical reactions (chemical effect). In this paper, a numerical study using a detailed chemical kinetic model was conducted, aiming to isolate the dilution, thermal and chemical effects of CO2 on the two-stage auto-ignition process of n-heptane at engine-like pressure conditions. Four different initial temperatures were selected in this study, representing the low-temperature dominant region, the boundary between the low-temperature region and the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region, the NTC region and the high temperature region, respectively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0991
Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
The influence of oxygenates on particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines has differing reports in the literature. It is hypothesised that these conflicting results can be explained by fuel vaporisation, and its composition in terms of aromatic content and heavy end components. For good control of the experiments M15 fuels have been mixed from pure fuel components and this enables the distillation characteristics to be matched to those of an M15 ULG. Code has been written to predict the vapour pressure of the non-ideal M15 blends; by controlling the fuel temperature experiments can be conducted with flashing and non-flashing fuel sprays. Two contrasting M15 fuels have been used: one ‘clean’ fuel, and a second ‘heavy’ fuel in terms of the vapour pressure, T90, aromatic content. Rig studies with backlit illumination and Mie scattering have been used for characterization of penetration length, spray angles (and collapse) and bulk evaporation rate.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0963
Vesselin Krassimirov Krastev, Giorgio Amati PhD, Elio jannelli, Giacomo Falcucci
The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is among the most efficient processes to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in engine exhaust. Research efforts are currently devoted to realizing and tuning SCR-reactors for automotive applications to meet the severe future emission standards, such as the European ``Euro VI'', in terms of NOx and particulate matter produced by vehicles. In this paper, we present the results of A detailed 2D computational model based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the performance of a SCR reactor. LBM has been employed for the study of complex phenomena of technical interest, and it is characterized by a detailed reproduction of both the porous structure of SCR reactor and the fluid-dynamic and chemical phenomena that take place in it. The aim of our model is to predict the behavior and performances of SCR reactor by accounting for the physical and chemical interactions between exhaust gas flow and the reactor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0775
Zhanteng Chang, Chao Yu, Haiyan Zhang, Shuojin Ren, Zhi Wang, Boyuan Wang, Jianxin Wang
Homogeneous charge induced ignition (HCII) combustion is realized by using a port injection of gasoline to form a homogeneous charge and using a direct injection of diesel fuel to ignite.Compared to conventional diesel combustionwith high injection pressures (normally more than 1000 bar), HCII has the potential to achieve diesel-like thermal efficiency with significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions with relatively low-pressure injection, which would benefit the engine cost savings remarkably. In this paper, the impacts of injection pressure (400 to 800 bar) on HCII were studied in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at a medium engine load (8 bar). Combustion characteristics, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0799
George Karavalakis, Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, Maryam Hajbabaei, Kent Johnson, Thomas Durbin
We assessed the emissions response from a waste hauler fitted with a 2011 model year spark-ignited stoichiometric natural gas 8.9L Cummins Westport ISL-G engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and three-way catalyst (TWC). Five fuels were employed for this study including two high methane number fuels and three high Wobbe number fuels. The vehicle was exercised on each fuel over the William H. Martin (WHM) refuse truck cycle (RTC). Emissions measurements were obtained using the CE-CERT Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). For all tests, standard emissions measurements of total hydrocarbons (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM), were measured. Measurements of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbonyl compounds were also made. Particles were characterized in terms of total and solid particle number emissions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0916
Nebojsa Milovanovic, Shant Hamalian
The future emission legislations for diesel passenger cars are likely to include more dynamic test cycles than we have today, such as the WLTP and RDE cycles in the EU and very challenging SULEV legislations in the USA. In order to meet these emission legislations and stringent CO2 targets, more complex exhaust gas after treatment systems - EGATS and corresponding calibration strategies are needed. The calibration strategies have to provide the best possible fuel consumption and NOx emissions across entire engine map for all tested cycles. The aim of this paper is to describe an adaptive calibration strategy for a D segment vehicle equipped with a novel EGATS consisting of a DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), SCRonDPF (Selective Catalytic Reduction on Diesel Particulate Filter) and small uf SCR (under floor SCR). The experimental results are presented and the potentials of the different calibrations for the optimisation of fuel consumption and NOx emissions are discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0996
Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis Kahlbaum, Shon Van Hulzen, Robert L. Furey
In 2006-2008, EPA and DOE tested fifteen Tier 2 vehicles on 27 fuels. The fuels were match-blended, meaning that as ethanol levels changed, other blendstocks were added to try to maintain prescribed distillation temperatures. EPA's analysis of the EPAct data showed that higher aromatics and to a lesser extent, higher levels of ethanol increase PM emissions. In their analysis of fuel effects, EPA found that RVP, T50, T90, and ethanol affected emissions. However, EPA did not evaluate the effects of other distillation temperatures, like T70. The fuel blender added blendstocks with boiling points in the T50-T80 range to ethanol fuels to hit certain T50 and T90 targets. It is likely that the addition of these higher boiling blendsotcks increased PM emissions and the omission of a distillation parameter between T50 and T90 (like T70) as a explanatory variable for PM modeling increased the predicted response of PM to ethanol.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0927
David Culbertson, Magdi Khair, James Pradun, Henning Gero Petry, Anne Ungermann
Modifications have been made to the calibration and control of Diesel engines to increase the temperature of the exhaust especially in cold weather and part load operation. The main purpose for this advanced calibration is to enable the reduction of emissions by improving catalytic activity. An alternative method for increasing exhaust temperature is providing electric heat. Test results show the feasibility of applying various amounts of electric heat and the related increases in exhaust temperature as well as speed of heating. Simulation modeling extends the application of electric heat to a complete engine map and explores the potential for fuel economy and NOX conversion benefits compared to engine based heating methods.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0947
Junhui Li, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Hai-Ying Chen, Howard Hess, Shadab Mulla
Typical Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalyst composition includes precious metal components (Pt, Pd, and/or Rh), responsible for NO oxidation during lean operation and NOx reduction during rich operation. It was found that oxidation state of Rh plays a key role in catalyzing NO reduction to N2 under net reducing conditions. This sensitivity of catalytic activity results in changes in efficiency of the LNT catalyst. Kinetic analysis of the NO reduction was performed in an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanistic relationship, where it was found that NO reduction over reduced Rh can be well described by an Arrhenius equation with first-order dependence on NO concentration. The activation energy of the NO reduction process over reduced Rh was found to be ~18014kJ/mol, and independent of the reductant used or the degree of hydrothermal aging. These findings are consistent with NO dissociation being the rate-limiting step in the NO reduction process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0992
Justin Koczak, Andre Boehman, Matthew Brusstar
With increasingly stringent light duty particulate emissions regulations, it is of great interest to better understand the events leading to particulate matter formation. Building a thorough understanding of particulate matter formation is an essential step in developing effective control strategies. It is especially important to do this in such a way as to emulate real driving behaviors, including cold starts and transients. In this study, it was desired to realistically examine the evolution of the particulate emissions during transient operation in a recent model year vehicle equipped with a GDI engine. Three of the major federal test cycles were selected as evaluation schemes: the FTP, the HWFET, and the US06. These cycles capture much of the driving behaviors likely to be observed in typical driving scenarios. Measurements included particle size distributions from a TSI EEPS fast-response particle spectrometer, as well as real-time soot emissions from an AVL MSS soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0945
Guanyu Zheng
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) based on urea water solution (UWS) has become a promising technology to reduce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emission. However, urea might undergo incomplete evaporations resulting in formation of solid deposit on the inner surfaces of system including walls, mixers, limiting the production of NH3 and conversion of NOx that would decrease the performance of SCR system. Numerous design parameters of SCR system affect the formation of urea deposits, such as type of injector, injector mounting angle, geometrical configurations of mixer. The road experiment results indicate that very little deposits were formed at the mixer locations. According to the analysis, the reason might be that mixer put an influential effect on the UWS distribution uniformity and the residence time, thus causing the deposit formation on the wall surface.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0958
Kenichiroh KOSHIKA, Nobuya IWAMI, Takayuki ICHIKAWA, Hisakazu Suzuki, Toshiro Yamamoto, Yuichi Goto, Masakazu IWAMOTO
Degradation of deNOx performance was found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea SCR system in Japan. Causes of the degradation were studied and two major reasons were suggested here; HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, but the treatment could recover partly the original catalytic performance for deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on pre-oxidation catalysts. The pre-oxidation catalysts were thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of the heat treatment on the SCR systems, measurements of surface areas and pore volumes, and structural and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
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