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Technical Paper
Thanthep Puphunwivat
Real Driving Emissions – A game changer for the industry? Mastering On-Road Emissions Targets with Integrated Vehicle Testing Solution AVL M.O.V.E Speaker: Ernst-Georg Lorinser Today, heavy duty trucks, passenger cars and off-road machinery are still certified on emission test cycles. Recent benchmark studies clearly show that the real driving emissions of vehicles may massively exceed the regulatory emission limits which are used for the certification on the test cycles. It was found that this gap was even further increasing over the past decade for cars. EPA introduced Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) testing on the road for heavy duty trucks already since 2007 followed by Europe in 2013 to tackle this issue. Now European Commission is introducing first time the similar approach for passenger car with the real driving emission regulation (RDE) from EU6b (September 2014) on.
Future vehicles will incorporate new technologies, new materials, chemicals and substances to meet aggressive emissions standards, self-driving vehicle safety requirements, and consumer demands. At the same time, federal & state regulators, plaintiffs’ attorneys, and consumers are adding more legal and regulatory activities for automobile manufacturers. This session will examine how the federal government is expanding its role in regulating the materials used in future vehicles (e.g., TSCA and CICA), how states are expanding their roles in regulating the vehicles and auto parts sold in their states, and how others are using this expanding regulatory sphere to address emerging issues of public health, safety and environmental protection.
Technical Paper
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
Technical Paper
Harish Venkat, Krishna Kumar Varathan, Kosalaraman Kumar, Navaneetha Rao Rao
Abstract Diesel engines are primarily being used for Power Generation due to its higher thermal efficiency and its superior fuel consumption compared to gasoline engines. Due to the growing awareness of environment protection and producing eco-friendly products, government agencies throughout the world have started introducing legislations which would limit the emissions produced by engines and would help in resolving the cause for cleaner and greener environment. In similar lines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has proposed to introduce the next stage of stringent emission norms for engines used in Power Generation by April 2014 which are comparable to the best in the world. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for meeting the proposed CPCB-II norms.
Harley-Davidson's e-bike shocker (video) Is the motorcycle market ready for a Harley-Davidson EV? Project LiveWire was designed to provide answers, said Chief Engineer Jeff Richlen. Airbus has its eye on the future of cleaner flight CleanSky 2 targets are to increase aircraft fuel efficiency enough to reduce CO2 emissions by 20-30% and reduce aircraft NOx and noise emissions by 20-30% compared to newly designed aircraft entering into service in 2014-or essentially halve 2005 CO2 emissions levels by 2050. Soul EV extends the range frontier (video) Specially formulated NCM battery cells are key in giving the vehicle class-leading EV range while enabling engineers to fit a high-energy-density battery pack underfloor with little sacrifice of passenger cabin space.
Technical Paper
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
Abstract Environmental problems such as air pollution have recently led to increasingly demanding emissions regulations. To address this issue, the present study aims to develop a technology that will enable the exhaust gas from compact generators, with output of less than 3 kVA, to satisfy the world's most demanding emissions regulations. The method we used is driven by pulsed secondary air injection with a catalyst. Whereas pump-driven methods have conventionally been the mainstream approach to attaining sufficient secondary air quantity to reduce emissions, our objective was to create a pump-free method for increasing the secondary air quantity by focusing on secondary air pipe pulsation. Our study had two aims: one was to create a computation method for predicting the optimum secondary air pipe length that maximizes secondary air, and the other was to verify this method by using actual equipment, and to achieve our target emissions values.
Technical Paper
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Abstract Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
WIP Standard
A program, which ensures quality with the relevant standards shall be introduced for all on-line Stations where de-icing/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground is either normally carried out, or where local conditions may periodically lead to a requirement for airplcraft to be de-iced/anti-iced. Deficiencies, in regard to a Station's local de-icing/anti-icing procedures, shall be identified and subsequently actioned through this program, thereby ensuring that the required safety standards are maintained.
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
This document establishes the minimum requirements for an environmental test chamber, and test procedures to carry out anti-icing performance tests according to the current materials specification for aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids. The primary purpose for such a test method is to determine the anti icing endurance under controlled laboratory conditions of AMS1424 Type I and AMS1428 Type II, III, and IV fluids.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides design guidance and a method for testing thermal performance of airplane in-flight food storage carts. It is noted that thermal performance criteria is not part of AS8056.
WIP Standard
This document recommends contents for Emergency Medical Kits, including medications and instrumentation, intended for use on passenger-carrying aircraft serviced by at least 1 flight attendant. Recommended practices for carriage of, access to, and maintenance of Emergency Medical Kits are also included.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782.
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