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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2185
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2774
Hoon Lee, Hoimyung Choi, Minje Park, Kyoungdoug Min, Nankyu Lee, Jinil Park, Jong-Hwa Lee
To properly responding to the demand of reducing national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission target based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agency, industry, academy, and research institution to support establishing the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as the basic plan and will regulate MHD trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 ton and buses with a carrying capacity above 16 persons. Most MHD vehicles are custom-made, manufactured under diversified small quantity batch production system for commercial or public use, resulting difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2772
Amy Kopin, Steven Musselman
For decades, the heavy-duty (“HD”) commercial vehicle industry has focused on improving fuel economy in order to lower the total operating cost for its customers. Most recently, there has been a revolution in the HD industry which means no longer do OEMs focus on discreet components but instead look at the entire vehicle and operations to improve efficiency; it is likely future gains will come through an integrated approach to optimizing the entire vehicle. The path forward is not sufficiently clear looking into the next decade, nor will one solution work for all manufacturers or all vehicle applications. Therefore, the regulations must be sufficiently adaptive. This paper explores further the ideas presented in other SAE papers that have focused on regulation of engine-only emissions as an approach for the HD commercial vehicle market.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2803
Anuj Kumar, Valentin Rougé, Nathalie Luu, Steven Yu, Valerie Bossoutrot, Steve Hagen, Tracey Jacksier
The Flame Ionization Detection (FID) is the most sensitive and widely used technology for the measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC). In the automotive emission testing of hydrocarbons, the fuel used for the flame in the FID analyzer is a mixture of hydrogen and helium in the ratio of 40:60. The Environmental protection Agency (EPA) revised 40CFR part 1065 in April 2014 to include nitrogen as a balance gas alternative to helium for FID fuel mixtures used in the automotive industry. In addition to the balance gas alternative, the FID fuel blend tolerance has been decreased from 40±2% to 40±1% (0.39 to 0.41mol/mol) hydrogen to minimize the impact on analyzer response. The feasibility of nitrogen as a FID fuel balance gas was studied and compared with a helium balance gas to understand the relative impact on emission testing. The study evaluated multiple hydrogen concentrations ranging from 38-42% in both balance gases.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2518
Riccardo Amirante, Elia Distaso, Paolo Tamburrano, Rolf D. Reitz
Due to the new challenge of meeting number-based regulations for particulate matter (PM), a numerical and experimental study has been conducted to better understand particulate formation in engines fuelled with compressed natural gas. The study has been conducted on a Heavy-Duty, Euro VI, 4-cylinder, spark ignited engine, with multipoint sequential phased injection and stoichiometric combustion. For the experimental measurements two different instruments were used: a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast-response particle size spectrometer (DMS) the latter able also to provide a particle size distribution of the measured particles in the range from 5 to 1000 nm. Experimental measurements in both stationary and transient conditions were carried out. The data using the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) were useful to detect which operating conditions lead to high numbers of particles. Then a further transient test was used for a more detailed and deeper analysis.
2015-06-02
Magazine
Balancing GDI fuel economy and emissions Will OEMs have to adopt gasoline particulate filters to comply with stringent new emissions regulations? Top engineers discuss current developments. Cameras look to go the distance Automakers seek vision systems with greater distances, improved reliability, and more functionality, thanks to ruggedized complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technologies. Mixing metals Cadillac pursues aluminum/steel mix for new CT6 luxury sedan, leading to advances in body assembly.
2015-04-23
Standard
J2992_201504
The scope of this document focuses on the tests required by EPA to validate the performance of the FTIR system following the section in the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 (40CFR1U.1065 and hereafter referred to as "EPA Part 1065") on the guidelines and performance criteria for various regulated gases. This document focuses on the use of continuous emissions sampling for both Engine and Vehicle testing. Future addenda will be needed to cover bag and other sampling techniques. Gas components that do not currently have performance criteria but may soon be regulated are noted and EPA suggestions as to what should be required are applied. This will help ensure that the FTIR will be recognized as a valid and alternative tool for engine exhaust emissions testing. Components in engine exhaust that are specifically called out in this document include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2 and N2O), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and formaldehyde (H2CO).
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J2740
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1001
Shinichiro Otsuka, Yukio Suehiro, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshiaki Matsuzono, Cameron Tanner, David Bronfenbrenner, Tinghong Tao, Kenneth Twiggs
Abstract With the increasing number of automobiles, the worldwide problem of air pollution is becoming more serious. The necessity of reducing tail-pipe emissions is as high as ever, and in countries all over the world the regulations are becoming stricter. The emissions at times such as after engine cold start, when the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not warmed up, accounts for the majority of the emissions of these pollutants from vehicles. This is caused by the characteristic of the TWC that if a specific temperature is not exceeded, TWC cannot purify the emissions. In other words, if the catalyst could be warmed up at an early stage after engine start, this would provide a major contribution to reducing the emissions. Therefore, this research is focused on the substrate weight and investigated carrying out major weight reduction by making the porosity of the substrate larger than that of conventional products.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0999
Jan Schoenhaber, Joerg Michael Richter, Joel Despres, Marcus Schmidt, Stephanie Spiess, Martin Roesch
Abstract The new emission regulations in Europe, EU 6 will promulgate more realistic driving conditions with more stringent HC, CO, NOx and particulate emissions. This legislation will also include the WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure) cycle for CO2 measurements and a new requirement called “Real-Driving-Emissions” (RDE) as well. The RDE requirement is to ensure modern vehicles comply with the legislation under all conditions of normal driving. More robust aftertreatment solutions are needed to meet these new requirements. This work introduces an improved three-way catalyst (TWC) for gasoline engines for these new regulations. It is tested under static and dynamic conditions and on several engines and vehicles with various drive cycles. It offers better thermal stability combined with lower backpressure than former TWC generations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0789
Jongyoon Lee, Sangyul Lee, Jungho Kim, Duksang Kim
Abstract This paper shows development challenges for 6 liter heavy duty off-road diesel engines to meet the Tier4 final emission regulations with a base diesel engine compliant with Tier4 interim emission regulations. Even if an after-treatment system helps to reduce emissions, quite amount of particulate matters (PM) reduction is still necessary since a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system is supposed to be excluded in Tier4 final diesel engine. The objective of this research is to see if the base engine has a feasibility to meet Tier4 final emission regulations by a change of piston bowl geometry without DPF. Quite amount of PM can be reduced by piston bowl geometry because piston bowl geometry is a very important part that enhances air and fuel mixing process that help the combustion process.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1683
Bernie Porter, Hugh Blaxill, Noor Jariri
Abstract The 2025 Corporate Average Fleet Economy (CAFE) fuel economy regulations are a significant challenge to the automotive industry. These regulations require dramatic increases in vehicle fleet fuel economy. This paper will identify and analyze a portfolio of technologies that have the potential to achieve the 2025 CAFE fuel economy targets, focusing on powertrain enhancements. The study uses a MAHLE Powertrain developed fleet modeling tool and a range of vehicle technologies and powertrain data taken from MAHLE's global research and development activities. Powertrain technologies considered include extreme engine downsizing, dilute combustion, friction reduction, hybridization, diesel and alternative fuels. The vehicle technologies analyzed include vehicle light weighting, reduced rolling resistance, advanced transmissions and improved aerodynamics.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. In this system, the TWC generates the NH3 for the SCR catalyst from the feedgas NOx during rich operation. Therefore, this approach benefits from high feedgas NOx during rich operation to generate high levels of NH3 quickly and low feedgas NOx during lean operation for a low rate of NH3 consumption. It was assumed that the exhaust system needed to include a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and an U/B SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards during the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0998
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1061
Piotr Bielaczyc, Andrzej Szczotka, Joseph Woodburn
Abstract The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
J3094
Create a standard for measurement of the performance characteristics of an Internal Heat Exchanger. The standard should make it easier to innovate designs and bring improvements to this new technology.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0056
Thanthep Puphunwivat
Abstract Today heavy duty trucks, passenger cars and non-road machinery are certified in emission labs via common legislative test cycles. Recent benchmark studies clearly show that the real driving emissions of vehicles highly exceed the regulatory emission limits which are used for the certification on the test cycles. It was found that this gap was even further increasing over the past decade for passenger cars. EPA introduced Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) testing on the road for heavy duty trucks already since 2007 followed by Europe in 2013 with EU VI to tackle this problem. Now European Commission is introducing first time the similar approach for passenger cars with the real driving emission regulation (RDE) from EU6b (September 2014) on. RDE is imposing new challenges and complexity on today's approach for the development of vehicles and engines.
2015-02-24
WIP Standard
AMS6890
No change
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2185

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