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2015-10-04
Event
This session is looking for abstracts that are focused around what effect designing a vehicle that optimizes fuel economy with minimum environmental impact has on creating an optimized braking system efficiency. Can this be done or does something have to give?
2015-04-24 ...
  • April 24, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Detroit, Michigan
  • October 2, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Attendees to the seminars held in conjunction with the SAE 2015 World Congress will receive COMPLETE access to Congress activities for only $55 per day. If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special Congress daily rate. Designing more efficient and robust emission control components and exhaust systems results in more efficient performance, reduced backpressure and fuel penalty, and higher conversion efficiency. This course will help you to understand the motion of...
2015-03-26 ...
  • March 26-27, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx....
2015-03-02 ...
  • March 2-4, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
  • September 21-23, 2015 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and...
2014-12-10
Event
2014-12-10
Event
Pd based catalysts has not been considered sufficient for converting methane to carbon dioxide for lean-CNG applications mainly in terms of durability, which finally impact the performance on long period. In the present investigation, we were addressed the substantial improvement of Pd-based catalyst with respect to its durability and initial activity. To obtain this, primarily the improvement was mainly achieved based on the new insight on the deactivation routes of Pd-based catalysts under normal operating condition of lean-CNG engines using various physicochemical tools. In addition, optimal engine control logic was carried in second stage of catalysts development by keeping the catalyst more durable. The system, comprised of improved Pd-based catalyst and engine control logic, has demonstrated the capability of complying EURO-6 regulations.
2014-12-10
Event
The automotive industry is facing a combination of challenges over the next decade. Fuel economy regulations are increasing for light-duty vehicles, and U.S. EPA Tier 3 emissions standards are requiring lower tailpipe emissions. Advanced combustion techniques are being pursued to enable improved fuel economy, and lower NOx and PM emissions can be obtained by the more homogeneous combustion from these techniques. However, CO and HC emissions are often higher from advanced combustion engines, and the higher efficiency of these engines results in lower exhaust temperatures. The combination of higher CO and HC emissions with lower exhaust temperatures challenges conventional oxidation catalysts. Thus, new catalyst technologies are being pursued to lower light-off temperatures to enable emissions compliance. Research on novel catalyst formulations for control of CO and HC emissions will be presented.
2014-12-10
Event
Upcoming tighter LEVIII emission regulations, especially SULEV-20 and SULEV-30 standards, are placing a greater burden on OEM’s to reduce PGM consumption since 84% of passenger cars must comply with LEVIII by 2022. Over the last few years, BASF has developed an innovated approach for multi-catalyst systems to allow OEMs to successfully meet their goals. The material discusses this approach. Beginning with an analysis of the vehicle’s ECU properties followed by an analysis of ECU-catalyst and front and rear catalysts synergies, as well as PGM loading and cell density effects. Once best performing catalyst technologies are identified, a PGM optimization is conducted to provide the most cost effective catalyst system to OEMs. Past programs have resulted in a 20-40% PGM reduction.
2014-12-10
Event
Temperature and gas and surface concentration gradients exist in catalytic reactors, yet often the composition of the catalyst in the reactor is itself homogeneous. Taking advantage of the existing and evolving reaction gradients, by using tailored gradients in active site distributions, can be used to improve catalyst performance and durability. For example, previous research has shown that “front-loading” catalysts can reduce the light off temperature for CO oxidation. In this study, a combination of experimental and modeling results will be presented that indeed demonstrate that there are benefits to designing oxidation catalysts with a non-uniform distribution in active sites, and these benefits become more significant the more the catalyst is “challenged”. Such results could prove particularly important for future low-temperature combustion technologies, which appear to not only result in lower temperature exhaust, but the exhaust also contains higher levels of CO and hydrocarbons.
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
The proposed legislative requirements on particle number emissions for EU6c and the reduced particle mass emission limits of CARB LEV-III / EPA Tier-3 pose a new challenge in the development of gasoline direct injection engines. Bosch is actively pursuing system level solutions, including the development of next generation DI injection systems, to aid OEMs in meeting the new legislative requirements without the need for additional exhaust gas after-treatment or penalties in fuel economy. This presentation will highlight key development areas and show system level pathways to successfully address these challenges.
2014-12-09
Event
Cold start emission control is critical for light duty vehicles to meet the US EPA Tier 3 or CARB LEV III emission standards. Recent development in this area will be reviewed in this presentation. For stoichiometric-burn gasoline engine powdered vehicles, a gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) technology will be discussed. The technology integrates HC trapping components and low temperature Three-Way Catalysts together to improve the net HC conversion efficiency. For lean-burn diesel engine powered vehicles, novel diesel Cold Start Concept (dCSC™) catalysts will be presented. The catalysts, in combination with NOx reduction catalysts, can significantly reduce the cold start HC/NOx emissions.
2014-12-09
Event
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are being developed to enable compliance with the Euro 6c particulate number limit for gasoline direct injection engines. Applying a precious metal containing coating to the GPF has been found to improve soot combustion, enabling better passive regeneration under typical driving conditions. Furthermore, examples will demonstrate how coating the GPF with a three-way catalyst also provides benefits including system compactness and improved conversion efficiencies under transient and high speed driving conditions. The effects of PGM content and washcoat design on soot combustion and conversion activity will be discussed.
2014-12-09
Event
Lube oil-driven ash is inevitable for particulate filters and thus the filters need to be designed in consideration of ash loading. Since passive soot oxidation occurs at a high exhaust temperature range in GPF, ash behaviors in GPF are distinct from DPF. Our studies have shown that soot oxidation reactivity increases proportionally with increasing ash content in soot. The effect of ash loading on GPF pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and passive soot oxidation will be discussed.
2014-12-09
Event
The fuel efficiency of a stoichiometric gasoline engine can significantly be improved by operating the engine in a fuel-lean combustion mode. Reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust, however, poses a significant technical challenge. The passive NH3-SCR system is a potential low-cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean-burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an under-floor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. This presentation discusses reductant generation and utilization processes over the passive SCR system and analysis relevant to simulated drive cycles where lean, rich and stoichiometric operations are used to meet engine torque and catalyst emission control demands.
2014-12-09
Event
Gasoline direct injection engines are attractive for their low CO2 emissions and high fuel efficiency; however, these engines produce significant particulate emissions relative to multiport injection engines. Many OEMs may require exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies to meet the proposed Eu6c particle number emissions regulations if system solutions are not viable. New filter technologies are being explored to lower PN emissions for GDI vehicles. In addition to providing high filtration capability, filters with low backpressure and good thermal survivability are required. Characterization and performance results for these advanced filter technologies will be presented.
2014-11-20
Event
Papers in this session pertain to studies of exhaust emission control and the emission effects from fuels, engine controls, engine design, combuston quality, catalytic converters, diesel particulate filters, and other aftertreatment. The focus of the session is on reducing emissions and meeting international emission standards.
2014-11-20
Event
Papers in this session pertain to studies of exhaust emission control and the emission effects from fuels, engine controls, engine design, combuston quality, catalytic converters, diesel particulate filters, and other aftertreatment. The focus of the session is on reducing emissions and meeting international emission standards.
2014-11-19
Event
Papers in this session pertain to studies of exhaust emission control and the emission effects from fuels, engine controls, engine design, combuston quality, catalytic converters, diesel particulate filters, and other aftertreatment. The focus of the session is on reducing emissions and meeting international emission standards.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0102
Patrick Pertl, Philipp Zojer, Michael Lang, Oliver Schoegl, Alexander Trattner, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger, Nagesh Mavinahally, Vinayaka Mavinahalli
Abstract The automotive industry has made great efforts in reducing fuel consumption. The efficiency of modern spark ignition (SI) engines has been increased by improving the combustion process and reducing engine losses such as friction, gas exchange and wall heat losses. Nevertheless, further efficiency improvement is indispensable for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the smart usage of available energy. In the previous years the Atkinson Cycle, realized over the crank train and/or valve train, is attracting considerable interest of several OEMs due to the high theoretical efficiency potential. In this publication a crank train-based Atkinson cycle engine is investigated. The researched engine, a 4-stroke 2 cylinder V-engine, basically consists of a special crank train linkage system and a novel Mono-Shaft valve train concept. The idea of a Mono-Shaft valve train mechanism is to realize the valve actuation without the need for separate cam shafts and gears, but via a cam disk rotating with crankshaft speed, thus enabling the integration of the cam disk in the crankshaft.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0130
Takashi Onishi, Tomoya Akitomo, Yuichi Tamaki, Yoshikazu Takemoto, Hideyuki Goto, Mitsugu Okuda
Abstract All of non-road diesel engines over 19 kW in North America are required to reduce further Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) to meet US EPA emissions regulation. Especially, it is necessary to reduce PM emission up to one-tenth as conventional. In addition to improve combustion in engine, it is needed to add exhaust gas after-treatment device to reduce PM emission. It is necessary for diesel engine with exhaust gas after-treatment device, to have Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration system, which burns periodically PM in DPF. Generally, DPF regeneration is implemented by using post injection with common rail system. However, post injection is not available in small diesel engine which has mechanical injection system and IDI combustion system instead of common rail system. As an alternative way, an original fuel reformer technique is introduced for DPF regeneration. Fuel reformer is located in the upper exhaust gas flow of DPF, and works independently from fuel injection system of engine.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0032
Luiz Carlos Daemme, Renato Penteado, Fatima Zotin, Marcelo Errera
Abstract Motorcycle sales have increased consistently during the last decade mostly in developing countries, especially in the BRICS. Low cost and less fuel consumption comparing to cars associated to the economic growth are the main reason for such trend. Emission limits have become stricter and the use of gas after treatment devices is widely present in new models. Flex fuel motorcycles have now become available, but effects of the combination of diverse gasoline/ethanol blends on the emissions are still an open issue that requires further understanding. This paper presents the most recent results regarding regulated and unregulated emissions from a Flex Fuel motorcycle fuelled with 4 different gasoline/ethanol blends: E22, E61, E85 and 100% ethanol. Both regulated (CO, THC, NOx) and unregulated emissions (Aldehydes, NMHC, NH3, N2O) were studied. The main conclusion is that motorcycles equipped with three-way catalytic converters presented significant ammonia emissions in the tailpipe when compared to pre catalyst emissions.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0037
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Abstract Many two stroke engine for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight, dimensions and temperature. One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0036
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
Abstract The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles from different emission sources penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and may cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of gravimetry (PM) and granulometry SMPS (PN). In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best materials (fuel, lube oil, ox-cat.) were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be influenced by the lube oil quality and can be considerably reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0038
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
Abstract Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments. Particle size distribution function was measured in the range from 5.6 nm to 560 nm by means of an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS).
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0108
Sejun Lee, Kyohei Ozaki, Norimasa Iida, Takahiro Sako
Abstract Recently, a potentiality of Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept SI engine has been studied. This concept engine had four cylinders and operated with exhaust gas supplied from the single cylinder to the intake manifold. Compared with conventional SI engines, it was able to increase thermal efficiency and decrease CO, HC, and NOx emission by the high D-EGR ratio 0.25. In this study, numerical analysis of a SI engine with D-EGR system with various D-EGR ratios was conducted for detailed understanding the potentiality of this concept in terms of thermal efficiency and NOx emission. #1 cylinder of assumed engine was used as D-EGR cylinder that equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 3.4. Entire exhaust gas from #1 cylinder was recirculated to the other cylinders. The other cylinders run with this exhaust gas and new premixed air and fuel with various equivalence ratios from 0.6-1.0. To study the effect of D-EGR ratio, the number of engine cylinders was considered from 3 to 6, same meaning with D-EGR ratio 0.5-0.2.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0133
Yuzuru Nada, Yusuke Komatsubara, Thang Pham, Fumiya Yoshii, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi
Abstract In this study, we evaluated NOx production rates of diesel combustions occurred in a constant volume chamber of a rapid compression machine in order to investigate relationship between flame behaviors and NOx emissions. A total gas sampling device was used to measure the NOx concentration in total gases existing in the chamber at a designated time. An EINOx (Emission Index of NOx) production rate was evaluated on the time history of NOx concentration. Temporal temperature distributions in the chamber were measured with a high speed 2-color thermometry. Gas oil (JIS #2) was used as the fuel. The EINOx production rate increases with increasing injection pressure through temperature rises in flames due to enhanced mixing of fuel vapor with ambient air. An increase in the ambient pressure causes overlaps between flames formed around the nozzle, which reduces the flame temperature. Nevertheless, high reactant concentrations resulting from the elevated ambient pressure slightly increase the net EINOx production rate.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8024

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