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2016-10-26 ...
  • October 26-28, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Baltimore, Maryland
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
2016-10-25
Event
Papers are invited for this session on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers are also invited on the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
2016-10-24
Event
Papers are invited on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered.
2016-10-17 ...
  • October 17, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Designing more efficient and robust emission control components and exhaust systems results in more efficient performance, reduced backpressure and fuel penalty, and higher conversion efficiency. This course will help you to understand the motion of exhaust flow in both gasoline and diesel emission control components including flow-through and wall-flow devices such as catalytic converters, NOx adsorbers, diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters as well as flow through the overall exhaust system.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2195
Sebastian Bornschlegel, Chris Conrad, Michael Wensing, Tobias Knorsch, Philipp Rogler, Wolfram Wiese
Tip sooting is a mechanism of soot generation in direct injecting spark ignition (DISI) engines. It occurs during and after the combustion near the injector nozzle tip and is caused by degassing and evaporation of fuel wall films on the injector tip as well as by residual fuel in the dead volume after the end of injection. With the strict regulations of particulate engine emissions, these effects have to be controlled by injector manufacturers in order to meet future emission legislatives. In this paper a highspeed Schlieren measurement technique is presented in detail, which provides a robust possibility for time and space resolved visualization of evaporation processes by using a modern spray chamber. The chamber flushing is optimized in order to minimize perturbation of the degassing phenomena. Due to high sensitivity towards gradients in the refractive index, even small amounts of fuel-vapor can be detected.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2211
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro 1) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro 6) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip results in even more challenge for the SCR technology. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of UREA solution need to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2212
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Jessica Dahlstrom, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Yearly 3.3 million premature deaths occur worldwide due to air pollution and NOx pollution counts for nearly one seventh of those. This makes exhaust after-treatment a very important research and hase caused the permitted emission levels for NOx to decrease to very low levels, for EURO 6 only 0.4 g/kWh. Recently new legislation on ammonia slip with a limit of 10 ppm NH3 has been added which makes the SCR-technology more challenging. This technology injects small droplets of an aqueous UREA solution into the stream of exhaust gases and through a catalytic reaction within the SCR-catalyst, NOx is converted into Nitrogen and Water. To enable the catalytic reaction the water content in the UREA solution needs to be evaporated and the ammonia molecules need to have sufficient time to mix with the gases prior to the catalyst.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2213
Tomoaki Ito, Makoto Nagata
Diesel exhaust emission control systems often contain DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) + CSF (Catalyzed Soot Filter) components. In this system PM (particulate matter) is filtered and accumulated in the CSF and such filtered PM is periodically combusted by supplying heat to the CSF. The heat to CSF is generated within the DOC by an exothermic reaction with extra fuel supplied to the DOC. Here the exothermic performance of DOC depends on not only the active catalytic site (such as Pt and/or Pd) but also on the characteristics of the porous material supporting the precious metals. Various properties of Al2O3, i.e. pore diameter, pore volume, BET, acidity, basicity and the Ea (activation energy) of fuel combustion, used in DOCs and PGM particle size of each DOC were measured. The fuel combustion performance of each DOC was evaluated by diesel engine bench.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2214
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolf
The emission regulations for mobile on- and off-road applications are becoming stricter in Euro 6/Stage 5 and beyond levels and require the use of SCR for NOx and diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM removal. The presence of wall-flow filter with active regeneration creates a risk of thermal deactivation of SCR catalyst in the aftertreatment system (ATS). The thermal and chemical durability of Cu- and Fe-SCR catalysts were screened and developed to stand these conditions. The performance of catalysts were investigated with laboratory simulations and engine-bench equipments. New Cu-SCR catalysts have a very high low-temperature SCR activity and a low dependency on NO2 promotion. Developed Fe-SCR catalysts showed also an improved low temperature activity and durability but were more dependant on NO2 concentration too. Low N2O formation with Cu-SCR catalyst is a key factor to minimize green house gas emissions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2249
Akash Gangwar, Abhinav Bhardawaj, Ramesh Singh, Naveen Kumar
Enhancement of combustion behavior of conventional liquid fuel using nanoscale materials of different properties is an imaginative and futuristic topic. This experiment is aimed to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine when lade with nanoparticles of Cu-Zn alloy. The previous work reported the effect of metal/metal oxide or heterogeneous mixture of two or more particles; less work had been taken to analyze the homogeneous mixture of metals. This paper includes fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value and performance measures like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emission analysis of NOx, CO, CO2, HC. For the same solid concentration, nano-fuel is compared with base fuel at different engine loads; and its effect when lade at different concentrations.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2283
Stephane Zinola, Stephane Raux, Mickael Leblanc lng
The more and more stringent regulations on particle emissions at the vehicle tailpipe have led the car manufacturers to adopt suitable emissions control systems, like particulate filters with average filtration efficiency that can exceed 99%, including particulate mass (PM) and number (PN). However, there are still some specific operating conditions that could exhibit noticeable particle number emissions. This paper aims to identify and characterize these persistent sources of PN emissions. Firstly, focus was given to Diesel engines, for which the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is now very widespread. Tests, carried out both on the engine test bench and on the chassis dynamometer, have shown the presence of particles downstream of the DPF during some operation conditions like engine warm up or filter regeneration phases. PN could be 7 times higher during the warm up phase and can reach as much as 500 to 2000 times more during the regeneration phase compared to normal operation.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2284
Yuan Wen, Yinhui Wang, Yinhui Wang, Haichun ding, Shi-Jin Shuai
Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) engine developed rapidly in recent years driven by the requirements of higher fuel efficiency and lower fuel consumption, but faces the challenges of injector deposit and emissions especially particulate emission compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engine. However it has not been revealed through system approach that the qualitative and quantitative impact of injector deposit formation on particulate emission of DIG vehicle through vehicle emission testing and injector spray analysis. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted on a DIG vehicle produced by a Chinese Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) to investigate the impact of injector deposit on spray and particulate emissions. The DIG car accumulated with 13,000 km mileage was subject to emissions testing including gaseous emissions, particulate mass (PM) and fuel economy on a chassis dynamometer, then replaced all coking injectors with new injectors and tested emissions again.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2285
Chun Guan, Xinling Li, Zhuyue Zhuang, Zhen Huang
In the present study, the effects of oxygenated fuels on particulate-phase organic pollutants including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were investigated on a diesel engine test bench w/o and with a particle oxidation catalyst (POC) device. Two kinds of oxygenated fuels with different oxygenated functional groups, that are biodiesel and ethanol, were selected as the target fuels to be blended with diesel by various volume percentages. POC performance was also studied to further demonstrate the effect of aftertreatments on diesel engine emissions. The results indicated that diesel-biodiesel (DB) blends presented a good linearship between alkanes suppression and blended ratios, while diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE) blends only presented a better suppression on alkanes at a lower blended ratio. Meanwhile, both DB and DBE blends presented an effective suppression on particulate-phase PAHs.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2286
Christophe Chaillou, Alexandre Bouet, Arnaud Frobert, Florence Duffour
Adaptation of both oil based fuel and engine technologies are key enablers to reduce the CO2 footprint as well as pollutant emissions. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In addition, properties of naphtha produced directly from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process in a refinery offer significant CO2 benefits. When introducing such innovative fuel and engine, after-treatment investigations are mandatory to meet pollutant regulations. In that respect, this work focuses on investigating structure and properties of the particulates produced with naphtha fuel to validate Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) design requirements. First, soot mass measurement technics are detailed.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2287
Huifang Shao, William Lam, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos, Seungmok Choi, HeeJe Seong
Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on DIG engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L DIG engine at 1250rpm and 25% load. Engine oil injection rate was 2% of the fuel consumption rate. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of SAP level, ZDDP level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2288
Sam Shamun, Mengqin Shen, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Joakim Pagels, Anders Gudmundsson, Per Tunestal
The focus has recently been directed towards the engine out soot from Diesel engines. Running the engine in PPC mode has a proven tendency of reducing these emissions significantly. In addition to combustion strategy, several studies have suggested that using alcohol fuels will aid in reducing soot emissions to ultra-low levels. This study analyzes and compares the characteristics of PM emissions from naphtha gasoline PPC, ethanol PPC, methanol PPC and methanol diffusion combustion in terms of soot mass concentration, particle size and distribution in a single cylinder Scania D13 engine, while varying the intake O2. Intake temperature and injection pressure sweeps were also conducted. The fuels emitting the highest amount of particles were gasoline followed by methanol. The two alcohols tested emitted nucleation mode particles only, whereas gasoline emitted accumulation mode particles as well.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez PhD, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive of NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Parameters such as, engine RPM, initial swirl ratio, adaptive mesh refinement, thickness of enriched nitrogen and oxygen regions, spray injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, spray breakup parameters, and valve timing were all studied.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8083
Hans Christian Doering, Norbert Meyer, Markus Wiedemeier
Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this approach might be inappropriate for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. In this case only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for emission simulation as the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1914
Pavlina Peikertova, Miroslava Kuricova, Alena Kazimirova, Jana Tulinska, Magdalena Barancokova, Aurelia Liskova, Marta Staruchova, Mira Horvathova, Silvia Ilavska, Eva Jahnova, Michaela Szabova, Miroslav Vaculik, Jana Kukutschova, Karla Kucova, Maria Dusinska, Peter Filip
Particulate air pollution from road traffic currently represents significant environmental and health issue. Attention is also paid to the “non-exhaust pollution sources,” which includes brake wear debris. During each brake application, the airborne and nonairborne particles are emitted into the environment due to wear. High temperatures and pressures on the friction surfaces initiate chemical and morphological changes of the initial components of brake pads and rotating counterparts. Understanding of impact of matter released from brakes on health is vital. Numerous studies clearly demonstrated that particulate matter caused potential adverse effects related to cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, stimulation of proinflammatory factors, and mutagenicity on the cellular level. This paper compiles our main results in the field of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity of airborne brake wear particles.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1959
Laura Sguotti, Davide Olivieri, Domenico Bosco
For the first time in history, in December 2015, 195 countries reached a universal and legally binding global climate agreement at the Paris climate conference (COP21). The agreement is challenging, as the target is to keep the global warming below two degrees Celsius by 2100, compared to the temperature in pre-industrial levels. Without a global action, current previsions for global warming are above four degree Celsius. Two thirds of the greenhouse gases, responsible for the global warming, are carbon dioxide (CO2) mainly coming from the combustion of fossil fuels. Transportation contributes to around 30% (reference U.S.) of the CO2 emissions. It is clear how important it is for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to reduce the emission of their vehicles. SKF is firmly committed to take its responsibility to actively contribute to a better, cleaner future. SKF BeyondZero is the Group's strategy to increase the positive impact on the environment.
2016-09-12 ...
  • September 12-13, 2016 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Troy, Michigan
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1841
Peter R. Hooper
Powertrain system duplication for hybrid electric vehicles and range-extenders presents serious cost challenges. Cost increase can be mitigated by reducing the number of cylinders but this usually has a negative impact on noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the vehicle system. This paper considers a novel form of two-stroke cycle engine offering potential for low emissions, reduced production cost and high potential vehicle efficiency. The engine uses segregated pump charging via the use of stepped pistons offering potential for low emissions. Installation as a power plant for automotive hybrid electric vehicles or as a range-extender for electric vehicles could present a low mass solution addressing the drive for vehicle fleet CO2 reduction. Operation on the two-stroke cycle enables NVH advantages over comparable four-stroke cycle units, however the durability of conventional crankcase scavenged engines can present significant challenges.
2016-06-09
Standard
ARP598D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the materials, apparatus and procedure for sizing and counting of particulate contamination, 5 μm or greater, in hydraulic fluid samples by membrane filtration iwth microscopic counting. It is capable of counting particulate matter in samples withdrawn from fluid power systems as identified by the 12 classes of SAE AS 4059 or NAS 1638 and projected beyond these for the five standard ranges specified and can thus serve as the primary document to determine acceptability. It is also capable of revealing but not measuring evidence of abnormal amount of water, other fluids, fine particulate and other materials, especially fibers and metals. It is applicable to all military, civil, space vehicles and test equipment.
2016-05-16
WIP Standard
AS29512C
SCOPE IS UNAVAILABLE.
2016-04-19
Video
Of all the technology trends discussed at last week's SAE World Congress, one trend is clear: The automotive industry cannot meet global CO2 regulations without vehicle electrification. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-In-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at the need for an increasing number of hybrid and full battery powered vehicles. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show. Access archived episodes of SAE Eye on Engineering.
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