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Technical Paper
Jongyoon Lee, Sangyul Lee, Jungho Kim, Duksang Kim
This paper shows development challenges for Heavy Duty (HD) off-road Diesel Engines to meet the Tier4 Final emission regulation with Tier4 interim engines. The diesel engine we have deal with is called DL06 designed and developed by Doosan Infracore Company. DL06 diesel engine for Tier4 interim Emission regulation, as a baseline engine, has turbo intercooler, waste gate type turbocharger, cooled EGR, common-rail injection and etc. Objective of this research is to see if baseline engine has feasibility to meet Tier4 final emission regulation by only changes of combustion chamber geometry or not. Combustion chamber geometry is a very important part that generates a certain gas motion that helps the combustion process. Matching combustion chamber geometry with injector and swirling gas flow also give strong impacts on emission gas.
Journal Article
Bernie Porter, Hugh Blaxill, Noor Jariri
With the introduction of the 2025 Corporate Average Fleet Economy (CAFE) fuel economy and emissions regulations in 2011 a challenge was presented to the automotive industry. These new regulations require dramatic increases in vehicle fleet fuel economy performance and emissions efficiencies. This paper will identify and analyze a portfolio of technologies that have the potential to achieve the 2025 CAFE fuel economy targets. The simulation uses a MAHLE Powertrain developed fleet modeling tool and a range of vehicle technologies and powertrain data taken from MAHLE’s global research and development activities. Powertrain technologies considered include extreme engine downsizing, ultra lean combustion, friction reduction, advanced control strategies, hybridization and alternative fuels (Diesel, Natural Gas and Ethanol / Ethanol Blends).
Journal Article
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the legislation limits, should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO’s Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these types of variation, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining optimal fuel consumption. This model-based control strategy minimizes fluid (fuel and AdBlue) cost within the emission constraints. Based on the actual state of engine and aftertreatment, optimal air management set points are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
Technical Paper
Thanthep Puphunwivat
Abstract Today heavy duty trucks, passenger cars and non-road machinery are certified in emission labs via common legislative test cycles. Recent benchmark studies clearly show that the real driving emissions of vehicles highly exceed the regulatory emission limits which are used for the certification on the test cycles. It was found that this gap was even further increasing over the past decade for passenger cars. EPA introduced Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) testing on the road for heavy duty trucks already since 2007 followed by Europe in 2013 with EU VI to tackle this problem. Now European Commission is introducing first time the similar approach for passenger cars with the real driving emission regulation (RDE) from EU6b (September 2014) on. RDE is imposing new challenges and complexity on today's approach for the development of vehicles and engines.
WIP Standard
No change
Future vehicles will incorporate new technologies, new materials, chemicals and substances to meet aggressive emissions standards, self-driving vehicle safety requirements, and consumer demands. At the same time, federal & state regulators, plaintiffs’ attorneys, and consumers are adding more legal and regulatory activities for automobile manufacturers. This session will examine how the federal government is expanding its role in regulating the materials used in future vehicles (e.g., TSCA and CICA), how states are expanding their roles in regulating the vehicles and auto parts sold in their states, and how others are using this expanding regulatory sphere to address emerging issues of public health, safety and environmental protection.
Technical Paper
Naresh G. Gandhi, Nitin Gokhale, Yogesh Aghav, M N Kumar
Abstract Indian emission norms for stationary Gensets are upgraded from CPCB I to CPCB II. These new emission norms call for a significant change in emission limits. CPCB II emission norms call for 62% reduction in NOx+HC and 33% reduction in particulates for engines above 75 kW up to 800 kW power range compared to existing CPCB I norms. CPCB II norms are more stringent as compared to European Stage IIIA and CEV BS III. To meet equivalent emission norms in US and Europe most of the engine manufacturers have used Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) or electronic unit injection as the fuel injection technology. This paper describes mechanical fuel injection solution for meeting CPCB II emission norms on engines between 93 kW up to 552 kW with acceptable fuel consumption values. The paper presents simulation and experimentation work carried out to achieve the norms for the said power ratings.
Technical Paper
Harish Venkat, Krishna Kumar Varathan, Kosalaraman Kumar, Navaneetha Rao Rao
Abstract Diesel engines are primarily being used for Power Generation due to its higher thermal efficiency and its superior fuel consumption compared to gasoline engines. Due to the growing awareness of environment protection and producing eco-friendly products, government agencies throughout the world have started introducing legislations which would limit the emissions produced by engines and would help in resolving the cause for cleaner and greener environment. In similar lines, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has proposed to introduce the next stage of stringent emission norms for engines used in Power Generation by April 2014 which are comparable to the best in the world. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for meeting the proposed CPCB-II norms.
Harley-Davidson's e-bike shocker (video) Is the motorcycle market ready for a Harley-Davidson EV? Project LiveWire was designed to provide answers, said Chief Engineer Jeff Richlen. Airbus has its eye on the future of cleaner flight CleanSky 2 targets are to increase aircraft fuel efficiency enough to reduce CO2 emissions by 20-30% and reduce aircraft NOx and noise emissions by 20-30% compared to newly designed aircraft entering into service in 2014-or essentially halve 2005 CO2 emissions levels by 2050. Soul EV extends the range frontier (video) Specially formulated NCM battery cells are key in giving the vehicle class-leading EV range while enabling engineers to fit a high-energy-density battery pack underfloor with little sacrifice of passenger cabin space.
Technical Paper
Sayaka Yasoshina, Ryo Saito
Abstract Environmental problems such as air pollution have recently led to increasingly demanding emissions regulations. To address this issue, the present study aims to develop a technology that will enable the exhaust gas from compact generators, with output of less than 3 kVA, to satisfy the world's most demanding emissions regulations. The method we used is driven by pulsed secondary air injection with a catalyst. Whereas pump-driven methods have conventionally been the mainstream approach to attaining sufficient secondary air quantity to reduce emissions, our objective was to create a pump-free method for increasing the secondary air quantity by focusing on secondary air pipe pulsation. Our study had two aims: one was to create a computation method for predicting the optimum secondary air pipe length that maximizes secondary air, and the other was to verify this method by using actual equipment, and to achieve our target emissions values.
Technical Paper
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Abstract Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
This Digital Annex (DA) contains the current, full-PDF version of ARP5149B, Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground, as well as .jpeg format files of Appendix D, Application Guidelines Configuration, Critical Component, and Spray Area Diagrams for Aircraft. The .jpeg diagram files may be used by purchasers in accordance with the terms of the included license agreement.
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