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2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers on the following exhaust emissions control topics will be considered: System integration and durability, advances in catalyst substrates, advances in particulate filter substrates, advances in NOx reduction technology, and on-board measurement and control.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2017-04-04
Event
Papers are invited for this session on the general topics of combustion engine gaseous emissions (regulated and non-regulated). This includes papers discussing well-to-wheels CO2 production for alternative technologies, fuel economy and all greenhouse gas emission research with their primary focus on engine, emissions, fuels, control or related components or sub-components within. It also includes hydrocarbon species and specific NOx species production over aftertreatment devices as a result of changes in fuel specification and the inclusion of bio-derived components and consideration of secondary emissions production (slip) as a result of aftertreatment. (Papers focusing on vehicle-system approach on fuel economy should be directed to PFL370.)
2016-11-17
Event
This session includes papers focused on the gaseous and particulate emissions performance from operating small engines, both diesel and gasoline on oxygenated fuel blends.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0068
Joel Prince Lobo, James Howard Lee, Eric Oswald, Spenser Lionetti, Robert Garrick
The performance and exhaust emissions of a commercially available, propane fueled, air cooled engine with Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) were investigated by varying relative Air to Fuel Ratio (λ), spark timing, and Compression Ratio (CR). Varying λ and spark timing was accomplished by modifying the EFI system using TechniCAL Industries’ engine development software. The CR was varied through using pistons with different bowl sizes. Strong relationships were recorded between λ and spark timing and the resulting effect these parameters have on engine performance and emissions. Lean operation (λ > 1) has the potential to significantly reduce NOx production (3,000 PPM down to 300 PPM). Unfortunately, it also reduces engine performance by up to an order of magnitude (31 Nm down to 3 Nm).
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0069
Indranil Brahma, Cristobal Manzanares, Rob Jennings, Odinmma Ofili, Matthew Campbell, Abishek Raghavan, Daniel Johnson, Peter Stryker
Non-volatile particle number distributions from a single cylinder industrial diesel engine were measured at several operating conditions spanning the torque curve. The effect of increasing the air-fuel ratio by injecting compressed shop air at various boost pressures was also investigated. A bi-modal distribution separated at approximately 20 nm was observed for most operating conditions. Depending on operating condition, the engine produced between 1014 to 1015 particles per kW-hr. Energy specific particle number emissions (per kW-hr) were seen to be strongly dependent on speed and load. Minimum emissions occurred at intermediate speeds and loads. Particles below 20 nm increased with increasing air-fuel ratio, while the opposite trend was observed for particles greater than 20 nm. Variation in total particle surface and total particle volume followed the same trends as the particles from the larger mode.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0072
Fino Scholl, Paul Gerisch, Denis Neher, Maurice Kettner, Thorsten Langhorst, Thomas Koch, Markus Klaissle
One promising alternative for meeting stringent NOx limits while attaining high engine efficiency in lean-burn operation are NOx storage catalysts (NSC), an established technology in passenger car aftertreatment systems. For this reason, a NSC system for a stationary single-cylinder CHP gas engine with a rated electric power of 5.5 kW comprising series automotive parts was developed. Main aim of the work presented in this paper was maximising NOx conversion performance and determining the overall potential of NSC aftertreatment with regard to min-NOx operation. The experiments showed that both NOx storage and reduction are highly sensitive to exhaust gas temperature and purge time. While NOx adsorption rate peaks at a NSC inlet temperature of around 290 °C, higher temperatures are beneficial for a fast desorption during the regeneration phase. Combining a relatively large catalyst (1.9 l) with a small exhaust gas mass flow leads to a low space velocity inside the NSC.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0065
Yoshinori Nakao, Yota Sakurai, Atsushi Hisano, Masahito Saitou, Masahide Kazari, Takahito Murase, Kozo Suzuki
Euro5 is a new regulation on exhaust gases from motorcycles and will be implemented in 2020. Total Hydrocarbon (THC) is among the regulated exhaust gases. This paper is focused on the emission behavior of THC. In the transient state at engine start, port injection from the upstream makes it difficult to control the amount of cylinder fuel supply for each cycle. This is one of the main reasons for THC emission. In this study, changing the fuel injection specifications could lead to THC emission reduction. The THC emission behavior was investigated. A change in the position of injection from upstream to downstream could determine the amount of the cylinder fuel supply at the engine start. This change could eliminate misfire, thereby reducing THC emission. However, the diameters of the sprayed particles that flow directly into the cylinders are large. Hence, only changing the injection position to downstream could have a negative effect at engine start.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0093
Denis Neher, Fino Scholl, Maurice Kettner, Danny Schwarz, Markus Klaissle, Blanca Giménez Olavarria
Combustion temperature represents the driving parameter for NOx emissions. Lean burn operation allows engines to reduce combustion temperature due to relatively high heat capacity of the excess air. Lean operating cogeneration engines, however, need additionally to retard ignition timing to meet NOx emission standards. The late combustion phasing leads to a further deviation from the ideal Otto cycle, causing losses in engine efficiency. When substituting a part of the excess air with exhaust gas, heat capacity increases. Combustion phasing can be advanced, resulting in a thermodynamically more favourable heat release. As a result, engine efficiency improves without increasing NOx emissions. In this work, the effect of replacing a part of excess air with exhaust gas was investigated first in a constant volume combustion chamber. It enabled to analyse the influence of the exhaust gas under steady initial conditions for several relative air-fuel ratios (λ = 1.3…1.7).
2016-10-26
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-10-26 ...
  • October 26-28, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Baltimore, Maryland
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2016-10-25
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in DEF injection system, sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2249
Akash Gangwar, Abhinav Bhardawaj, Ramesh Singh, Naveen Kumar
Enhancement of combustion behavior of conventional liquid fuel using nanoscale materials of different properties is an imaginative and futuristic topic. This experiment is aimed to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine when lade with nanoparticles of Cu-Zn alloy. The previous work reported the effect of metal/metal oxide or heterogeneous mixture of two or more particles; less work had been taken to analyze the homogeneous mixture of metals. This paper includes fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value and performance measures like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emission analysis of NOx, CO, CO2, HC. For the same solid concentration, nano-fuel is compared with base fuel at different engine loads; and its effect when lade at different concentrations.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2256
Kristin Götz, Barbara Fey, Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Jürgen Bünger, Markus Knorr, Olaf Schröder
The climate target of the European Union (EU) is the reduction of 40 % greenhouse gas reduction from the 1990s level by 2030 [1]. Currently the transport sector is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emission producer in the EU [2]. Drop-in biofuels can contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector and so as well the total GHG emissions. Diesel R33, a new developed biofuel enables sustainable mobility fulfilling the European diesel fuel specification and can reduce the GHG emissions of about 17 % versus fossil diesel fuel. Diesel R33 is made from seven percent used cooking oil methyl ester, 26 percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and 67 percent high quality diesel fuel. HVO was produced from rapeseed and palm oil. This new biofuel was tested in a fleet of 280 vehicles (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, off-road vehicles and urban buses) covering all emission classes.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2284
Yuan Wen, Yinhui Wang, Chenling Fu, Wei Deng, Zhangsong Zhan, Yuhang Tang, Xuefei Li, Haichun Ding, Shijin Shuai
Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) engine developed rapidly in recent years driven by the requirements of higher fuel efficiency and lower fuel consumption, but faces the challenges of injector deposit and emissions especially particulate emission compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine. However it has not been revealed through system approach that the qualitative and quantitative impact of injector deposit formation on particulate emission of DIG vehicle through vehicle emission testing and injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a DIG vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to investigate the impact of injector deposit on spray and particulate emissions. The DIG car accumulated with 13,000 km mileage was subject to emissions testing including gaseous emissions, particulate mass (PM) and fuel economy on a chassis dynamometer, then replaced all coking injectors with new injectors and tested emissions again.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2300
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, Joakim Pagels
In order to reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower UHC and CO emissions; however, on the other hand, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas due to increased fuel stratifications. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC). Combustion phasing was fixed by adjusting inlet temperature at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2314
Wanyu Sun, Shufen Wang, Yue Huang, Lei Guo, Hongzhen Li, Zhangtao Yao
The possible NOx and soot limits that a conventional diesel engine could meet without the assistance of after-treatment system were investigated on an engineering application level. A methodology combining both experiment and CFD simulation was used to judge favorable and unfavorable effects of various in-cylinder strategies quantitatively. These strategies or factors include exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), fuel injection timing and duration, intake valve closure (IVC) timing, combustion chamber and turbocharger, etc. Interactions among these strategies were paid special attention. Two steps were proposed based on the analysis. The first step would shift the NOx-soot trade-off curve closer to low emission level regions via optimization of injection strategy and combustion chamber geometry. As a result, soot could be reduced by 20% ~ 30% while NOx could be maintained at the same level.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2320
Tsuyoshi Asako, Ryuji Kai, Tetsuo Toyoshima, Claus Vogt, Shogo Hirose, Shiori Nakao
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is adapted for a variety of applications to control NOx in diesel engine emission. Most commonly used catalyst for SCR in established markets is Cu-Zeolite due to excellent NOx conversion and thermal durability. However, most applications in emerging markets and certain applications in established markets utilize Vanadia SCR. The operating temperature is typically maintained below 550C to avoid vanadium sublimation due to passive regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) or eliminating DPF from aftertreatment system. For DPF-less system, particulate matter (PM) standard is achievable without DPF depending on engine tuning. Further improvement of Vanadia SCR durability and NOx conversion at low exhaust gas temperatures will be required in consideration of future emission standards.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 8334

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