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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2226
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1933
Alberto Boretti
The contribution analyses the Volkswagen emission scandal and the impacts on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based mobility. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Volkswagen and the United States prosecutor sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers towards an everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) flavor and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
2017-05-04
Magazine
Innovations for lightweighting Tough fuel-economy bogies for 2021 and beyond are driving new approaches to materials use, as seen in these case studies. Axellent progress AAM's new Quantum drive-axle technology is a leap forward in lightweight, efficient driveline systems aimed at 2020 and beyond. Low-temperature combustion ready for prime time? At SAE's High-Efficiency IC Engines Symposium, Delphi said its new, third-generation GDCI is promising, but even LTC proponents admit that challenges remain. More automation for ECU testing The latest fault-insertion tests enable engineers to run more test cases in less time.
2017-04-12
Video
While the White House proposes to relax U.S. vehicle emission standards, in Europe there’s no such talk. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-In-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at Mercedes race to meet tighter tailpipe regulations coming in 2021. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show. Access archived episodes of SAE Eye on Engineering.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Shubham Gupta, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with a concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx, and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle complies with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel, however, showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0169
Ward J. Atkinson, William Raymond Hill, Gursaran D. Mathur
Abstract The EPA has issued regulations in the Final Rulemaking for 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (420r12901-3). This document provides credits against the fuel economy regulations for various Air Conditioning technologies. One of these credits is associated with increased use of recirculation air mode, when the ambient is over 24°C (75°F.). The authors want to communicate the experiences in their careers that highlighted issues with air quality in the interior of the vehicle cabin. Cabin contamination sources may result in safety and health issues for both younger and older drivers. Alertness concerns may hinder their ability to operate a vehicle safely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1020
Finn Tseng, Imad Makki, Pankaj Kumar, Robert Jentz, Aed Dudar
Abstract Engine-Off Natural Vacuum (EONV) principles based leak detection monitors are designed to determine the presence of a small leak in the fuel tank system. It was introduced to address the ever more stringent emission requirement (currently at 0.02”) for gasoline engine equipped vehicles as proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the United States [2, 3]. Other environmental protection agencies including the ones in EU and China will be adopting similar regulations in the near future. Due to its sensitivity to known noise factors such as the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, drive pattern and parking angle, it has been historically a lower performing monitor that is susceptible to warranty cost or even voluntary recalls. The proposed new model based monitor utilizes production pressure signal and newly instrumented temperature sensors [15].
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1013
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Yograj Singh, Vineet sood, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
Abstract The standard emission protocol including driving cycle is performed for the legislative fuel economy and emission testing of the vehicles in a laboratory. The driving cycles are expected to represent actual driving pattern and energy requirements. However, recent studies showed that the gap between real world driving conditions and the standard driving cycle is widening, as the traffic pattern and vehicle population is varying dynamically and the change in the emission procedures is not synchronized with the same pace. More so, as the process of harmonization of emission legislations is in progress to narrow down the country specific variation of emission regulation, as this will help in the smooth globalization of the automotive business process. The new regulation for in-service conformity is being considered to reduce the emissions in real-world driving.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0911
Krishna Chilumukuru, Aniket Gupta, Michael Ruth, Michael Cunningham, Govindarajan Kothandaraman, Lasitha Cumaranatunge, Howard Hess
Abstract Future light duty vehicles in the United States are required to be certified on the FTP-75 cycle to meet Tier 3 or LEV III emission standards [1, 2]. The cold phase of this cycle is heavily weighted and mitigation of emissions during this phase is crucial to meet the low tail pipe emission targets [3, 4]. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture and controls to improve Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Hydrocarbon (HC) or Non Methane Organic gases (NMOG) conversion efficiencies at low temperatures is proposed. This includes a passive NOx & HC adsorber, termed the diesel Cold Start Concept (dCSC™) catalyst, followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst on Filter (SCRF®) and an under-floor Selective Catalytic Reduction catalyst (SCR). The system utilizes a gaseous ammonia delivery system capable of dosing at two locations to maximize NOx conversion and minimize parasitic ammonia oxidation and ammonia slip.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0907
Timothy Johnson, Ameya Joshi
Abstract This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1016
Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
Abstract EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessments supporting the Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions assessments. As part of an Atkinson cycle engine technology assessment of applications in light-duty vehicles, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated. The base engine was a production gasoline 2.0L four-cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake cam phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the CO2 reduction effectiveness could be evaluated. Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what CO2 benefits could be achieved. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle (FTP and HwFET) CO2 reduction estimates were made using fuel weighted operating modes and a full vehicle model (ALPHA) cycle simulation.
2017-03-22
Video
Last week, the EPA decided to revisit a review of automotive emission standards. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-In-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at the upcoming mid-term review of automotive emission standards. SAE Eye on Engineering also airs Monday mornings on WJR 760 AM Detroit's Paul W. Smith Show. Access archived episodes of SAE Eye on Engineering.
2017-03-01
Book
Jay Meldrum
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles, along with more stringent U.S. National Park Best Available Technology (BAT) standards that are likened to those of the California Air Resourced Board (CARB). Innovative technology solutions include: • Standard application for diesel engine designs • Applications to address and test both engine and track noise • Benefits of the Miller cycle and turbocharging The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise.
CURRENT
2017-02-21
Standard
J2773_201702
This Standard describes methods to understand the risks associated with vehicle mobile air conditioning [MAC] systems in all aspects of a vehicle’s lifecycle including design, production, assembly, operation and end of life. Information for input to the risk assessment is provided in the Appendices of this document. This information should not be considered to be complete, but only a reference of some of the data needed for a complete analysis of the risk associated with the use of refrigerants in MAC systems.
2017-02-01
Book
Jay Meldrum
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles. Innovative technology solutions include: • Engine Design: improving the two-stroke, gas direct injection (GDI) engine • Applications of new muffler designs and a catalytic converter • Solving flex-fuel design and engine power problems The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Abstract Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0042
Subhanker Dev, Hitesh B Chaudhari, Sanjeev Gothekar, Simhachalam Juttu, Nagesh Harishchandra Walke, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract With the announcement, as per draft notification GSR 187 (E) dated 19th Feb 2016 issued by MoRTH (Ministry of Road Transport and Highways), on vehicle emission standards to leapfrog from BS IV to BS VI by 2020, diesel engines would be greatly facing challenges to meet the stringent emission requirements of 90% reduction in PM and 50% reduction in NOx emissions simultaneously. Up to BS IV, in-cylinder strategies utilizing higher fuel injection pressure, higher intake boost, lower to moderate EGR, optimized combustion chamber design and lower intake manifold temperature would be sufficient. But meeting emission levels at BS VI levels would require a combination of both in-cylinder combustion control and after treatment system [1]. However, unlike Europe and US markets where wide spread adoption of after treatment solution is viable, for Indian market it would be impeded by infrastructure availability, system cost and cost of ownership.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0117
Matti A Harkonen, Alok Trigunayat, Arvind Kumar, Bosco Rajan
Abstract Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs), typically with engine displacement volume of less than 1.5L are an integral part of the India’s automobile sector as they are one of the most preferred means of transportation in rural as well as urban India. This market has always been on the rise as a result of rising population, growing commercialization, increasing commercial activities, etc. which are all contributing to the increased demand for intra city transportation. The passenger LDVs such as the three wheeler segment dominates the market as the need for affordable passenger commutation is higher than the need for goods carriage within a city. With BS VI norms slated to be implemented in 2020, it becomes imperative to understand, plan and work out strategies to meet these norms effectively on the Indian roads & actual Indian driving behavior, especially for these LDVs.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0120
Kevin Hallstrom, Sandip D. Shah
Abstract The legislative decision to accelerate the implementation of regulations requiring advanced emissions control in India have accelerated the need to advanced emissions control systems. Particulate filters and NOx abatement technology will be needed to meet the new BSVI standards. Integration of these emission control technologies into engine design poses new challenges to the Indian Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Industry. Each new market that implements advanced emission regulations faces challenges that are unique to the local regulation, the local vehicle design, and the local operating conditions. This paper will review the technology options available for BSVI, their strengths and weaknesses, and potential system designs. Additionally this paper will review how critical design factors such as filter regeneration conditions, duty cycle temperatures, and urea injection can affect the system design and catalyst selection.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0126
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Ru-Fen Liu
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles in the broad context of evolving engine technology; the move to more real-world, transient testing and much tighter tailpipe emissions regulations. The specific context here is the launch of BSVI regulations for gasoline passenger cars in India. The key approach described here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on low PGM levels with the emphasis on new materials technology to significantly alter the functional balance between PGM and “promoters”. We will focus on the design of materials with the spinel structure and have developed catalyst products that synergize low levels of PGM (so-called SPGM) leveraging the key properties of the advanced spinel oxides.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0124
Vikram Betageri, R Mahesh
Abstract BS VI or Euro VI Norms mandates the RDE emission compliance for the diesel commercial vehicles. Development of the engine- after treatment system for meeting these requirements needs a greater insight into the emission behavior of the vehicle under current norms i.e. BS IV and Euro V. In other words, quantifying the on road emission of current vehicle will be helpful in developing engine/vehicle for RDE emission compliance. In the current study, the focus is on the assessment of real road NOx emission of a BS IV and Euro V complaint diesel commercial vehicle. The real road emissions of vehicle have been quantified using the onboard NOx sensor mounted on the after treatment system outlet along with a validated exhaust gas model developed and parameterized in engine control unit. The real road NOx emissions were compared with the test bench emissions for various conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0147
Stefan Lueckenbach, Uwe Moser, Bernd Haake, Johannes Frank
Abstract The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2226

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