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Training / Education
2015-09-14
Note: Attendees of the Professional Development Seminar that is being held in conjunction with the SAE 2014 On-Board Diagnostics Symposium are able to attend the Symposium at a 10% discount (which is over and above any member level discount). If interested, please contact our Customer Service department at +1.877.606.7323 (U.S. and Canada only) or +1.724.776.4970 (outside U.S. and Canada) to register for this special event daily rate. On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines.
Training / Education
2015-03-26
Meeting the requirements of heavy-duty engine emissions regulations is a challenge for all engine manufacturers. Since the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) in medium and heavy-duty diesel engines, these systems have become more sophisticated and tightly integrated with emission control systems. This 2-day seminar will explore the advantages and disadvantages of EGR and the most effective implementation of various EGR systems. This seminar will begin by defining EGR and why it is used in diesel engines, along with an explanation of the mechanisms by which EGR is able to reduce NOx.
Training / Education
2015-03-25
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation. Fundamental design objectives and features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics will be covered.
Event
2014-12-10
Event
2014-12-10
Pd based catalysts has not been considered sufficient for converting methane to carbon dioxide for lean-CNG applications mainly in terms of durability, which finally impact the performance on long period. In the present investigation, we were addressed the substantial improvement of Pd-based catalyst with respect to its durability and initial activity. To obtain this, primarily the improvement was mainly achieved based on the new insight on the deactivation routes of Pd-based catalysts under normal operating condition of lean-CNG engines using various physicochemical tools. In addition, optimal engine control logic was carried in second stage of catalysts development by keeping the catalyst more durable. The system, comprised of improved Pd-based catalyst and engine control logic, has demonstrated the capability of complying EURO-6 regulations.
Event
2014-12-10
New rounds of stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reduction regulations in Europe (Euro 6c) and North America (CARB LEV III, EPA Tier 3) are driving the optimization of existing diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Urea - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems are among the de-NOx technologies that have been successfully introduced in recent years. The new regulations are bringing a closer look to SCR de-NOx performance particularly during the cold start phase of the existing emissions certification cycles. This presentation will review some of the options under consideration to address cold start NOx emissions. Some of these approaches impose new and more severe requirements on the urea injection function – these are also reviewed as well as the response to these requirements by the injection system designers.
Event
2014-12-10
One of the most important aspects of meeting emission standards is catalyst robustness. Emissions must be met at high mileage, termed “full useful life”, which is 150,000 mi for light and medium duty vehicles under Tier3/LEV3. Catalyst durability is application and system specific. Full useful life aging and correlations to accelerated aging schemes typically include both hydrothermal exposure and chemical poisoning. Robustness tests are designed to exceed the limits of a particular catalyst or filter material and test to failure. New aging schemes and robustness tests are needed when new technologies such as cold start traps for HC and NOx, gasoline particle filters, and SCR coated filters are incorporated into conventional three-way and diesel exhaust systems. This presentation will include a summary of recent emission certifications and publications by various vehicle manufacturers, aging and robustness testing of conventional exhaust systems, as well as a look into the durability of future emission control technologies.
Event
2014-12-10
Event
2014-12-10
Event
2014-12-10
The automotive industry is facing a combination of challenges over the next decade. Fuel economy regulations are increasing for light-duty vehicles, and U.S. EPA Tier 3 emissions standards are requiring lower tailpipe emissions. Advanced combustion techniques are being pursued to enable improved fuel economy, and lower NOx and PM emissions can be obtained by the more homogeneous combustion from these techniques. However, CO and HC emissions are often higher from advanced combustion engines, and the higher efficiency of these engines results in lower exhaust temperatures. The combination of higher CO and HC emissions with lower exhaust temperatures challenges conventional oxidation catalysts. Thus, new catalyst technologies are being pursued to lower light-off temperatures to enable emissions compliance. Research on novel catalyst formulations for control of CO and HC emissions will be presented.
Event
2014-12-10
Accelerated aging of automotive gasoline emissions catalysts has been performed on bench engines for decades. The EPA regulations include an accelerated aging cycle called the Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) that is modeled on the RAT-A cycle developed by GM Corp. and published in 1988. However, this cycle cannot be used for diesel aftertreatment components because it is based on stoichiometric operation, whereas diesel engines typically operate under excess air (lean) conditions. The necessity for accelerated aging cycles for diesel emissions systems can be illustrated by considering that the full useful life requirement in the United States for heavy-duty on-highway trucks is 435,000 miles, and off-road applications may be 8,000 hours. Aging under normal operating conditions is excessively time-consuming and expensive. This need was recognized, and the DAAAC Protocol™ developed to provide accelerated aging cycles for the vast majority of diesel emissions system applications. Although the DAAAC Protocol™ was developed for heavy-duty applications, there are no reasons not to utilize it for light-duty applications as well.
Event
2014-12-10
Spark-plug sized particle sensors are developing rapidly due to onboard diagnostics (OBD) regulations demand in the US and Europe and eventually worldwide. Particle sensors will be one of the key enablers for exhaust particle filters to continue their success in keeping particle emissions below or equal to the regulatory limits not only in brand new vehicles, but also in vehicle lifetime. Beyond OBD, particle sensors have numerous applications in engine research and development, retrofit technologies, environmental research and modeling, and instrumentations. Before spreading the use of particle sensors in the market place, it is critical that their performance and durability are well understood. The performance of particle sensors is critical as we need to understand what property of particulate matter (PM) do they measure (mass, number, surface area, size, etc…), the fundamentals of such measurement and the dependent variables, and how it relates to our current measurement method of PM.
Event
2014-12-10
Event
2014-12-10
Upcoming tighter LEVIII emission regulations, especially SULEV-20 and SULEV-30 standards, are placing a greater burden on OEM’s to reduce PGM consumption since 84% of passenger cars must comply with LEVIII by 2022. Over the last few years, BASF has developed an innovated approach for multi-catalyst systems to allow OEMs to successfully meet their goals. The material discusses this approach. Beginning with an analysis of the vehicle’s ECU properties followed by an analysis of ECU-catalyst and front and rear catalysts synergies, as well as PGM loading and cell density effects. Once best performing catalyst technologies are identified, a PGM optimization is conducted to provide the most cost effective catalyst system to OEMs. Past programs have resulted in a 20-40% PGM reduction.
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is one of the two NOx control technologies for diesel cars. However, LNT generates high levels of H2S during its desulfation process. We have successfully developed an advanced CSF technology that can effectively control the H2S emission and at the same time maintain its oxidation function for CO/HC. We will show engine and lab data for LNT+CSF system, discuss the chemistry for H2S control and illustrate the functional principle for CSF design.
Event
2014-12-09
Recent legislation has been enacted requiring unprecedented reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and thus improved fuel efficiency, from internal combustion engines. The aggressive rate of improvement in fuel consumption mandated by this legislation has resulted in the proposal of more exotic combustion strategies than have previously been considered for serial production. The new combustion strategies that are being considered for near term applications can result in substantially different operating environments and thus the required performance of the emission control system. To deliver the most efficient engine system for each application, the impact of the combustion strategy on emission control system requirements must be taken into account when selecting the combustion strategy for production to ensure the benefits of the combustion strategy are not offset by penalties associated with treating exhaust emissions. This discussion will present data on the impact of novel combustion strategies on the operating environment for the emissions control system.
Event
2014-12-09
Event
2014-12-09
The Tier-III and LEV-III fleet emission rollout is reviewed with the federal fuel economy standards. An emission rollout is generated compliant to the light duty LEV-III emission regulations to 2025. PGM loadings are estimated for the fleet based on current 4 cylinder Bin-4 and PZEV applications. Pd and Rh loadings will increase as the fleet average approaches SULEV30 in 2025. Non-traditional technologies such as HC trap and SCR catalyst may find a market.
Event
2014-12-09
The proposed legislative requirements on particle number emissions for EU6c and the reduced particle mass emission limits of CARB LEV-III / EPA Tier-3 pose a new challenge in the development of gasoline direct injection engines. Bosch is actively pursuing system level solutions, including the development of next generation DI injection systems, to aid OEMs in meeting the new legislative requirements without the need for additional exhaust gas after-treatment or penalties in fuel economy. This presentation will highlight key development areas and show system level pathways to successfully address these challenges.
Event
2014-12-09
In order to meet the future US 2025 CAFE standards, the average fuel economy of automobiles has to increase dramatically. Many OEM’s have a positive outlook towards considering highly efficient light-duty diesel powertrains as one possibility to reach the fleet average fuel economy goals. According to many market sales indicators, the annual sales of light-duty diesel vehicles in North America will reach nearly 1 million units by 2018. This growing emphasis for light-duty diesel powertrains has drawn attention to how the emission control technologies can be tailored to best meet the LEV III emissions standards, while still maintaining a high fuel economy advantage over their gasoline counterparts. In this presentation, beginning with a quick discussion about motivation, an in-depth technical analysis about future light-duty diesel engine and aftertreatment configurations will be discussed. The presentation primarily focuses on the challenges associated with advanced aftertreatment systems in combination with lower engine out emissions that are necessary to meet LEV III standards while maintaining high fuel economy.
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