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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1016
Charles Schenk, Paul Dekraker
For the upcoming Midterm Evaluation of EPA’s 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions regulation, EPA has been benchmarking engines and transmissions to generate inputs for use in its technology assessment. As part of the technology assessment, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) and cylinder deactivation (CDA) were evaluated on an engine capable of running the Atkinson cycle. The base engine was a production 2.0L four cylinder engine with 75 degrees of intake phase authority and a 14:1 geometric compression ratio. An open ECU and cEGR hardware were installed on the engine so that the technology effectiveness could be evaluated. Once a steady state calibration was complete, two-cycle fuel economy estimates were made using fuel weighted modes and ALPHA (EPA’s full vehicle simulation model). Additionally, two cylinders were deactivated to determine what two-cycle fuel economy benefits could be achieved.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0911
Krishna Chilumukuru, Aniket Gupta, Michael Ruth, Michael Cunningham, Govindarajan Kothandaraman, Lasitha Cumaranatunge, Howard Hess
Light duty emission certification levels such as Tier 2 Bin 2 (equivalent of Tier 3 Bin 30) are 70% and 88% lower in NOx and HC respectively from current Tier 2 Bin 5 level. For light duty chassis certified automotive applications, the weighting factor of the cold portion of the FTP-75 (federal transient procedure) cycle is 43% of the overall emissions certification value. NOx and HC emissions must be mitigated at much lower exhaust temperatures as compared to diesel aftertreatment systems currently in production. In this work, a novel aftertreatment architecture to improve low temperature NOx and HC conversion efficiency is proposed. This system consists of a diesel cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst and selective catalytic reduction catalyst on filter (SCRF®) close coupled to the engine for faster warm up. Additionally, a flow-through SCR catalyst is located downstream of the SCR on DPF catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0169
Ward J. Atkinson, William Raymond Hill, Gursaran D. Mathur
The EPA has issued regulations in the Final Rulemaking for 2017-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (420r12901-3). This document provides credits against the fuel economy regulations for various Air Conditioning technologies. One of these credits is associated with increased use of re-circulation air mode, when the Ambient is over 24°C (75°F.). The authors want to communicate the experiences in their careers that highlighted issues with air quality in the interior of the vehicle cabin. Cabin contamination sources may result in safety and health issues for both younger and older drivers. Alertness concerns may hinder their ability to operate a vehicle safely.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1013
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Yograj Singh, Vineet sood, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
The standard emission protocol including driving cycle is performed for the legislative fuel economy and emission testing of the vehicles in a laboratory. The driving cycles are expected to represent actual driving pattern and energy requirements, however, recent studies showed that the gap between real world driving conditions and the standard driving cycle is widening, as the traffic pattern and vehicle population is varying dynamically and the change in the emission procedures is not synchronized with the same pace. More so, as Emission legislations are being harmonized to narrow down the country specific variation of emission regulation and smooth globalization of the automotive business process.. The new regulation for in-service conformity is being considered to reduce the emissions in real world driving. It is important that the new procedure should represent the on-road driving and energy requirements in a better way than the current procedures.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1020
Finn Tseng, Imad Makki, Pankaj Kumar, Robert Jentz, Aed Dudar
Engine-Off Natural Vacuum (EONV) principles based leak detection monitors are designed to determine the presence of a small leak in the fuel tank system. It was introduced to address the ever more stringent emission requirement (currently at 0.02”) for gasoline engine equipped vehicles as proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California Air Resources Board (CARB) in the United States [2, 3]. Other environmental protection agencies including the ones in EU and China will be adopting similar regulations in the near future. Due to its sensitivity to known noise factors such as the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, drive pattern and parking angle, it has been historically a lower performing monitor that is susceptible to warranty cost or even voluntary recalls. The proposed new model based monitor utilizes production pressure signal and newly instrumented temperature sensors [15].
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0872
Sunil Kumar Pathak, Vineet sood, Yograj Singh, Shubham Gupta, Salim Abbasbhai Channiwala
In this study, A Gasoline Passenger car (Euro IV) was experimentally investigated for performance and emissions on three different fuels i.e. Gasoline, (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and DME (Di-methyl ether) blend with concentration of 20% by mass in LPG (DME20). In particular, emission characteristics (including Hydrocarbon, CO, NOx and CO2) over the Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and fuel economy were investigated at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VEL) at the CSIR- Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehardun, India. The experimental results showed that Vehicle comply with Euro IV legislation on gasoline and LPG fuel showed higher NOx Emissions on DME 20 fuel. LPG kit was reconfigured for DME and LPG blend to bring down the emissions within the specified emission limits. The Emission values observed for DME20 were 0.635 g/km (CO), 0.044 g/km (THC), and 0.014 g/km (NOx) against the Euro IV limits of 1.0 g/km, 0.1 g/km and 0.08 g/km, respectively.
2017-02-15
Book
Jay Meldrum
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles, along with more stringent U.S. National Park Best Available Technology (BAT) standards that are likened to those of the California Air Resourced Board (CARB). Innovative technology solutions include: • Standard application for diesel engine designs • Applications to address and test both engine and track noise • Benefits of the Miller cycle and turbocharging The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise.
2017-01-15
Book
Jay Meldrum
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles. Innovative technology solutions include: • Engine Design: improving the two-stroke, gas direct injection (GDI) engine • Applications of new muffler designs and a catalytic converter • Solving flex-fuel design and engine power problems The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Abstract Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0056
Suramya Naik, David Johnson, Laurence Fromm, John Koszewnik, Fabien Redon, Gerhard Regner, Neerav Abani
Abstract The government of India has decided to implement Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emissions standards from April 2020. This requires OEMs to equip their diesel engines with costly after-treatment, EGR systems and higher rail pressure fuel systems. By one estimate, BS-VI engines are expected to be 15 to 20% more expensive than BS-IV engines, while also suffering with 2 to 3 % lower fuel economy. OEMs are looking for solutions to meet the BS-VI emissions standards while still keeping the upfront and operating costs low enough for their products to attract customers; however traditional engine technologies seem to have exhausted the possibilities. Fuel economy improvement technologies applied to traditional 4-stroke engines bring small benefits with large cost penalties. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, emissions standards with much improved fuel economy at lower cost is the Opposed Piston (OP) engine.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0042
Subhanker Dev, Hitesh B Chaudhari, Sanjeev Gothekar, Simhachalam Juttu, Nagesh Harishchandra Walke, Neelkanth V Marathe
Abstract With the announcement, as per draft notification GSR 187 (E) dated 19th Feb 2016 issued by MoRTH (Ministry of Road Transport and Highways), on vehicle emission standards to leapfrog from BS IV to BS VI by 2020, diesel engines would be greatly facing challenges to meet the stringent emission requirements of 90% reduction in PM and 50% reduction in NOx emissions simultaneously. Up to BS IV, in-cylinder strategies utilizing higher fuel injection pressure, higher intake boost, lower to moderate EGR, optimized combustion chamber design and lower intake manifold temperature would be sufficient. But meeting emission levels at BS VI levels would require a combination of both in-cylinder combustion control and after treatment system [1]. However, unlike Europe and US markets where wide spread adoption of after treatment solution is viable, for Indian market it would be impeded by infrastructure availability, system cost and cost of ownership.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0043
Peter Heuser, Stefano Ghetti, Devising Rathod, Sebastian Petri, Sascha Schoenfeld
Abstract The Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emission legislation will come into force in 2020, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, cost and development time. Solutions for the EURO VI on-road legislation in Europe, from which the BS-VI limits are derived, have been developed and have already been implemented. To a certain level these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, several market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a very strict timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this paper, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the exhaust aftertreatment side. This includes boosting and fuel injection technologies as well as different exhaust gas recirculation methods.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0117
Matti A Harkonen, Alok Trigunayat, Arvind Kumar, Bosco Rajan
Abstract Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs), typically with engine displacement volume of less than 1.5L are an integral part of the India’s automobile sector as they are one of the most preferred means of transportation in rural as well as urban India. This market has always been on the rise as a result of rising population, growing commercialization, increasing commercial activities, etc. which are all contributing to the increased demand for intra city transportation. The passenger LDVs such as the three wheeler segment dominates the market as the need for affordable passenger commutation is higher than the need for goods carriage within a city. With BS VI norms slated to be implemented in 2020, it becomes imperative to understand, plan and work out strategies to meet these norms effectively on the Indian roads & actual Indian driving behavior, especially for these LDVs.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0116
Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
Abstract With Bharat Stage VI (BSVI) regulations on the horizon [3],[4]tighter particulate matter (PM) regulations will require the use of wall flow diesel particulate filters for on-road heavy duty (HD) diesel engines in India. The Indian HD vehicle market is very cost sensitive, especially with the majority of engine displacement being less than 7L [5] therefore, after treatment cost plays a significant role in design of the system. Robust wall flow diesel particulate filter solutions with the ability to deliver high filtration requirements required for particle number regulations can be designed in a cost-efficient manner. In this paper advanced design for diesel particulate filters with pressure drop, ash capacity, regeneration, and filtration performance are discussed. Corning’s asymmetric cell technology (ACT) was created to improve ash capacity and reduce pressure drop and has the potential to downsize up to 45%.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0128
Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Ketan Krishnamurthy, David Blanco, Bastian Holderbaum, Thomas Körfer
Abstract Despite the trend in increased prosperity, the Indian automotive market, which is traditionally dominated by highly cost-oriented producion, is very sensitive to the price of fuels and vehicles. Due to these very specific market demands, the U-LCV (ultra-light commercial vehicle) segment with single cylinder natural aspirated Diesel engines (typical sub 650 cc displacement) is gaining immense popularity in the recent years. By moving to 2016, with the announcement of leapfrogging directly to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation in India, and in addition to the mandatory application of Diesel particle filters (DPF), there will be a need to implement effective NOx aftertreament systems. Due to the very low power-to-weight ratio of these particular applications, the engine operation takes place under full load conditions in a significant portion of the test cycle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0138
B Sakthivel, R Sridhar, Subin Ansh, B Srinivasan, J Suresh Kumar
Abstract The air pollution is increasing at an alarming rate now a day mainly due to emissions coming out of automotive vehicles. The exhaust emissions gases are hazardous to human health. The increased number of vehicles on road will make the scenario even worse. In order to control the pollution level, the regulatory bodies are now implementing stringent emission norms. In India, the regulatory authorities has framed the transition of BS IV to BS VI emission norms in 2020 by skipping the BS V emission norms which makes the automotive industries to work on more advanced fuel management technologies. It is more tedious to control the tail pipe emissions beyond BS IV emission norms with the conventional carburetor system since it is operating on open loop system.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0120
Kevin Hallstrom, Sandip D. Shah
Abstract The legislative decision to accelerate the implementation of regulations requiring advanced emissions control in India have accelerated the need to advanced emissions control systems. Particulate filters and NOx abatement technology will be needed to meet the new BSVI standards. Integration of these emission control technologies into engine design poses new challenges to the Indian Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Industry. Each new market that implements advanced emission regulations faces challenges that are unique to the local regulation, the local vehicle design, and the local operating conditions. This paper will review the technology options available for BSVI, their strengths and weaknesses, and potential system designs. Additionally this paper will review how critical design factors such as filter regeneration conditions, duty cycle temperatures, and urea injection can affect the system design and catalyst selection.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0118
Satoshi Sumiya, David Bergeal, Kenan Sager
Abstract The Indian government has announced that India will skip BS V legislation and move to BS VI from 2020. In order to meet this NOx emission standard, most vehicles will need to adopt either NOx Storage Catalyst (NSC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). It is shown that these two devices have different NOx reduction temperature windows and different sulfur tolerance. In the LDD application, it is highly important to deal with NOx in the low temperature region directly after a cold start. NSC works in this region with better performance than SCR, but its sulfur tolerance is weaker than SCR. To improve the weakness in low temperature NOx control on SCR, SCRF® which is SCR coated Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was developed and it demonstrated an advantage in light-off performance, due to the advantage in temperature conditions, by minimizing heat loss upstream of the SCR device.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0119
Ragupathi Soundara Rajan, Vijay Sharma, Ashraf Emran, Devising Rathod, John Henry Kwee, Thorsten Michaelis-Hauswaldt, Thomas Körfer
Abstract The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0125
Sougato Chatterjee, Mojghan Naseri, Jianquan Li
Abstract The next generation advanced emission regulations have been proposed for the Indian heavy duty automotive industry for implementation from 2020. These BS VI emission regulations will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced PM (Particulate Matter) control along with Particle Number limitations. This will require implementation of full DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and simultaneous NOx control using SCR technologies. DPF technologies have already been successfully implemented in Euro VI and US 10 HDD systems. These systems use low temperature NO2 based passive DPF regeneration as well as high temperature oxygen based active DPF regeneration. Effective DPF and DOC designs are essential to enable successful DPF regeneration (minimize soot loading in the DPF) while operating HDD vehicles under transient conditions. DOC designs are optimized to oxidize engine out NO into NO2, which helps with passive DPF regeneration.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0126
Steve Golden, Zahra Nazarpoor, Ru-Fen Liu
Abstract In the context of evolving market conditions, the three-way catalyst (TWC) design is entering an exciting new phase. It remains the main emission control strategy for gasoline powered vehicles in the broad context of evolving engine technology; the move to more real-world, transient testing and much tighter tailpipe emissions regulations. The specific context here is the launch of BSVI regulations for gasoline passenger cars in India. The key approach described here is to achieve highly beneficial emission performance based on low PGM levels with the emphasis on new materials technology to significantly alter the functional balance between PGM and “promoters”. We will focus on the design of materials with the spinel structure and have developed catalyst products that synergize low levels of PGM (so-called SPGM) leveraging the key properties of the advanced spinel oxides.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0124
Vikram Betageri, R Mahesh
Abstract BS VI or Euro VI Norms mandates the RDE emission compliance for the diesel commercial vehicles. Development of the engine- after treatment system for meeting these requirements needs a greater insight into the emission behavior of the vehicle under current norms i.e. BS IV and Euro V. In other words, quantifying the on road emission of current vehicle will be helpful in developing engine/vehicle for RDE emission compliance. In the current study, the focus is on the assessment of real road NOx emission of a BS IV and Euro V complaint diesel commercial vehicle. The real road emissions of vehicle have been quantified using the onboard NOx sensor mounted on the after treatment system outlet along with a validated exhaust gas model developed and parameterized in engine control unit. The real road NOx emissions were compared with the test bench emissions for various conditions.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0147
Stefan Lueckenbach, Uwe Moser, Bernd Haake, Johannes Frank
Abstract The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers.
2016-12-29
WIP Standard
ARP5718B
This document describes: a. the preparatory steps to test experimental Type II, III, and IV fluids according to AMS1428; b. the recommendations for the preparation of samples for endurance time testing according to ARP5485; c. a short description of the recommended field spray test; d. the protocol to generate draft holdover time guidelines from endurance time data obtained from ARP5485; e. the protocol for inclusion of Type II, III, and IV fluids on the FAA and Transport Canada lists of fluids and the protocol for updating the lists of fluids; f. the role of the SAE G-12 Aircraft Deicing Fluids Committee; g. the role of the SAE G-12 Holdover Time Committee; h. the process for the publication of Type II, III, and IV holdover time guidelines. This document does not describe laboratory testing procedures. This document does not include the qualification process for AMS1424 Type I fluids.
2016-12-12
WIP Standard
AIR6130A
14-day material test to determine the cyclic effects of runway deicing compounds on cadmium plated parts.
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