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Training / Education
2014-10-01
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms. Structure, geometry, composition, performance, applications and optimizations of DPFs are some of the main topics covered in this advanced level seminar. Computer simulation techniques for analysis and optimization of DPF performance are also demonstrated.
Event
2014-09-17
Event
2014-09-17
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2014-09-17
Event
2014-09-17
The environmental and health impact of individual vehicles/vessels are regulated through various legal acts by the European Commission. For energy efficiency or emissions of carbon dioxide, thus the climate impact the situation is different especially if all modes of transport is included. With the Euro VI regulations the shortcomings of previous emission stages, i.e. real driving emissions, seems to have been solved making road transport a clean choice of transport for the first time. The traditional green modes of transport like diesel rail and inland waterway vessels lag behind, both in stringency and real world emissions but are energy efficient.
Event
2014-09-17
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2014-09-17
Event
2014-09-17
Evolution of diesel aftertreatment systems needs to target complex challenges such as CO2 / GHG reduction, in-use compliance, OBD, reduction of development, installation and operation costs, and integration of emerging technologies. Modeling and simulation tools help meeting these challenges through in-depth understanding of component performance and interactions, faster calibration process, improved robustness, and overall system optimization. The presentation discusses the model-based development process, beginning with modeling the system components, followed by integration with control algorithms into a system model, and then into a powertrain or vehicle model. Issues such as in-service conformity, NTE, and system robustness are addressed.
Event
2014-09-17
With Euro VI being in place, drivers for further development of exhaust aftertreatment systems will be primarily fuel efficiency, cost reduction and durability improvements. Performance enhancements of individual components are possible and ongoing. In order to cope with reduced exhaust temperatures new system approaches are favourable. Among these, SCR on filter concept is the most advanced. Open questions and challenges will be discussed and analyzed. This includes filtration efficiency, filter regeneration, NO2 performance as well as ash and soot effects. Also, the standard muffler layout has to be questioned.
Event
2014-09-17
Emission control legislation in the developed markets of Europe, North America and Japan has resulted in the reduction of millions of tonnes of potential emissions from Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) vehicles, leading to major environmental benefits. In order to meet the regulations, sophisticated catalyst-based systems have been developed which typically reduce emissions of CO, HC, NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) by over 90%. These systems typically comprise a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Catalysed Soot Filter (CSF), Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC). Despite the very high efficiencies of these systems, which are maintained for half a million miles and more, there is continued drive for further improvements to enable, for example, additional increases in fuel efficiency, which is a key driver in the HDD area, particularly in the on road sector. There are also proposals from California’s ARB for an optional, much tighter, NOx standard on the 2020 timeframe.
Event
2014-09-17
In 2008, Scania started to develop an exhaust aftertreatment system for Euro 6. For Euro 5, Scania had taken the decision to go for heavy EGR with a two-stage EGR cooling solution enabling Euro 5 without SCR. But for Euro 6, it was obvious that EGR alone would not be a successful technical strategy. In 2011, Scania, as the first OEM in the heavy truck industry, launched a ready-to-order truck fulfilling Euro 6 emission standards, featuring a combined EGR and SCR solution. Today, Scania deliver Euro6 trucks with SCR-only and believe that is the path to go in the future. In the presentation, Scania Euro6 development is described along with the strategy behind it and the first two years of field experience is shared.
Event
2014-09-17
This presentation will cover recent developments in technology to reduce heavy duty engine CO2 emissions, focussing on measures to reduce engine friction, investigations with a high pressure common rail system, and the application of a highly efficient SCR system.
Training / Education
2014-04-28
Stringent requirements of reduced NOx emission limits in the US have presented engineers and technical staff with numerous challenges. Several in-cylinder technical solutions have been developed for diesel engines to meet 2010 emission standards. These technologies have been optimized and have yielded impressive engine-out results in their ability to reduce emissions to extremely low levels. However, current and state-of-the-art in-cylinder solutions have fallen short of achieving the limits imposed on diesel emissions for 2010. To help meet emissions requirements, the catalyst industry has developed exhaust emission reduction technologies with impressive levels of performance. These technologies include hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR), NOx absorber catalysts, and urea SCR. This seminar will begin with an explanation of NOx formation in diesel engines and in-cylinder methods for reducing these emissions. The aftertreatment systems for NOx reduction will be explained and the advantages and disadvantages of these emission reduction technologies will be discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ivan Arsie, Andrea Cricchio, Cesare Pianese, Matteo De Cesare, Walter Nesci
Abstract In the last years the automotive industry has been involved in the development and implementation of CO2 reducing concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, waste heat recovery technologies. These latter include ThermoElectric Generator (TEG), Rankine cycle and Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty application but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for the automotive industry. The paper deals with the analysis of opportunities and challenges of the Electric Turbo Compound for automotive light-duty engines. In the ETC concept the turbine-compressor shaft is connected to an electric machine, which can work either as generator or motor. In the former case the power can satisfy the vehicle electrical demand to drive the auxiliaries or stored in the batteries. In the latter case the electric motor can assist the turbine and speed up the compressor when requested.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Eric Hein, Adam Kotrba, Tobias Inclan, Andrew Bright
Secondary fuel injection is applied to facilitate active soot management of the particulate filter within diesel aftertreatment systems, avoiding concerns with fuel delivery via in-cylinder post-injection. System performance is dependent on the thermo-fluid interactions of the injected fuel with the exhaust stream, with the intent of having more fully vaporized fuel and a well-mixed air-fuel mixture at the inlet of the oxidation catalyst for uniform thermal distribution as it exothermically reacts. Pre-heating the fuel with a diesel vaporizer prior to its delivery into the exhaust enables improved system performance, reducing droplet sizes and mixing demands. A diesel vaporizer is applied within the exhaust of a medium duty truck application, and the response of the catalyst is characterized across a variety of conditions. Cross-sectional measurements at the catalyst and filter outlet are described, including gas velocity, temperature, and HC concentration, and the effect of poor fuel vaporization is demonstrated.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jim Barker, Colin Snape, David Scurr
Abstract The nature of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) continues to be of importance to the industry, with field problems such as injector sticking, loss of power, increased emissions and fuel consumption being found. The deposits have their origins in the changes in emission regulations that have seen increasingly severe conditions experienced by fuels because of high temperatures and high pressures of modern common rail systems and the introduction of low sulphur fuels. Furthermore, the effect of these deposits is amplified by the tight engineering tolerances of the moving parts of such systems. The nature and thus understanding of such deposits is necessary to both minimising their formation and the development of effective diesel deposit control additives (DCA). The focused ion beam technique coupled with time of flight secondary -ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has the ability to provide information on diesel engine injector deposits as a function of depth for both organic and inorganic constituents.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Valentin Soloiu, Alejandro Rivero-Castillo, Martin Muinos, Marvin Duggan, Spencer Harp, Wallace Peavy, Sven Wolter, Brian Vlcek
Abstract This study presents the combustion and emissions characteristics of Reactivity Controlled Combustion Ignition (RCCI) produced by early port fuel injection (PFI) of low reactivity n-butanol (normal butanol) coupled with in cylinder direct injection (DI) of cottonseed biodiesel in a diesel engine. The combustion and emissions characteristics were investigated at 5.5 bars IMEP at 1400 RPM. The baseline was taken from the combustion and emissions of ULSD #2 which had an ignition delay of 13° CAD or 1.5ms. The PFI of n-butanol and DI of cottonseed biodiesel strategy showed a shorter ignition delay of 12° CAD or 1.45ms, because of the higher CN of biodiesel. The combustion proceeded first by the ignition of the pilot (cottonseed biodiesel) BTDC that produced a premixed combustion phase, followed by the ignition of n-butanol that produced a second spike in heat release at 2° CAD ATDC. The addition of n-butanol into the cycle reduced the compression and peak temperature by 100K and resulted in 35% NOx and 90% soot reduction.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kihong Kim, Rahul Mital, Takehiro Higuchi, Seomoon Chan, Chang Hwan Kim
Abstract Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a widely used emission control device on diesel vehicles. The DPF captures the particulate matter coming from the engine exhaust and periodically burns the collected soot via the regeneration process. There are various trigger mechanisms for this regeneration, such as distance, time, fuel and simulation. Another method widely used in the industry is the pressure drop across the filter. During calibration, relation between the pressure sensor reading and soot mass in the filter is established. This methodology is highly effective in successful DPF operation as pressure sensor is a live signal that can account for any changes in engine performance over time or any unforeseen hardware failures. On the other hand, any erroneous feedback from the sensor can lead to inaccurate soot mass prediction causing unnecessary regenerations or even needless DPF plugging concerns. A similar phenomenon was observed on certain vehicles where the DPF pressure reading jumped inexplicably leading to DPF plugging concerns.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Zammit, Luis Cattani, Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly
Abstract To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible. Under continuous, high speed and high mileage conditions such as experienced in a modified Standard Road Cycle (SRC) or as it is better known, the High Speed Cycle (HSC), it is shown that the DOC's activity can deteriorate initially but significantly recover over repeated FTP-75 test cycles on fully aged catalysts.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hassan Ali Khairallah, Umit Koylu
Abstract During the past decade, considerable efforts have been made to introduce alternative fuels for use in conventional diesel and gasoline engines. There is significant interest in adding hydrogen to a diesel engine to reduce emissions and improve efficiency. With the rapid increase in computational capabilities, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes have become essential tools for the design, control, and optimization of dual fuel engines. In the present study, a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism, consisting of 52 reactions and 29 chemical species for n-heptane fuel combustion, was incorporated with detailed chemical kinetics consisting of 29 reactions for hydrogen including additional nitrogen oxidation. This reaction mechanism was coupled with a 3D CFD model based on AVL FIRE software to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with low amounts of hydrogen addition. The model was validated by the experimental results and then employed to examine important parameters that have significant effects on the engine performance.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2246

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